David Duke

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This article is about the white nationalist. For the Scottish football player, see David Duke (footballer).
David Duke
David duke belgium 2008.jpg
David Duke in 2008
Member of the Louisiana House of Representatives
from the 81st district
In office
1990–1992
Preceded by Charles Cusimano
Succeeded by David Vitter
Personal details
Born David Ernest Duke
(1950-07-01) July 1, 1950 (age 64)
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Political party Not a registered voter in Louisiana as of August 1, 2014[1]

Republican since 1989[2]
Democratic until December 1988[3]

Spouse(s) Chloê Eleanor Hardin (married 1974-1984, divorced); 2 daughters
Residence Mandeville, St. Tammany Parish
Louisiana.
Education PhD in History (2005) Ukrainian Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (MAUP)
Occupation Author, political activist
Religion Christianity[4]
Website http://www.davidduke.com

David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is an American White nationalist, writer, right-wing politician, and a former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan,[5][6] and former Republican Louisiana State Representative. He was a candidate in the Democratic presidential primaries in 1988 and the Republican presidential primaries in 1992. Duke has unsuccessfully run for the Louisiana State Senate, United States Senate, United States House of Representatives, and Governor of Louisiana.

Duke describes himself as a "racial realist", asserting that "all people have a basic human right to preserve their own heritage."[7] He opposes what he considers to be Jewish control of the Federal Reserve Bank, the federal government and the media. Duke supports the preservation of what he labels Western culture and traditionalist Christian "family values", strict Constitutionalism, abolition of the Internal Revenue Service, voluntary racial segregation, ardent anti-communism and white separatism.[8][9][10]

The Southern Poverty Law Center describes Duke as "the most recognizable figure on the American radical right" and "a neo-Nazi".[11] His views are characterized by racism, antisemitism, and Holocaust denial.[12][13][14][15][16]

Youth and early adulthood

Duke was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to David H. Duke and Alice Maxine Crick. As the son of an engineer for Shell Oil Company, Duke frequently moved with his family around the world. They lived a short time in the Netherlands, before settling in Louisiana. In the late 1960s, Duke met William Luther Pierce, the leader of the white nationalist and anti-semitic National Alliance, who would remain a lifelong influence on him. Duke joined the Ku Klux Klan in 1967.[17]

Duke studied at Louisiana State University (LSU) in Baton Rouge, and in 1970, he formed a white student group called the White Youth Alliance; it was affiliated with the National Socialist White People's Party. The same year, to protest William Kunstler's appearance at Tulane University in New Orleans, Duke appeared at a demonstration in Nazi uniform. Picketing and holding parties on the anniversary of Adolf Hitler's birth, he became notorious on the LSU campus for wearing a Nazi uniform.[18]

Duke claimed to have spent nine months in Laos, calling that a "normal tour of duty". He actually went there to join his father, who was working there and had asked him to visit during the summer of 1971.[19] His father got him a job teaching English to Laotian military officers, from which he was dismissed after six weeks when he drew a Molotov cocktail on the blackboard.[20] He also claimed to have gone behind enemy lines twenty times at night to drop rice to anti-Communist insurgents in planes flying ten feet off the ground, narrowly avoiding receiving a shrapnel wound. Two Air America pilots who were in Laos at that time said that flights were during the day and flew no less than 500 feet from the ground. One suggested that it might have been possible for Duke to have gone on a safe "milk run" once or twice but no more than that. Duke was also unable to recall the name of the airfield used.[19]

He enrolled at LSU in 1968 and graduated in 1974. During this time he spent what would have been his senior year organizing the National Party.[21]

Family and personal life

In January 1972, Duke was arrested in New Orleans for "inciting to riot". Several racial confrontations broke out that month in the Crescent City, including one at the Robert E. Lee Monument. Addison Roswell Thompson, a perennial segregationist candidate for governor of Louisiana and mayor of New Orleans, and his 89-year-old friend and mentor, Rene LaCoste (not to be confused with the French tennis player René Lacoste). Thompson and LaCoste dressed in Klan robes for the occasion and placed a Confederate flag at the monument. The Black Panthers began throwing bricks at the pair, but police arrived in time to prevent serious injury.[22]

While working in the White Youth Alliance, Duke met Chloê Hardin, who was also active in the group. They remained companions throughout college and married in 1974. Hardin is the mother of Duke's two daughters, Erika and Kristin. Tom Metzger, at the time Duke's state leader in southern California, became livid when Duke showed up for a Ku Klux Klan anti-immigrant "border watch" gathering and immediately started to pursue women.[23] The Dukes divorced in 1984—arguably because Chloe was fed up with Duke's womanizing[24]—and Chloe moved to West Palm Beach, Florida, to be near her parents. There she became involved with Duke's Klan friend, Don Black, whom she later married.[25] Duke also developed a lifelong weakness for gambling[23]

As of 2009, it was confirmed that David Duke was living in Zell am See in Salzburg, Austria,[26] from which he ran the Internet business "Art by Ernst", taking and selling photographs of rare birds, mountain scenery and wildlife[27][28] under the pseudonym "Ernst Duke" (his middle-name "Ernest" Germanized).[29][30] Local authorities have stated that as long as he does not break any laws, Duke is allowed to stay in Austria if he wishes.[31] Duke has stated: "I'm not in Austria for any political activities. I just come to Austria to relax – the mountains are beautiful. The Austrian Alps are just beautiful. There's beauty all over the world." In May 2009, Duke issued a statement denying that he resides in Austria and saying that he is a resident of Mandeville in St. Tammany Parish and is registered as a taxpayer in his city, state and on the national level.[32] As of August 1, 2014, Duke is not listed by the Louisiana Secretary of State, Tom Schedler, as a registered voter in Louisiana.[1]

Political activities

Early campaigns

Duke first ran for the Louisiana Senate as a Democrat from a Baton Rouge district in 1975. He received 11,079 votes, a third of those cast.[33] In October 1979, he ran as a Democrat for the 10th District Senate seat and finished second in a three-candidate race with 9,897 votes (26 percent).[34] Duke allegedly conducted a direct-mail appeal in 1987, using the identity and mailing-list of the Georgia Forsyth County Defense League without permission. League officials described it as a fund-raising scam. Duke was accused by several Klan officials of stealing his organization's money. "Duke is nothing but a con artist," Jack Gregory, Duke's Florida state leader, told the Clearwater Sun (of Florida) after David Duke allegedly refused to turn over proceeds from a series of 1979 Klan rallies to the Knights. Another Klan official under Duke, Jerry Dutton, told reporters that Duke had used Klan funds to purchase and refurbish his home in Metairie. Duke later justified the repairs by saying most of his home was used by the Klan. In 1979, after his first, abortive run for president (as a Democrat) and a series of highly publicized violent Klan incidents, Duke quietly incorporated the nonprofit National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP) in an attempt to leave the baggage of the Klan behind.[35]

