French presidential election, 1995
|Results of the second round: the candidate with the plurality of votes in each administrative division. Jacques Chirac: blue; Lionel Jospin: pink|
Presidential elections took place in France on 23 April and 7 May 1995, to elect the fifth president of the Fifth Republic.
The incumbent Socialist president, François Mitterrand, did not stand for a third term. He was 78, had cancer, and his party had lost the previous legislative election in a landslide defeat. Since 1993, he had been "cohabiting" with a conservative cabinet led by Edouard Balladur, a member of the Neo-Gaullist RPR. Balladur had promised the leader of the RPR, Jacques Chirac, that he would not run for the presidency, but as polls showed him doing well and he had the support of many conservative politicians, he decided to run. The competition within the right between Balladur and Chirac was a major component of the campaign.
Meanwhile, the left was weakened by scandals and disappointments regarding Mitterrand's presidency. In June 1994, former Prime Minister Michel Rocard was dismissed as head of Socialist Party (PS) after the party's poor showing in the European Parliament election. Then, Jacques Delors decided not to stand as a candidate because he disagreed with the re-alignment on the left orchestrated by new party leader Henri Emmanuelli. This left the field wide open for numerous potential candidacies: among those who are known to have considered a run, or were strongly urged by others, are Jack Lang, Pierre Joxe, Laurent Fabius, Ségolène Royal and Robert Badinter. Former education minister Lionel Jospin was chosen by PS members as the party's candidate in a primary election pitting him against Henri Emmanuelli. He promised to restore the credibility and moral reputation of his party, but his chances of winning were seen as being thin.
The French Communist Party (PCF) tried to stop its electoral decline. Its new leader Robert Hue campaigned against "king money" and wanted to represent a renewed communism. He was faced with competition for the far left vote by the Trotskyist candidacy of Arlette Laguiller, who ran for the fourth time. Both of these candidates had a better result than their parties had in 1988, but came nowhere near being able to participate in the next round. In choosing Dominique Voynet, the Greens opted for their integration with the left.
On the far-right, Jean-Marie Le Pen tried to repeat his surprising result that he obtained in the previous presidential election. His main rival for the far-right vote was Philippe de Villiers, candidate of the euro-sceptic parliamentary right.
In January 1995, when he announced his candidacy, Balladur was the favorite of the political right. According to the SOFRES polls institute, he held an advantage of 14 points over Chirac (32% against 18% for the first round). He took advantage of his "positive assessment" as Prime Minister and advocated a moderately liberal economic policy. Chirac denounced the "social fracture" and criticized the "dominant thought", targeting Balladur. Chirac argued, "the pay slip is not the enemy of employment". Indeed, unemployment was the main theme of the campaign. From the start of March, Chirac gained ground on Balladur in the polls.
Chirac's campaign slogan was "France for everyone"; Balladur's: "Believe in France"; and Jospin's: "A clear vote for a more just France".
|Jacques Chirac||Lionel Jospin||Édouard Balladur|
|3–5 March 1994||14%||24%||33%|
|6–8 September 1994||16%||27%||30%|
|26–28 December 1994||14%||22%||25%|
|10–12 January 1995–||17%||20%||29%|
|24–26 January 1995 –||18%||17%||32%|
|7–9 February 1995 –||17,5%||22,5%||28%|
|21–23 February 1995||19%||24%||23%|
|8–9 March 1995||24%||21%||20%|
|21–22 March 1995||26%||22%||17%|
|4–5 April 1995||24%||22%||20%|
|13–14 April 1995||24%||20,5%||16,5%|
|Results||20,8 %||23,2 %||18,15 %|
|Candidates||Parties||1st round||2nd round|
|Lionel Jospin||Socialist Party (Parti socialiste)||PS||7,097,786||23.30%||14,180,644||47.36%|
|Jacques Chirac||Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République)||RPR||6,348,375||20.84%||15,763,027||52.64%|
|Édouard Balladur||RPR, supported by the Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française)||RPR/UDF||5,658,796||18.58%|
|Jean-Marie Le Pen||National Front (Front national)||FN||4,570,838||15.00%|
|Robert Hue||French Communist Party (Parti communiste français)||PCF||2,632,460||8.64%|
|Arlette Laguiller||Workers' Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière)||LO||1,615,552||5.30%|
|Philippe de Villiers||Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France)||MPF||1,443,186||4.74%|
|Dominique Voynet||The Greens (Les Verts)||VEC||1,010,681||3.32%|
|Jacques Cheminade||European Workers' Party (Parti ouvrier européen)||POE||84,959||0.28%|
|Spoilt and null votes||883,161||2.82%||1,902,148||5.97%|
|Table of results ordered by number of votes received in first round. Official results by Constitutional Council of France.|
Lionel Jospin led in the first round, in what appeared to be an electoral recovery for the Socialist Party. His right-wing challenger for the second round was Jacques Chirac and not Edouard Balladur. Defeated, Balladur endorsed the RPR candidate. Jean-Marie Le Pen repeated his good result of the previous presidential election.
During the TV debate between the two finalists, they disagreed about the presidential term. Jospin wanted to reduce it to five years whereas Chirac was in favour of the seven-year term. The PS candidate responded: "the choice is five years with me or seven years with Jacques Chirac, which will be very long". Eventually, the presidential term was reduced to five years after the 2002 election.
-  Radio-TV debate Jacques Chirac/Lionel Jospin
-  Announcement of the result of the second round, on TV