|The Range of the European conger|
Description and behavior
The body is very long, anguilliform, without scales. The color is usually gray but can also be blackish. The belly is white. A row of white small spots is aligned along the lateral line. The head is almost conical, slightly depressed. The snout is rounded and prominent, with lateral olfactory holes. The large gill openings are in lateral position. The conical teeth are arranged in rows on jaws. The dorsal and anal fins are confluent with caudal. Pectoral fins are present, while ventral fins are absent.
The conger eels have habits similar to moray eels. They usually live amongst rocks in holes, or "eel pits", sometimes in one hole together with moray eels. They come out from their holes at night to hunt. This nocturnal predator mainly feeds on fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans, although they are thought to scavenge on dead and rotting fish as well as actively hunt live fish.
This species can be found in the eastern Atlantic from Norway and Iceland to Senegal, and also in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Conger conger ranges from 0-500 m of depth, although they may reach depths of 3600 m during their migrations. It is sometimes seen in very shallow water by the shore, but can also go down to depths of 1,170 m (3,840 ft). It is usually present on rough rocky broken ground, close to the coast when young, moving to deeper waters when adult.
Migration and reproduction
When conger eels are aged between 5-15 years their body undergoes a transformation with the reproductive organs of both males and females increasing in size and the skeleton reducing in mass and the teeth falling out. Conger eels will then stop feeding and leave European waters and make the long migration to the sub-tropical areas of the Atlantic such as the Sargasso Sea. Once in this area conger eels will spawn with the female producing anywhere from 3-8 million eggs. Once hatched the larval conger eels will begin to swim back to European waters where they will live until they reach maturity and then begin to migrate themselves to repeat the cycle.
- "Conger conger". EOL Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Conger Eel". BritishSeaFishing.co.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Conger conger". WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Conger Eel". UK-Fish.info. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Article - Conger Eel". Galway Atlantaquaria. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Conger Eel - Conger conger". Marlin.ac.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
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