1988 Democratic presidential campaign

In 1988, Duke ran initially in the Democratic presidential primaries. His campaign failed to make much of an impact, with the one notable exception of winning the little-known New Hampshire Vice-Presidential primary.[36] Duke, having failed to gain much traction as a Democrat, then successfully sought the Presidential nomination of the Populist Party.[37] He appeared on the ballot for President in eleven states and was a write-in candidate in some other states, some with Trenton Stokes of Arkansas for Vice President, and on other state ballots with Floyd Parker for Vice President. He received just 47,047 votes, for 0.04 percent of the combined, national popular vote.[38]

1989: Successful run in special election for Louisiana House seat

In December 1988, Duke changed his political affiliation from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party.[3]

In 1988, Republican State Representative Charles Cusimano of Metairie resigned his District 89 seat to become a 24th Judicial District Court judge, and a special election was called early in 1989 to select a successor. Duke entered the race to succeed Cusimano and faced several opponents, including fellow Republicans, John Spier Treen, a brother of former Governor David C. Treen, Delton Charles, a school board member, and Roger F. Villere, Jr., who operates Villere's Florist in Metairie. Duke finished first in the primary with 3,995 votes (33.1%).[39] As no one received a majority of the vote in the first round, a runoff election was required between Duke and Treen, who polled 2,277 votes (18.9%) in the first round of balloting. John Treen's candidacy was endorsed by U.S. President George H. W. Bush, former President Ronald Reagan, and other notable Republicans,[40] as well as the Democrat Victor Bussie (president of the Louisiana AFL-CIO) and Edward J. Steimel (president of the Louisiana Association of Business and Industry and former director of the "good government" think tank, the Public Affairs Research Council). Duke, however, hammered Treen on a statement the latter had made indicating a willingness to entertain higher property taxes, anathema in that suburban district.[41] Duke with 8,459 votes (50.7%) defeated Treen, who polled 8,232 votes (49.3%).[42] He served in the House from 1989 until 1992.[43]

Freshman legislator Odon Bacqué of Lafayette, a No Party member of the House, stood alone in 1989 when he attempted to deny seating to Duke on the grounds that the incoming representative had resided outside his district at the time of his election. When John Treen failed in a court challenge in regard to Duke's residency, Duke was seated. Lawmakers who opposed Duke said that they had to defer to his constituents who narrowly chose Duke as representative.[44]

Duke took his seat on the same day as Jerry Luke LeBlanc of Lafayette Parish, who won another special election held on the same day as the Duke-Treen runoff to choose a successor to Kathleen Blanco, the future governor who was elected to the Louisiana Public Service Commission. Duke and LeBlanc were sworn in separately.

As a short-term legislator, Duke was, in the words of a colleague, Ron Gomez of Lafayette "so single minded, he never really became involved in the nuts and bolts of House rules and parliamentary procedure. It was just that shortcoming that led to the demise of most of his attempts at lawmaking."[45]

One legislative issue pushed by Duke was the requirement that welfare recipients be tested for the use of narcotics. The recipients had to show themselves to be drug-free to receive state and federal benefits under his proposal.[46]

Gomez recalls having met and interviewed Duke in the middle 1970s when Duke was a state senate candidate: "He was still in his mid-20s and very non-descript. Tall and slimly built, he had a very prominent nose, flat cheek bones, a slightly receding chin and straight dark brown hair. The interview turned out to be quite innocuous, and I hadn't thought about it again until Duke came to my legislative desk, and we shook hands. Who was this guy? Tall and well-built with a perfect nose, a model's cheek bones, prominent chin, blue eyes and freshly coiffed blond hair, he looked like a movie star. He obviously didn't remember from the radio encounter, and I was content to leave it at that."[47]

Consistent with Gomez's observation, Duke in the latter 1980s reportedly had his nose thinned and chin augmented. Following his election to the Louisiana House of Representatives, he shaved his mustache.[48][49][50]

Gomez continued: "He once presented a bill on the floor, one of the few which he had managed to get out of committee. He finished his opening presentation and strolled with great self-satisfaction back up the aisle to his seat. In his mind, he had spoken, made his presentation and that was that. Before he had even reached his desk and re-focused on the proceedings, another first-term member had been recognized for the floor and immediately moved to table the bill. The House voted for the motions effectively killing the bill. That and similar procedures were used against him many times."[51] Gomez said that he recalls Duke obtaining the passage of only a single bill, legislation which prohibited movie producers or book publishers from compensating jurors for accounts of their court experiences.[52]

Gomez added that Duke's "tenure in the House was short and uninspired. Never has anyone parlayed an election by such a narrow margin to such a minor position to such international prominence. He has run for numerous other positions without success but has always had some effect, usually negative, on the outcome."[53]

Gomez continued: Duke's "new message was that he had left the Klan, shed the Nazi uniform he had proudly worn in many previous appearances, and only wanted to serve the people. He eliminated his high-octane anti-Semitic rhetoric. He was particularly concerned with the plight of 'European-Americans.' He never blatantly spoke of race as a factor but referred to the 'growing underclass.' He used the tried and true demagoguery of class envy to sell his message: excessive taxpayers' money spent on welfare, school busing practices, affirmative action... and set-aside programs. He also embraced a subject near and dear to every Jefferson Parish voter, protection of the homestead exemption."[54]

Duke launched unsuccessful campaigns for the U.S. Senate in 1990 and governor in 1991. Villere did not again seek office but instead concentrated his political activity within the Republican organization.[55]

1990 campaign for U.S. Senate

Duke has often criticized federal policies which he believes discriminate against white people in favor of racial minorities. To that end he formed the controversial group, the "National Association for the Advancement of White People".[56]

Though Duke had first hesitated about entering the Senate race, he made his announcement of candidacy for the nonpartisan blanket primary held on October 6, 1990. As it turned out, Duke was the only Republican in competition against three Democrats including incumbent U.S. Senator J. Bennett Johnston, Jr., of Shreveport,[57] whom Duke derided as "J. Benedict Johnston".[58]

Former Governor David Treen, whose brother, John Treen, Duke had defeated for state representative in 1989, called Duke's senatorial platform "garbage. ... I think he is bad for our party because of his espousal of Nazism and racial superiority."[59]

The Republican Party officially endorsed state Senator Ben Bagert of New Orleans in a state convention held on January 13, 1990, but national GOP officials in October, just days before the primary election, concluded that Bagert could not win. To avoid a runoff between Duke and Johnston, the GOP decided to surrender the primary to Johnston. Funding for Bagert's campaign was halted, and though at first under protest Bagert dropped out two days before the election. With such a late withdrawal, Bagert's name remained on the ballot, but his votes, most presumably cast as absentee ballots, were not counted.[60][61] Duke received 43.51 percent (607,391 votes) of the primary vote to Johnston's 53.93 percent (752,902 votes).[57]

