|• Density||197/km2 (510/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Santali|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JH 7A **** – JH 7Z ****|
Long ago Gumla was a small hamlet. Fair 'Gau-Mela' took place once in a year and continued for one week. Here all items of daily use, utensils, ornaments, grains, cattle etc. were sold & exchanged. Since there was no other alternative to get the items, people make a long list of items required during the year and buy them in this mela. People from distant places used to come here for buying & selling cattle such as cows & bullocks for agricultural purposes. Gradually people started to inhabit this place. It grew into a village and got the name Gumla as a derivative of Gau–Mela.
During the British rule there was a revolt against the British Rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla.During British rule Gumla was under Lohardaga district. In 1843 it was brought under Bishunpur province that was further named Ranchi. In fact Ranchi district came into existence in 1899. In 1902 Gumla became Sub-division under Ranchi district.
During medieval era Chhotanagpur region was reigned by Kings of Naga dynasty. Baraik Devenandan Singh was given right to rule over Gumla circle. It is said that during the Kolh Reble in 1931–32, Vaktar Say had played a prominent role. Ganga Maharaj, who built the Kali Temple at Sri Ramnagar, had played active role in Quit India Movement in 1942. For this great contribution for Independence, he was honoured with Life Time Pension by government of India.
On 18 May 1984 Gumla District came into existence. Sri Jagannath Mishra then ruling Chief Minister of Bihar inaugurated it and Sri Dwarika Nath Sinha acquired the post of 1st deputy commissioner of the just born district.
Gumla is located at Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system. There are three major rivers, which flow through the Gumla viz. South Koyel, North Koyel and Shankh River.. Geographically, Gumla is located on southern part of the
Gumla enjoys a good climate characterised by a pleasant cold and temperate weather conditions. Gumla has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 40 to 20 °C during summer, and minimum 21 to 3 °C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1450 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,150 mm
As of 2001[update] India census, Gumla had a population of 104600. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Gumla has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 70%. In Gumla, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. The major languages spoken in this region of Jharkhand are Nagpuri (or Sadri), Hindi, Oriya, Bihari & Kurukh.
Education has always been a problem for Gumla. In 1986 Rakesh Popli and his wife Rama Popli, an expert in child education, established the first Ekal Vidyalaya (one teacher) schools to bring education to the tribes of the Gumla region. Due to non-availability of good colleges, students are forced to go to Ranchi for higher education. The colleges here come under Ranchi University. There are three colleges:
- Kartik Oraon College
- Women’s College
- Karunavati Devi Memorial College
There are numerous schools in Gumla, many of them are very good and even produce state toppers.
- Saraswati Shishu/Vidya Mandir,Gumla
- Adarsh Vidya Mandir School,Pugu
- Don Bosco School,Bhamni
- St. Ignatius School Oxford Public School,Gumla
- Natro Dame School,Gumla
- D.A.V. Public School
- St. Stephen’s School
- Ursuline Convent School
- S.S. High School,Gumla
- St. Patrick School
- Wescott Public School
These are some of the schools here. St. Ignatius School is a Jesuit run school which has produced international level Hockey players. It was founded in 1935.
- Anjan – Small village about 18 km away from Gumla. The name of the village has been derived from the name of goddess Anjani, mother of Hanuman. Many objects of archaeological importance obtained from this place has been placed at Patna Museum. It is birthplace of Hanuman.
- Baghmunda – It is famous for religious stone idols (Ajanta caves stone idols).
- Nagar- It is situated in Sisai Block. It is 9 km from Sisai Headquarter.A fort of Nagbansi Kings is main point of tourist attraction. It is said thatChhotanagpur name of this region was given by them.( The words son-Choota, NAG-Vansh).
- Rajendra – It has great scenic value. It is surrounded by hills on all sides. It is as beautiful as any other famous hill stations in India.
- Dewaki – It is a place of religious importance. It is famous for a Shiv-Parvati temple. During Sawan month devotees from every corner visit here to offer water to the Shiva Linga and the place becomes a fair ground.
- Basudeokona – It is famous for religious stone idols (Ajanta caves stone idols ) It is located in 3 km east from Raidih block headquarter. Taraloya is a charming waterfall. The local people call "Perwahatt". It is located 30 km south from Raidih block Headquarter.
- Hapamuni – Famous and ancient village Mahamaya temple that is the identity of this village.
- Nagfeni – It is famous for the Jagannath temple and there is a big rock in the shape of snake 'Nag'. It has its own natural beauty.
- Birsa Munda Agro Park
- Raidih – Raidih block, one of the eleven administrative blocks of Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India,which is famous for its scenic beauty.It is well known as Patratoli.Basudevkona which has importance of Tourism is situated at 3 km from block headquarter. Hiradah one of the most beautiful picnic spot is situated at the Kobja Panchayat and in Raidih there are many picnic spot like Sankhghat,etc.
Festival and dances
Gumla is home to people of many castes, creeds and sects. All festivals are celebrated with pomp, glory and in harmony.
This a festival of brothers and sisters .It is celebrated in rotation from one village to another .Like other festivals it is also a way of merry making by local population .This festival is divided into three categories :-
- Raj karma.
- Budhui karma.
- Padda karma.
Raj karma is celebrated by the whole community in this region .Budhi karma is celebrated only by old women in the month of June to call the god of rain .The third one is celebrated by the whole villagers . Sisters keep fast for whole day for their brothers.
Sarhul which is a prominent festival of oraon can't be thought without dance. People hold together in a chain and form a circle then practice this dance along with music and song. Musicians with their traditional music instruments remain inside the circle. Men wear white dhoti with red border and women wear white sari with red border. Watching a dance group causes one to be a part of it.
Dozens or more young boys and girls gather at a particular place,form a chain by clumping hands of one another in alternate succession then perform dance following different postures with melodious traditional music and songs in a rhythm
- Rotary Club of Gumla
- Sarna Fan's Club, Gumla
- Nav Yuvak Sangh
- Inner Wheel Club, Gumla
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Dr. Rakesh Popli, Nuclear Scientist & one of Ekal's Visionaries, passed away on September 15, 2007". Newsletter October 2007 (Ekal Vidyalaya Foundation). Retrieved 22 March 2012.