|Sir Gustav Nossal|
Nossal at the 5th World Conference of Science Journalists, 2007
|Born||Gustav Victor Joseph Nossal
4 June 1931
Bad Ischl, Austria
|Nationality||Australian, formerly Austrian|
|Institutions||The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne|
|Alma mater||The University of Sydney|
|Known for||His contributions to the fields of antibody formation and immunological tolerance|
|Notable awards||Albert Einstein World Award of Science (1990)|
Sir Gustav Victor Joseph Nossal, AC, CBE (born 4 June 1931) is a distinguished Australian research biologist. He is famous for his contributions to the fields of antibody formation and immunological tolerance.
Early life and education
Nossal's family was from Vienna, Austria. He was born four weeks prematurely in Bad Ischl while his mother was on holiday. His family left their home town of Vienna for Australia in 1939 following Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria. As his father's grandparents were Jewish, he was also considered Jewish and at risk of being sent to concentration camps. In an interview with Adam Spencer, Nossal noted that his father "wasn't actually Jewish. He was of Jewish extraction, but baptised as a child and he therefore thought that he would be somewhat protected from the Holocaust-type situations. Of course, he hadn't properly read Mein Kampf. It was all spelt out there: if your four grandparents were Jewish, then you were Jewish." He was baptised and remains a practising Roman Catholic.
When he first attended his school in Australia, Nossal spoke no English but he graduated from St Aloysius' College in 1947 as the dux of the College. In 1948, he entered the Sydney Medical School, graduating later with first-class honours. At the age of 26, he left his job in Sydney and moved to Melbourne to work with Macfarlane Burnet in medical science at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and gained his Ph.D. degree in 1960.
On describing his views on religion Nossal said:
|“||For me, a large part of that is a tremendously strong identification with the mission of the Church. An instinct for justice is central to that mission and central to being a Catholic...
Science deals with fundamentally repeatable, objective, verifiable observations. It deals with hypotheses of which you can at least say “this is not patently false.” But the human experience, on the other hand, does not just deal with verifiable facts. The human experience has Shakespeare. It has Beethoven. It has Thomas Aquinas. There is no scientist alive who can tell me how the brain of Shakespeare differs from the brain of the worst scribbler for the tabloid press. This is not yet and may never be in the realm of science... We have to access this huge other area of human experience through other means. Call them the humanities. Theology, of course, is one of the great humanities. A human being struggling to understand the cosmos and to understand his or her own consciousness is not at all antipathetic or opposed to me struggling to understand how cells make antibody molecules.
—Gustav Nossal, 
Following the retirement of Macfarlane Burnet in 1965, at the age of 35 Nossal became director of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, a position that he kept until 1996. In parallel, he was Professor of Medical Biology at the University of Melbourne. Nossal's research is in fundamental immunology, in the field of "antibody formation and immunological tolerance". He has written five books and 530 scientific articles in this and related fields.
Nossal has been President (1986-1989) of the 30,000-member world body of immunology, the International Union of Immunological Societies; President of the Australian Academy of Science (1994-1998); a member of the Prime Minister's Science, Engineering and Innovation Council (PMSEIC) (1989 to 1998); and Chairman of the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (1987-1996). He has been Chairman of the committee overseeing the World Health Organization's Vaccines and Biologicals Program (1993-2002) and Chairman of the Strategic Advisory Council of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Children's Vaccine Program (1998-2003). He was Deputy Chairman of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation from 1998 to 2000. He is Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Global Foundation, The purpose of the foundation is to "encourage Australia’s sustainable national development in a global context." Sir Gustav is a member of the Patrons Council of the Epilepsy Foundation of Victoria and of the Advisory Board of the Health Impact Fund.
Awards and recognition
- 1970 – Appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his contribution to medical research
- 1977 – Knighted for his ground-breaking work in immunology
- 1982 – Awarded the ANZAAS Medal
- 1989 – Appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia for his service to medicine, to science and to the community
- 1990 – Awarded the Albert Einstein World Award of Science 
- 1996 – Won the Koch Gold Medal, the prize being awarded for prizes for major advances in biomedical sciences, particularly in the fields of microbiology and immunology.
- 1997 – Listed as one of the 100 Australians identified as Australia's Living National Treasures
- 2000 – Named as Australian of the Year
- 2001 – Recipient of the Centenary Medal for distinguished service to the study of antibody formation and immunological tolerance
- 2002 – Nossal was featured on an Australian postage stamp
- 2006 – Inducted as an honorary member of the Monash University Golden Key Society
- 2007 – The Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne was named in honour of Nossal
- 2009 – The Nossal High School, located at the Berwick campus of Monash University, is named in honour of Nossal
- 2010 – Awarded the Inaugural Monash Medal as an Outstanding Australian for his contribution to the Australian community and beyond
- 2012 – Monash University Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Lifetime Achievement Award
- Spencer, Adam (2009-11-12). "The World in Sydney — Sir Gustav Nossal — ABC Sydney — Australian Broadcasting Corporation". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Nossal, Sir Gustav Joseph Victor — Faculty of Medicine Online Museum and Archive". Sydney.edu.au. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Cincotta, Liz (19 June 2008). "Passage to Australia". The Age (Melbourne: Fairfax Media). Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Middleton, Chris (4 March 2011). "The Principal". The Gonzagon (Weekly Newsletter of St Aloysius' College). p. 2. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Sir Gustav Nossal | The Nossal High School". Nossalhs.vic.edu.au. 4 June 1931. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Biographical entry — Nossal, Gustav Joseph Victor (1931 - )". Bright Sparcs. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Our Members: Office bearers". The Global Foundation. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "NOSSAL, Gustav Joseph Victor: The Order of the British Empire — Commander (Civil)". It's an Honour. Commonwealth of Australia. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "NOSSAL, Gustav Joseph Victor: Knight Bachelor". It's an Honour. Commonwealth of Australia. 1 January 1977. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "The ANZAAS Medal". ANZAAS. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "NOSSAL, Gustav Joseph Victor: Companion of the Order of Australia". It's an Honour. Commonwealth of Australia. 12 June 1989. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Albert Einstein World Award of Science 1990". Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- "Gustav Nossal – Virology Down Under". University of Queensland. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- Lewis, Wendy (2010). Australians of the Year. Pier 9 Press. ISBN 978-1-74196-809-5.
- "NOSSAL, Gustav: Centenary Medal". It's an Honour. Commonwealth of Australia. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Previous Legends". Stamp collections. Australia Post. 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "The Nossal Institute for Global Health". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Short biography
- Gustav Nossal – Virology Down Under
- 1987 interview and 1998 interview on the Australian Academy of Science website.
- The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization—a millennial challenge
- Liz Cincotta. "Passage to Australia". The Age, 19 June 2008.
- Video of Gustav Nossal lecture on The 50-Year Revolution in Global Public Health, Sydney University, July 2008