Duke's views prompted some of his critics (including Republicans, such as the journalist Quin Hillyer) to form the Louisiana Coalition Against Racism and Nazism, which directed media attention to Duke's statements of hostility to blacks and Jews.[62]

In a 2006 editorial, Gideon Rachman (The Economist, the Financial Times) recalled interviewing Duke's campaign manager (from his 1990 campaign) who said, "The Jews just aren't a big issue in Louisiana. We keep telling David, stick to attacking the blacks. There's no point in going after the Jews, you just piss them off and nobody here cares about them anyway."[63]

1991 campaign for Governor of Louisiana

Despite repudiation by the Republican Party,[64] Duke ran for governor of Louisiana in 1991. In the primary, Duke finished second to former governor Edwin W. Edwards in votes; thus, he faced Edwards in a runoff. In the initial round, Duke received 32 percent of the vote. Incumbent Governor Buddy Roemer, who had switched from the Democratic to Republican parties during his term, came in third with 27 percent of the vote. Duke effectively killed Roemer's bid for re-election. While Duke had a sizable core constituency of devoted supporters, many voted for him as a "protest vote" to register dissatisfaction with Louisiana's establishment politicians. During the campaign, Duke said he was the spokesman for the "white majority"[65] and, according to the New York Times, "equated the extermination of Jews in Nazi Germany with affirmative action programs in the United States."[66]

The Christian Coalition of America, which exerted considerable impact on the Republican State Central Committee, was led in Louisiana by its national director and vice president, Billy McCormack, then the pastor of University Worship Center in Shreveport. The coalition was accused of having failed to investigate Duke in the early part of his political resurgence. By the time of the 1991 gubernatorial election, however, its leadership had withdrawn support from Duke.[67] Despite Duke's status as the only Republican in the runoff, sitting Republican President George H.W. Bush opposed his candidacy and denounced him as charlatan and a racist.[66] White House Chief of Staff John Sununu stated that "The President is absolutely opposed to the kind of racist statements that have come out of David Duke now and in the past."[68]

The Louisiana Coalition against Racism and Nazism rallied against the election of Duke as governor. Beth Rickey, a moderate member of the Louisiana Republican State Central Committee and a PhD student at Tulane University, began to follow Duke to record his speeches and expose what she saw as instances of racist and neo-Nazi remarks. For a time, Duke took Rickey to lunch, introduced her to his daughters, telephoned her late at night, and tried to convince her of his worldview: the Holocaust was a myth, Josef Mengele (the Aushwitz physician who performed experiments on Jews and selected which prisoners would die) was a medical genius, and blacks and Jews were responsible for various social ills. Rickey released transcripts of their conversations to the press. She also provided evidence establishing that Duke sold Nazi literature (including Mein Kampf) from his legislative office, and that he had gone to neo-Nazi political gatherings while he held elective office.[69][70]

Between the primary and the runoff, called the "general election" under Louisiana election rules (in which all candidates run on one ballot, regardless of party), white supremacist organizations from around the country contributed to his campaign fund.[71][72]

Duke's success garnered national media attention. While Duke gained the backing of the quixotic former Alexandria Mayor John K. Snyder, he won few serious endorsements in Louisiana. Celebrities and organizations donated thousands to Edwards' campaign. Referencing Edwards' long-standing problem with accusations of corruption, popular bumper stickers read: "Vote for the Crook. It's Important",[73][74] and "Vote for the Lizard, not the Wizard." When a reporter asked Edwards what he needed to do to triumph over Duke, Edwards replied with a smile: "Stay alive."

Edwards received 1,057,031 votes (61.2%). Duke's 671,009 votes represented 38.8% of the total. Duke claimed victory, saying: "I won my constituency. I won 55% of the white vote." Exit polls confirmed that he had.[18]

1992 Republican Party presidential candidate

In 1992 Duke ran for the nomination. Republican Party officials tried to block his participation.[75] He received 119,115 (0.94%) votes[76] in the primaries, but no delegates to the national convention. His presidential campaign inspired a song by Skankin' Pickle.[77]

In 1992 a film was released that investigated Duke's appeal among some white voters. Backlash: Race and the American Dream explored the demagogic issues of Duke's platform, examining his use of black crime, welfare, affirmative action and white supremacy and tied Duke to a legacy of other white backlash politicians, such as Lester G. Maddox and George C. Wallace, Jr., and the use in the 1988 Presidential campaign of Pres. George H.W. Bush of these same racially themed hot buttons.[78]

Late 1990s campaigns

When Johnston announced his retirement in 1996, Duke ran again for the U.S. Senate. He polled 141,489 votes (11.5%). Former Republican state representative Woody Jenkins of Baton Rouge and Democrat Mary Landrieu of New Orleans, the former state treasurer, went into the general election contest. Duke was fourth in the nine-person, jungle primary race.[79]

Because of the sudden resignation of powerful Republican incumbent Bob Livingston in 1999, a special election was held in Louisiana's First Congressional District. Duke sought the seat as a Republican and received 19% of the vote. He finished a close third, thus failing to make the runoff. His candidacy was repudiated by the Republicans.[80] Republican Party chairman Jim Nicholson remarked: "There is no room in the party of Lincoln for a Klansman like David Duke."[80] Republican state representative David Vitter (now a U.S. Senator) went on to defeat Republican ex-Governor David C. Treen. Also in the race was the New Orleans Republican leader Rob Couhig.

In 1999 Duke ran for Louisiana's First Congressional District. Duke finished third in the May 1, 1999 election with 28,059 votes (19.15%).[81]

In 2004, Duke's bodyguard, roommate, and longtime associate Roy Armstrong made a bid for the United States House of Representatives, running as a Democrat, to serve Louisiana's First Congressional District. In the open primary Armstrong finished second in the six candidate field with 6.69% of the vote, but Republican Bobby Jindal received 78.40% winning the seat.[82] Duke was the head advisor of Armstrong's campaign.[83][84]

Affiliations

Knights of the Ku Klux Klan

In 1974, David Duke founded the Louisiana-based Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (KKKK), a Louisiana Ku Klux Klan organization, shortly after graduating from LSU.[85] He became Grand Wizard of the KKKK. A follower of Duke, Thomas Robb, changed the title of Grand Wizard to National Director, and replaced the Klan's white robes with business suits.[86] Duke first received broad public attention during this time, as he endeavored to market himself in the mid-1970s as a new brand of Klansman: well-groomed, engaged, and professional. Duke also reformed the organization, promoting nonviolence and legality, and, for the first time in the Klan's history, women were accepted as equal members and Catholics were encouraged to apply for membership.[87] Duke would repeatedly insist that the Klan was "not anti-black", but rather "pro-white" and "pro-Christian."

