French presidential election, 2002

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French presidential election, 2002
France
1995 ←
21 April and 5 May 2002
→ 2007

  Jacques Chirac.png Jean-marie le pen cropped.jpg
Nominee Jacques Chirac Jean-Marie Le Pen
Party RPR FN
Popular vote 25,537,956 5,525,032
Percentage 82.21% 17.79%

President before election

Jacques Chirac
RPR

Elected President

Jacques Chirac
RPR

The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. This presidential contest attracted a greater than usual amount of international attention because of far-right candidate Le Pen's unexpected victory over Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin and subsequent appearance in the runoff election. Journalists and politicians then claimed that polls had failed to predict his second place finish in the general election, though Le Pen's strong stance could be seen in the week prior to the election. This led to serious discussions about polling techniques and the climate of French politics. Although Le Pen's political party National Front described itself as mainstream conservative, non-partisan observers largely agreed in defining it as a far right or ultra-nationalist party.

Chirac experienced the biggest landslide in a French presidential election (greater even than that of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte in 1848, the first by direct ballot), winning over 82% of the vote.

Results[edit]

The 16 candidates
e • d Summary of the 21 April and 5 May 2002 French presidential election results
Candidates Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes  % Votes  %
Jacques Chirac Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République) RPR 5,665,855 19.88% 25,537,956 82.21%
Jean-Marie Le Pen National Front (Front national) FN 4,804,713 16.86% 5,525,032 17.79%
Lionel Jospin Socialist Party (Parti socialiste) PS 4,610,113 16.18%
François Bayrou Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française) UDF 1,949,170 6.84%
Arlette Laguiller Workers' Struggle (Lutte ouvrière) LO 1,630,045 5.72%
Jean-Pierre Chevènement Citizens' Movement (Mouvement des citoyens) MDC 1,518,528 5.33%
Noël Mamère The Greens (Les verts) VEC 1,495,724 5.25%
Olivier Besancenot Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) LCR 1,210,562 4.25%
Jean Saint-Josse Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions (Chasse, pêche, nature, traditions) CPNT 1,204,689 4.23%
Alain Madelin Liberal Democracy (Démocratie libérale) DL 1,113,484 3.91%
Robert Hue French Communist Party (Parti communiste français) PCF 960,480 3.37%
Bruno Mégret National Republican Movement (Mouvement national républicain) MNR 667,026 2.34%
Christiane Taubira Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche) PRG 660,447 2.32%
Corinne Lepage Citizenship, Action, Participation for the 21st Century (Citoyenneté action participation pour le XXIe siècle) CAP21 535,837 1.88%
Christine Boutin Forum of Social Republicans (Forum des républicains sociaux) FRS 339,112 1.19%
Daniel Gluckstein Workers' Party (Parti des travailleurs) PT 132,686 0.47%
Total 28,498,471 100% 31,062,988 100%
Valid votes 28,498,471 96.62% 31,062,988 94.61%
Spoilt and null votes 997,262 3.38% 1,769,307 5.39%
Votes cast / turnout 29,495,733 71.60% 32,832,295 79.71%
Abstentions 11,698,956 28.40% 8,358,874 20.29%
Registered voters 41,194,689 41,191,169
Table of results ordered by number of votes received in first round. Official results by Constitutional Council of France.

Source: List of candidates · First round result · Second round result

Opinion polls[edit]

Jacques Chirac Jean-Marie Le Pen Lionel Jospin
10–11 April – CSA 21% 12% 19%
10–13 April – BVA 18,5% 14% 18%
11–12 April – Ifop 19% 11,5% 17%
13 April – Ifop 20% 13% 18%
13–15 April – Nouvel Observateur/Sofres 20% 13% 18%
17–18 April – CSA 19,5% 14% 18%
17–18 April – Ipsos 20% 14% 18%
17–18 April – LCI/Sofres 19,5% 13,5% 17%
21 April – 18% 14,5% 17%
Results 19,88 % 16,86 % 16,18 %

Summary[edit]

Results of the first round: the candidate with the plurality of votes in each administrative division. Jacques Chirac: blue; Jean-Marie Le Pen: dark blue; Lionel Jospin: pink

The 2002 election was the first for which the President would be elected to a five year, instead of a seven year, term.

In the months before the election, the campaign had increasingly focused on questions of law and order, with a particular focus on crimes committed by young people, especially those of foreign origin. Lionel Jospin was, at the time, Prime Minister of France; the Jospin government was criticised for its "softness" on crime by its political opponents. Alarmist reporting on the TF1 and France2 television channel and other media also overemphasised the alleged crime wave.[1]

The first round of the election (on 21 April) came as a shock to many commentators, almost all of whom had expected the second ballot to be between Jacques Chirac and Lionel Jospin. Indeed, it was this very expectation that led to Jospin's downfall, with a plethora of "small party" left candidates (independent socialists and republicans, Green, Communist, Trotskyist, radical etc.) all intending to support him in the second round, but to raise their profile in the first. They cumulatively took enough votes away from Jospin to (unintentionally) prevent him from reaching the second round, which he would quite probably have won. Instead Jean-Marie Le Pen faced Chirac in the second ballot. The election brought the two-round voting system into question as well as raising many concerns about apathy and the way in which the left had become so divided.

There was a widespread stirring of national public opinion, and more than one million people in France took part in street rallies, in an expression of fierce opposition to Le Pen's ideas. Some held up protest signs stating "I'm ashamed to be French," which parodied Le Pen's party slogan, "Proud to be French." Spontaneous street protests began in the night from 21 April to 22 April, then on 22 April and 23, then as follows:

  • 24 April: 60,000 people in the streets protesting against Le Pen's success
  • 25 April: 250,000 people in the streets protesting against Le Pen's success
  • 27 April: 200,000 people in the streets protesting against Le Pen's success (including 45,000 in Paris)
  • 1 May:
    • Approximately 20,000 people turned out for the National Front's yearly demonstration in Paris in honor of Joan of Arc and in support of Le Pen.
    • Between 900,000 (according to the Ministry of the Interior) and 1,300,000 people (according to syndicates)[2] turned up to the Labor Day demonstrations and against the National Front.Hundreds of thousands of people who normally did not take part in such demonstrations came, in addition to the usual unions. In Paris, 500,000 people were seen in the streets, one of the greatest protest since the Liberation of Paris; the march was so big it had to be divided in three parts to reach the place de la Bastille.[3] In another unusual sight for 1 May demonstrations, French tricolour flags were commonplace.

The choice between Chirac, who was under suspicion for actions carried out whilst he was mayor of Paris (see corruption scandals in the Paris region) but benefited from Presidential immunity as long as he stayed president, and Le Pen, a nationalist often accused of racism and antisemitism, was one that many found tough. Some people suggested going to vote with a clothes peg on their noses to express disgust when voting for Chirac, but this may have been illegal, because it is prohibited to advertise one's vote inside the voting precinct. In the days before the second ballot, a memorable poster was put up of Chirac with the slogan "Vote for the Crook, not the Fascist".[4] Chirac defeated Le Pen by a landslide.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (French) GARRIGOS Raphaël & ROBERTS Isabelle (23 April 2002). "L'insécurité, programme préféré de la télé". Libération. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  2. ^ (French) Vincent Glad (29 September 2010). "Écarts entre les chiffres police/syndicats: record battu". Slate (magazine). Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  3. ^ (French) "Manifestation à Paris le 1er mai 2002 contre Jean-Marie Le Pen". Institut national de l'audiovisuel. 1 May 2002. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  4. ^ (French) "Votez escroc, pas facho!". Libération. 23 April 2002. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Official results[edit]

Commentary[edit]