NAAWP

In 1980, Duke left the Klan and formed the National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP).[88]

Ernst Zündel and the Zundelsite

Duke has expressed his support for Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel, a German who lived in Canada. Duke made a number of statements in support of Zündel and his Holocaust denial campaign.[89][90][91][92] After the aging Zündel was deported from Canada to Germany[93] and imprisoned in Germany on charges of inciting the masses to ethnic hatred,[94] Duke referred to him as a "political prisoner".

Interregional Academy of Personnel Management

In September 2005, Duke received a Kandidat Nauk degree in History from the Ukrainian Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (MAUP).[95]

His doctoral thesis was titled "Zionism as a Form of Ethnic Supremacism."[95] Anti-Defamation League claims that MAUP is the main source of antisemitic activity and publishing in Ukraine,[96] and its "anti-Semitic actions" were "strongly condemned" by Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk and various organizations.[97][98][99][100] The Anti-Defamation League describes it as a "University of Hate".[101] Duke has taught an international relations and a history course at MAUP.[102]

Stormfront

In 1995, Don Black and Chloê Hardin, Duke's ex-wife, began a small bulletin board system (BBS) called Stormfront. Today, Stormfront has become a prominent online forum for white nationalism, Neo-Nazism, hate speech and racism.[103][104][105] Duke has an account on Stormfront which he uses to post articles from his own website, www.davidduke.com, as well as polling forum members for opinions and questions, in particular during his internet broadcasts. Duke has worked with Don Black on numerous projects including Operation Red Dog in 1980.[106][107]

New Orleans Protocol

Shortly after his release from prison for tax fraud in 2004, Duke organized a weekend gathering of "European Nationalists", in the vein of white nationalism, in Kenner, Louisiana. In an attempt to overcome the splintering and division that had followed the death of William Pierce in 2002, he presented a unity proposal for peace within the movement and a better image amongst outsiders. His proposal was accepted and is now known as the New Orleans Protocol (NOP). It pledges adherents to a pan-European outlook, recognizing national and ethnic allegiance, but stressing the value of all European peoples. Signed by and sponsored by a number of white supremacist leaders and organisations, it has three provisions:[108][109]

  1. "Zero tolerance for violence."
  2. "Honorable and ethical behavior in relations with other signatory groups. This includes not denouncing others who have signed this protocol. In other words, no enemies on the right."
  3. "Maintaining a high tone in our arguments and public presentations."

Those who signed the pact on May 29, 2004 include Duke, Paul Fromm, Don Black, Willis Carto (whose holocaust-denying Barnes Review helped sponsor the event), Kevin Alfred Strom, and John Tyndall (signing as an individual, not on behalf of his British National Party).[108] It was also adopted by the white supremacist Canadian Heritage Alliance.[110]

The SPLC noted that the 'high tone' contrasted with statements at the event where the pact was signed such as Paul Fromm's calling a Muslim woman "a hag in a bag" and Sam Dickson (from the Council of Conservative Citizens, another sponsor) speaking "about the "very, very destructive" effect of opposing the Nazis in World War II – opposition that caused people to view Hitler's "normal, healthy racial values" as evil.[108] They described the Protocol as a "smokescreen", saying that "most of conference participants' ire was directed at what they consider to be a worldwide Jewish conspiracy to destroy the white race through immigration and miscegenation".[111]

Publications

Finders-Keepers

Duke wrote a self-help book for women to raise money under the pseudonym Dorothy Vanderbilt and James Konrad, titled Finders-Keepers – Finding and Keeping the Man You Want which contains sexual, diet, fashion, cosmetic and relationship advice, published by Arlington Place Books in 1976. Professor Lawrence N. Powell, who read a rare copy of the book given to him by Patsy Sims, wrote that it includes advice on vaginal exercises, fellatio, and anal sex.[112][113][114] The book is out of print and difficult to find; however, according to Tyler Bridges, The Times-Picayune obtained a copy and traced its proceeds to Duke[115] who compiled the information from women's self-help magazines.[18]

My Awakening

Duke published his autobiography My Awakening: A Path to Racial Understanding in 1998. The book details Duke's social philosophies, especially his reasoning behind racial separation. In the book, Duke says:

We (Whites) desire to live in our own neighborhoods, go to our own schools, work in our own cities and towns, and ultimately live as one extended family in our own nation. We shall end the racial genocide of integration. We shall work for the eventual establishment of a separate homeland for African Americans, so each race will be free to pursue its own destiny without racial conflicts and ill will.[8]

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) book review refers to it as containing racist, antisemitic, sexist and homophobic views.[116]

To raise the money to re-publish a new, updated edition of My Awakening, Duke instigated a 21-day fundraising drive on November 26, 2007 where he had to raise "$25,344 by a December 17 deadline for the printers."[117] Duke states this drive is necessary because the work "has become the most important book in the entire world in the effort to awaken our people for our heritage and freedom."

Jewish Supremacism

David Duke (right) and Udo Voigt (left), the leader of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), shaking hands.

In 2002, Duke traveled to Eastern Europe to promote his book, Jewish Supremacism: My Awakening on the Jewish Question in Russia in 2003. The book purports to "examine and document elements of ethnic supremacism that have existed in the Jewish community from historical to modern times."[118] The book is dedicated to Israel Shahak, a critical author of what Shahak saw as supremacist religious teachings in Jewish culture. Former Boris Yeltsin administration official and politician Boris Mironov wrote an introduction for the Russian edition, called The Jewish Question Through the Eyes of an American.

The ADL office in Moscow urged the Moscow prosecutor to open an investigation of Mironov. The ADL office initiated a letter from a prominent Duma member to Russia's Prosecutor General Vladimir Ustinov, urging a criminal case be opened against the author and the Russian publisher of Duke's book. The letter by Aleksandr Fedulov described the book as antisemitic and, incorrectly, as violating Russian anti-hate crime laws.[119] Around December 2001 Prosecutor's office closed the investigation of Boris Mironov and Jewish Supremacism. In a public letter, Yury Biryukov, First Deputy of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, stated that a socially-psychological examination, which was conducted as a part of the investigation, concluded that the book and the actions of Boris Mironov did not break Russian hate-crime laws.[120]

Duke says his views had been "vindicated" with the publication of The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, and said he was "surprised how excellent [the paper] is". Duke dedicated several radio webcasts to the book and the authors comparing it to his work Jewish Supremacism,[121][122][123][124] although Walt stated: "I have always found Mr. Duke's views reprehensible, and I am sorry he sees this article as consistent with his view of the world".[125]

Duke says that his books "have become two of the two most influential and important books in the world."[126] The ADL refer to the book as antisemitic,[127] though Duke had denied the book is motivated by antisemitism.[128] At one time, the book was sold in the main lobby of the building of Russian State Duma (lower house of parliament). The first printing of 5,000 copies sold out in several weeks.

In 2004, the book was published in the United States. Originally published in English and Russian, the book has subsequently been translated internationally into Swedish, Ukrainian, Persian, Hungarian, Spanish[126] and most recently (2010) into Finnish (ISBN 978-952-92-8137-4). In 2007, an updated edition was published[129] which Duke purports to be a "fine quality hardback edition with full color dust jacket and it has a new index and a number of timely additions".[126]

His website has hosted articles by various authors claiming that Jewish loan-sharks own the Federal Reserve Bank[130] and that Jews own Hollywood and the American media.[131]

Internet commentary

On February 5, 2002, Duke said, on his Internet radio show, that Ariel Sharon was "the world's worst terrorist" and that Mossad was involved in the September 11 attacks. The broadcast said that Zionists were behind the attacks in order to reduce sympathy for Muslim nations in the West, and that the number of Israelis killed in the attack was lower than it would be under normal circumstances, citing early assessments by The Jerusalem Post and "the legendary involvement of Israeli nationals in businesses at the World Trade Center". According to Duke, this indicated that Israeli security services had prior knowledge of the attack.[132]

On February 4, 2009, Duke repeatedly called MSNBC pundit Keith Olbermann "untermensch" on his radio show in response to being labeled "Worst Person in the World" on Countdown with Keith Olbermann.

Public appearances

Public address in Syria

On November 24, 2005, Duke visited Damascus, Syria, addressing a rally which was broadcast on Syrian television, and later giving an interview.[133][134] During the rally, he referred to Israel as a "war-mongering country" and stated that Zionists "occupy most of the American media and now control much of the American government…It is not just the West Bank of Palestine, it is not just the Golan Heights that are occupied by the Zionists, but Washington D.C. and New York and London and many other capitals of the world.” He concluded by stating: "Your fight for freedom is the same as our fight for freedom.” After speaking at the rally, Duke gave an interview where he said that Israel "makes the Nazi state look very, very moderate." Syrian parliament member Muhammad Habash later stated that Duke's visit gave Syrians a "new and very positive view of the average American."[133][135][136]

Comments in the media

Since 2005, Duke has appeared three times on Current Issues, a Lafayette, Louisiana–based television show hosted and produced by Palestinian-American Hesham Tillawi, which has recently been picked up by Bridges TV. Show host Tillawi gave Duke the opportunity to discourse at length about his beliefs about Jewish supremacism. On a show in October 2005, Duke claimed that Jewish extremists are responsible for undermining the morality of America and are attempting to "wash the world in blood."[137]

After John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt's paper on the Israel Lobby appeared in March 2006, Duke praised the paper in a number of articles on his website, on his March 18 Live Web Radio Broadcast, and on MSNBC's March 21 Scarborough Country program.[138] According to The New York Sun, Duke said in an email, "It is quite satisfying to see a body in the premier American university essentially come out and validate every major point I have been making since even before the war even started." Duke added that "the task before us is to wrest control of America's foreign policy and critical junctures of media from the Jewish extremist Neocons that seek to lead us into what they expectantly call World War IV."

Conferences

Duke organized a gathering of European Nationalists who signed the New Orleans Protocol on May 29, 2004. The signatories agreed to avoid infighting among far-right racialists.

On June 3, 2005, Duke co-chaired a conference named "Zionism As the Biggest Threat to Modern Civilization" in Ukraine, sponsored by the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management. The conference was attended by several notable Ukrainian public figures and politicians, and writer Israel Shamir.[139]

Duke claims that Swedish police thwarted an attempted assassination against him, in August 2005, while Duke was speaking in Sweden.[140]

On the weekend of June 8–10, 2006, Duke attended as a speaker at the international "White World's Future" conference in Moscow, which was coordinated and hosted by Pavel Tulaev.[141] From December 11–13, he Duke attended the International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust in Tehran, Iran, opened by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, stating "The Holocaust is the device used as the pillar of Zionist imperialism, Zionist aggression, Zionist terror and Zionist murder."[142]

Duke attended the conference, along with Gazi Hussein (Syria); Dr Rahmandost (conference chair, Society for Supporting People of Palestine); Jan Bernhoff, a Swedish computer science teacher who maintains that 300,000 Jews died during the Holocaust;[143] and Fredrick Töben, director of the Adelaide Institute, Australia.

Criticism and legal difficulties

Critical publications

In Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust and David Duke's Louisiana[144][145] by Professor Lawrence N. Powell, who teaches at Tulane University history department and was a founding member of Louisiana Coalition Against Racism and Nazism, depicts the "story of Anne Skorecki Levy, a Holocaust survivor who transformed the horrors of her childhood into a passionate mission to defeat the political menace of reputed neo-Nazi and Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke." [146]

Tax fraud conviction

David Duke pleaded guilty to the felony charge of filing a false tax return under 26 U.S.C. § 7206 and mail fraud under 18 U.S.C. § 1341 in December 2002.[147]

Four months later, Duke was sentenced to 15 months in prison, and he served the time in Big Spring, Texas. He was also fined US$10,000, ordered to cooperate with the Internal Revenue Service, and to pay money still owed for his 1998 taxes. Following his release in May 2004, he stated that his decision to take the plea bargain was motivated by the bias that he perceived in the United States federal court system and not his guilt. He said he felt the charges were contrived to derail his political career and discredit him to his followers, and that he took the safe route by pleading guilty and receiving a mitigated sentence, rather than pleading not guilty and potentially receiving the full sentence.

Duke pleaded guilty to what prosecutors described as a six-year scheme to dupe thousands of his followers by asking for donations. Through postal mail, Duke later appealed to his supporters that he was about to lose his house and his life savings. Prosecutors claimed that Duke raised hundreds of thousands of dollars in this campaign. Prosecutors also claimed he sold his home at a hefty profit, had multiple investment accounts, and spent much of his money gambling at casinos.[148][149][150]

The entire file of court documents related to this case can be found at The Smoking Gun[151] website, including details on the December 12, 2002 guilty plea to federal charges that he filed a false tax return and committed mail fraud.

Don Black claims that Duke was targeted by the government to discredit him.[152]

Arrest in the Czech Republic and dropping of the charges

On April 24, 2009, Duke, who had arrived in the Czech Republic on invitation by a Czech neo-Nazi Group known as Národní Odpor ("National Resistance") to deliver three lectures in Prague and Brno to promote the translation of his book My Awakening into the Czech language.[153] He was arrested on suspicion of "denying or approving of the Nazi genocide and other Nazi crimes" and "promotion of movements seeking suppression of human rights," which are crimes in the Czech Republic punishable by up to three years' imprisonment. At the time of his arrest, Duke was reportedly guarded by members of the Národní Odpor.[154][155]

The Czech police accused Duke of promoting movements suppressing human rights.[156][157][158] The police released him early on April 25, 2009, on condition that he leave the country by midnight that same day.[159][160]

Duke's first lecture had been scheduled at Charles University in Prague, but it was canceled after university officials learned that neo-Nazis were planning to attend.[161] Some Czech politicians, including Interior Minister Ivan Langer and Human Rights and Minorities Minister Michael Kocáb, had previously expressed opposition to Duke's being allowed into the country.[154]

In September 2009, the office of the District Prosecutor for Prague dropped all charges, explaining that there was no evidence that David Duke had committed any crime.[162]

Expulsion from Italy, 2013

An Italian court ruled to expel Duke from Italy, reported Reuters in December 2013.[163] The 63-year-old Duke was living in a mountain village in Italy. Although Duke had been issued a visa to live in Malta and write, Italian police later found that Switzerland had issued a residence ban against Duke throughout a group of 26 countries including Italy. Duke's attorney said he had not decided, as of December 5, 2013 whether or not to appeal the decision.[163]

Election history

Proposed 2012 presidential campaign

Duke claimed that thousands of Tea Party movement activists had urged him to run for president in 2012[164][165] and he was seriously considering entering the Republican Party primaries.[165] However, Duke ultimately did not contest the primaries (won by Mitt Romney) or the 2012 presidential election, which was won by Barack Obama.[166]

Works

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Click David Duke, July 1950". Louisiana Secretary of State. Retrieved August 1, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Winner in Louisiana Vote Takes on G.O.P. Chairman". The New York Times. February 20, 1989. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  3. ^ a b Zatarain, Michael (July 1990). Michael Zatarain, David Duke: Evolution of a Klansman. Google Books. ISBN 978-0-88289-817-9. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Should Christians support Israel?". Retrieved 2006-08-27. 
  5. ^ Duke, David. "My Awakening: A Path to Racial Understanding". Free Speech Press. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  6. ^ "David Duke: White Revolution on the Internet". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  7. ^ Duke, David (March 12, 2005). "David Duke answers an email about whether he is a racist". Retrieved 2006-08-31. 
  8. ^ a b Duke, David. "An Aryan Vision". My Awakening. SolarGeneral. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  9. ^ Duke, David (October 23, 2004). "Kayla Rolland: One More Victim". Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  10. ^ "David Duke: In His Own Words / On Segregation". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  11. ^ http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/profiles/david-duke
  12. ^ Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B., Diana R. Grant, and Chau‐Pu Chiang. "Hate online: A content analysis of extremist Internet sites." Analyses of social issues and public policy 3.1 (2003): 29-44.
  13. ^ Burris, Val, Emery Smith, and Ann Strahm. "White supremacist networks on the Internet." Sociological focus 33.2 (2000): 215-235.
  14. ^ Powell, Lawrence N. Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana. Univ of North Carolina Press, 2000.
  15. ^ Swain, Carol Miller; Russ Nieli (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-521-81673-1. 
  16. ^ Daniels, Jessie (2009). Cyber racism: white supremacy online and the new attack on civil rights. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7425-6158-8. 
  17. ^ Issues '92 Profile: David Duke; The Orange County Register. Santa Ana, California: March 2, 1992. pp. a.04
  18. ^ a b c Bridges, Tyler (1995). The Rise of David Duke. University of Mississippi Press. ISBN 0-87805-678-5. 
  19. ^ a b Bridges, Tyler (1995). The Rise of David Duke. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 26–29. ISBN 978-0-87805-684-2. 
  20. ^ Burkett, B.G. (1998). Stolen Valor: How the Vietnam Generation was robbed of its heroes and history. Verity Press. ISBN 978-0-9667036-0-3. 
  21. ^ Bridges, Tyler (1995). The Rise of David Duke. University Press of Mississippi. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-87805-684-2. 
  22. ^ Patsy Sims (1996). > The Klan (2nd ed.). Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 152–153. Retrieved August 1, 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Get informed". Southern Poverty Law Center. 
  24. ^ The Rise of David Duke, Tyler Bridges, pg. 80, 1994
  25. ^ Kim, T. K. (2005). "Electronic Storm". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2006-08-31. 
  26. ^ "Parlamentarische Materialien". Parlament.gv.at. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  27. ^ Epstein, Nadine (November–December 2009). "The Mysterious Tale of a Ukrainian University's Anti-Semitic Crusade". Moment Magazine. 
  28. ^ Wenger, Sonja (September 19, 2009). "US-Rechtsextremist nutzt Salzburg seit Jahren als Zuflucht". Salzburger Fenster. 
  29. ^ http://www.gruene.at/uploads/media/dossier_duke_ernest_duke.pdf
  30. ^ "Ex-Ku-Klux-Boss: Rückzugsgebiet in den Alpen". haGalil.com. May 17, 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-22. 
  31. ^ "Former KKK grand wizard living in Austria". The Daily Telegraph (London). May 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  32. ^ "A Letter to the Telegraph". davidduke.com. May 20, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  33. ^ Wayne King (November 25, 1975). "David Duke:Cleaning up the Klan's image". St. Petersburg Times via New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  34. ^ "Our Campaigns – LA State Senate 10 Race – October 27, 1979". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  35. ^ By Martin A. Lee. "Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  36. ^ "Our Campaigns – D Primary Race – February 16, 1988". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  37. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – Pop Convention Race, March 11, 1988]
  38. ^ D.C. Finegold-Sachs (2005). D.C.'s Political Report. 1988 Presidential Candidates; retrieved on 2009-04-04.
  39. ^ "Louisiana State Representative Election, 1989". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  40. ^ "GOP Condemns Duke" Newsday. Long Island, N.Y.: February 25, 1989, pg. 9
  41. ^ Douglas D. Rose, The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), p. iii (ISBN 0807843814, ISBN 978-0-8078-4381-9); see also Michael Zatarain, David Duke: Evolution of a Klansman (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1990), ISBN 0-88289-817-5, ISBN 978-0-88289-817-9.
  42. ^ "Our Campaigns – LA State House 081 – Special Election Runoff Race – February 18, 1989". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  43. ^ "Membership of the Louisiana House of Representatives, 1812–2008". house.louisiana.gov. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  44. ^ Ron Gomez, "David Duke? He's Just Another Freshman", My Name Is Ron And I'm a Recovering Legislator: Memoirs of a Louisiana State Representative, Lafayette, Louisiana: Zemog Publishing, 2000, pp. 157-164; ISBN 0-9700156-0-7
  45. ^ Gomez, My Name Is Ron And I'm a Recovering Legislator, pg. 230
  46. ^ "Duke welfare bill wins panel favor," Minden Press-Herald, May 9, 1989, pg. 1
  47. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 228. Gomez has implied that Duke had a facelift by the time he entered the legislature.
  48. ^ Benton, Joshua (May 1, 1999). "National: David Duke Reverts to Unabashed Racism in Congress run". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Block News Alliance). Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  49. ^ Gullixson, Paul (April 12, 1995). "Part 4: Taking on David Duke". Palo Alto Weekly (Palo Alto Weekly). Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  50. ^ Johnson, Ben (August 18, 2005). "American Nazi Idol". FrontPageMagazine.com. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  51. ^ Ron Gomez, p. 230
  52. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pgs. 231-2
  53. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 231
  54. ^ Gomez, Recovering Legislator, pg. 222
  55. ^ "Stephen Sabludowsky, "Jindal Has Mighty Duke in Louisiana GOP and Roger Villere"". bayoubuzz.com. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  56. ^ "Duke undecided on Senate race", Minden Press-Herald, November 6, 1989, p. 1
  57. ^ a b "Our Campaigns – LA US Senate Race – October 6, 1990". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  58. ^ "Can Johnston be beaten?", Minden Press-Herald, November 19, 1989, p. 1
  59. ^ "Treen: Renounce David Duke's 'garbage'", Minden Press-Herald, December 22, 1989, p. 7A
  60. ^ Kevin McGill (5 October 1990). "Republican quits to help Democrat". The Hour. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  61. ^ "Louisiana Republican Quits, Reducing Duke's Chances". Washington Post. October 5, 1990. 
  62. ^ Monteverde, Danny (September 15, 2009). "Elizabeth Rickey, GOP activist". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  63. ^ "Iran, David Duke and me". rachmanblogg on FT.com. December 12, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  64. ^ Suro, Roberto (November 7, 1991). "The 1991 Election: Louisiana; Bush Denounces Duke As Racist and Charlatan". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  65. ^ "David Duke Going for U.S. Senate seat" Sheila Grissett East Jefferson bureau. The Times-Picayune New Orleans, La.: February 23, 1996. pg. B1
  66. ^ a b Suro, Roberto (November 7, 1991). "THE 1991 ELECTION: Louisiana; Bush Denounces Duke As Racist and Charlatan." The New York Times
  67. ^ "Frederick Clarkson, "Church and State, November 1993". theocracywatch.org. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  68. ^ West, Paul. (October 21, 1991). "Winners set stage for racially charged La. runoff." The Baltimore Sun.
  69. ^ Stern, Kenneth (September 16, 2009). "Elizabeth Rickey, Derailed David Duke." The Jewish Daily Forward
  70. ^ Patricia Sullivan, "Beth Rickey dies with an immune disorder and Crohn's disease," Washington Post, September 16, 2009
  71. ^ Lee, Martin A. (2003). "Detailing David Duke". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2006-08-31. 
  72. ^ "David Duke: In His Own Words". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-08-31. 
  73. ^ Appelbome, Peter (June 8, 1994). "An Epoch Is Ending But Why?". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  74. ^ Photo of bumper sticker, New Orleans, The Times-Picayune
  75. ^ McHugh, Edward T. (December 13, 1991). "Officials reject putting Duke on ballot for state primary". Telegram & Gazette. (Worcester, Mass.). p. A.4. 
  76. ^ "Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – February 1, 1992". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  77. ^ "Skankin' Pickle Fever". 
  78. ^ "Examining the Appeal of David Duke's Oratory". The New York Times. July 10, 1992. 
  79. ^ David Duke Heads North to Raise Money for House Race" By Michael Janofsky, The New York Times, January 3, 1999
  80. ^ a b Edsall, Thomas B. (December 21, 1998). "David Duke to Seek Livingston's Seat". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-20. "Yesterday, the party moved quickly once again to disassociate itself from Duke. Republican National Committee Chairman Jim Nicholson declared: "There is no room in the party of Lincoln for a Klansman like David Duke."" 
  81. ^ "Our Campaigns – LA District 1 – Special Election Race – May 1, 1999". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  82. ^ "Our Campaigns – LA – District 1 Race – November 2, 2004". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  83. ^ Sabludowsky, Steve (August 6, 2004). "David Duke Close Associate Runs for Congress in Race With Indian-American Bobby Jindal". BayouBuzz.com. Retrieved 2006-09-01. [dead link]
  84. ^ Burdeau, Cain (November 17, 2000). "KKK Leader David Duke's Home is Raided by Federal Agents". Associated Press. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  85. ^ Rose, Douglas. The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race University of North Carolina Press. 1992
  86. ^ "The Hatemongers Get a New Tailor." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Winter 1996/1997.
  87. ^ "Photo of David Duke at a Klan cross lighting ceremony". Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  88. ^ "David Duke to Leave Klan". St. Petersburg Times. July 25, 1980. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 
  89. ^ Grobman, Alex; Medoff, Rafael (2003). "Holocaust Denial: A Global Survey — 2003". The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  90. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah (November 28, 2005). "David Duke Visits Syria to support Syrian Government and Attack Jews and Israel". Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  91. ^ Churchill, Ward (October 1996). "Assaults on Truth and Memory: Holocaust Denial in Context". ZNet. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  92. ^ "Holocaust Denial: The State of Play". The Australian Jewish News. January 22, 2004. Archived from the original on September 10, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  93. ^ Duke, David (February 26, 2005). "Free Zundel!". Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  94. ^ "Ernst Zundel". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  95. ^ a b Duke, David (September 9, 2005). "David Duke Achieves Doctorate in Ukraine". Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  96. ^ "Ukraine University of Hate". Anti-Defamation League. November 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  97. ^ "Foreign Minister Tarasyuk: MAUP Activities Unlawful". Ukrainian Embassy. January 24, 2005. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  98. ^ Gawdiak, Ihor (January 27, 2006). "Ukrainian American Organization [UACC] Gratified by Official Condemnation of Anti-Semitic Institution in Ukraine". BRAMA News and Community Press. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  99. ^ Levin, Mark (January 25, 2006). "Ukraine Government Calls for Action Against Anti-Semitism". NCSJ. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  100. ^ "ADL Welcomes Ukraine's Strong Condemnation of University Fomenting Anti-Semitism". Anti-Defamation League. January 25, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  101. ^ "Ukraine University of Hate". ADL. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  102. ^ Blumenthal, Max (March 23, 2006). "Republicanizing the Race Card". The Nation. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  103. ^ "RedState, White Supremacy, and Responsibility", Daily Kos, December 5, 2005
  104. ^ Bill O'Reilly, "Circling the Wagons in Georgia", Fox News Channel, May 8, 2003
  105. ^ "WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center: Case No. DTV2001-0023". World Intellectual Property Organization. January 13, 2002. 
  106. ^ Captmike works undercover with the US Government to stop the invasion of the Island Nation of Dominica. manana.com
  107. ^ Operation Red Dog: Canadian neo-nazis were central to the planned invasion of Dominica in 1981 canadiancontent.ca
  108. ^ a b c "Freed from prison, David Duke mounts a comeback". Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report, Summer 2004. 
  109. ^ "The New Orleans Protocol". Canadian Heritage Alliance website. 
  110. ^ [1][dead link]
  111. ^ http://wayback.archive.org/web/20091019031428/http://www.splcenter.org/center/splcreport/article.jsp?aid=83
  112. ^ Amend, Jeanne W. (January–February 1992). "The Picayune Catches Up With David Duke". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  113. ^ "David Duke". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  114. ^ Powell, Lawrence N. (2002). Troubled Memory. UNC Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-8078-5374-0. 
  115. ^ Bridges, Tyler (August 26, 1990). "Duke Paints a Dark Picture of Jews". The Times-Picayune. pp. A7. 
  116. ^ Foxman, Abraham (January 1999). "David Duke's My Awakening: A Minor League Mein Kampf". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  117. ^ The Official Website of Representative David Duke, PhD » Day 1 of the 21 Day Fundraising Drive for the New, Updated Edition of My Awakening[dead link]
  118. ^ Duke, David (December 5, 2005). "Jewish Supremacism: Author's Preface". Jewish Supremacism. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  119. ^ David Duke in Russia. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved on November 16, 2006.]
  120. ^ "Закрыто дело Миронова", Русский вестник, 2001-12-19. Retrieved on November 16, 2006. (Russian)]
  121. ^ Duke, David. Mearsheimer and Free Speech Issues MP3, October 11, 2006
  122. ^ Duke, David. Duke Responds to Walt and Mearsheimer! MP3, October 10, 2006
  123. ^ Duke, David.More Fallout from Walt and Mearsheimer MP3, May 19, 2006
  124. ^ The Official Website of Representative David Duke[dead link]
  125. ^ Lake, Eli. "David Duke Claims to Be Vindicated By a Harvard Dean", The New York Sun, March 20, 2006. Accessed March 28, 2006.
  126. ^ a b c The Official Website of Representative David Duke[dead link]
  127. ^ "David Duke's European American Conference: Racists Gather in New Orleans". ADL. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  128. ^ Duke, David.Jewish Supremacism: Author's Preface
  129. ^ update published 2007[dead link]
  130. ^ Kapner, Brother Nathanael Kapner. "Obama's 'Jewish Inspired' Stimulus Will Not Work". Archived from the original on March 3, 2010. 
  131. ^ Marre, Texe. "Do the Jews Own Hollywood and the American Media?". Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. 
  132. ^ Ariel Sharon: The terrorist behind the 9-11 Attack! by David Duke
  133. ^ a b "American White Supremacist David Duke: Israel Makes the Nazi State Look Very Moderate. interview with David Duke on Syrian television". Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). November 25, 2005. 
  134. ^ "Clip of the interview and of Duke's speech to a Syrian rally". memritv.org. 
  135. ^ David Duke in Syria: Zionists Occupy Washington, NY and London by Ezra HaLevi, IsraelNationalNews.com, November 29, 2005.
  136. ^ Screenshot whoknew.us
  137. ^ Interview with David Duke broadcast on "Bridges TV" network
  138. ^ 'Scarborough Country' for March 21, show transcript, MSNBC, March 21, 2006.
  139. ^ "David Duke participates in anti-Semitic conference in the Ukraine". Adl.org. June 30, 2005. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  140. ^ Assassination Attempt Against David Duke Fails by David Duke
  141. ^ Historic Moscow Conference davidduke.com
  142. ^ "Iranian leader says Israel will be ‘wiped out’: Ahmadinejad renews heated rhetoric at meeting of Holocaust deniers", Associated Press, December 12, 2006
  143. ^ "Swedish teacher at Holocaust denial conference", The Local, December 14, 2006
  144. ^ "Professor Lawrence N. Powell – Meet the Tulane History Faculty and Staff – Tulane University, New Orleans Louisiana". Tulane.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  145. ^ Deans, Fiona. "UNC Press – Troubled Memory". Uncpress.unc.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  146. ^ Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust and David Duke's Louisiana Info from Book Cover by Publisher
  147. ^ David Duke pleads to mail fraud, tax charges USA Today
  148. ^ David Duke Gets 15-Month Sentence for Fraud FoxNews.com
  149. ^ Ex-Klan Leader David Duke Indicted CBSNews.com
  150. ^ Duke pleads guilty to fraud, false tax claims CNN.com
  151. ^ David Duke Pleads To Federal Charges Bill of Information for Mail Fraud and False Statements on an Income Tax Return
  152. ^ Black, Don. "My Opinion on the David Duke Case". 
  153. ^ Edelweiß für den Grand Wizard, Jungle World, Nr. 22, 28. May 2009
  154. ^ a b Czech police arrest former Ku Klux Klan leader Duke, ČTK, April 24, 2009.
  155. ^ Ex-Louisiana KKK chief arrested in Prague: Police, Agence France-Presse (reprinted by Canada.com), April 24, 2009.
  156. ^ Former Ku Klux Klan leader released, must leave Czech Republic, ČTK, April 25, 2009.
  157. ^ "Policie v Praze zatkla bývalého vůdce Ku-klux-klanu Dukea". Idnes.cz. April 24, 2009.  (Czech)
  158. ^ Scheuflerová, Lenka (April 23, 2009). "Rising extremism and the Roma problem". Prague Daily Monitor. 
  159. ^ "Bývalý šéf Ku-Klux-Klanu Duke je na svobodě, musí ale opustit Česko". Idnes.cz. April 25, 2009.  (Czech)
  160. ^ Former KKK leader ordered to leave Czech Republic, Associated Press (reprinted by the Kansas City Star), April 24, 2009.
  161. ^ Prague university bans lecture by David Duke, Associated Press (reprinted by USA Today), April 21, 2009.
  162. ^ "Státní zástupkyně zastavila stíhání Duka kvůli knize". Tyden.cz. September 29, 2009. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  163. ^ a b Jucca, Lisa (December 5, 2013). "Italian court moves to expel former Ku Klux Klan leader". Reuters. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  164. ^ "Why we passed our Tea Party resolution". CNN. July 19, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2010. 
  165. ^ a b Darty, John. "Will Dr. David Duke Run for U.S. President?". The Official Website of Representative David Duke, PhD. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2012. 
  166. ^ Nichols, John (November 9, 2012). "Obama's 3 Million Vote, Electoral College Landslide, Majority of States Mandate". The Nation. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 

References

  • Bridges, Tyler. "The Rise of David Duke" (Mississippi University Press, 1995; 300 pages) ISBN 0-87805-678-5
  • Rose; Douglas D. The Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race. University of North Carolina Press. 1992
  • Zatarain, Michael "David Duke: Evolution of a Klansman" (Pelican Publishing Company, 1990; Gretna, Louisiana; 304 pages) ISBN 0-88289-817-5
  • Interviews with Dutch nationalist Alfred Vierling [4] [5]
  • "Ex-Klan Leader Is Popular in Europe, Mideast, Even as He Heads to Jail Here", The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, April 13, 2003 by John McQuaid

Further reading

  • Swain, Carol M.; Russ Nieli (March 24, 2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81673-4. 

External links

Filmography

Interviews

Louisiana House of Representatives
Preceded by
Chuck Cusimano
State Representative, 81st Representative District
1989–1992
Succeeded by
David Vitter