# Help:Conditional expressions

Also see Meta page: mw:Help:Extension:ParserFunctions.

This page, Help:Conditional expressions, describes ways to display different results based on checking conditions in a page or template. The parser functions used to evaluate conditional expressions include the function names: #ifexpr, #ifeq, #switch, #if, and #iferror or #ifexist. Each function name has been linked to the explanations below.

Using #ifeq can compare 2 strings or numbers, but #ifexpr can check a math formula or multiple conditions. The #switch function can branch to dozens or hundreds of different paths depending on a value, to act as a case statement to choose among alternatives. Using #if can check to see if a parameter has been passed, or if an expression evaluates as true. Using #iferror can check to see if an expression value triggers an error else shows the value, while #ifexist can check to see if a page name or image/media file exists yet.

### Summary of conditional expressions

The quick format of each function is as follows:

• {{#if: test string | value if non-empty | value if empty }} (selects one of two values based on whether the test string is empty)
• {{#ifeq: string 1 | string 2 | value if equal | value if unequal }} (selects one of two values based on whether the test strings are equal – numerically if applicable)
• {{#iferror: test string | value if error | value if correct }} (selects value based on whether the test string generates a parser error)
• {{#ifexpr: expression | value if true | value if false }} (selects value based on evaluation of expression)
• {{#ifexist: page title | value if exists | value if doesn't exist }} (selects value depending on whether a page title exists)
• {{#switch: test | case1 = value for case 1 | ... | default }} (provides alternatives based on the value of the test string)

The magic words can be used together, in nested combinations, to branch on complex conditions. Some combinations can use tricks based on the interactions between them.

Note that with #if expressions, using a parameter in the form "{{{1}}}" always requires a final bar/pipe "|" in the parameter: {{{1|}}}. If the bar/pipe is omitted, then whenever the parameter 1 is absent, instead of leaving the field blank, the page will use the literal text "{{{1}}}" (as 3 sets of curly braces around a "1"), and the #if will be true unless parameter 1 is passed as an empty string, such as "1=".

## Using #ifeq

Using #ifeq can compare 2 strings or numbers (but not numeric expressions: 1+1). The parser function #ifeq compares two values and determines whether they are identical.

{{#ifeq: string 1 | string 2 | value if identical | value if different }}

If both strings are valid numerical values, the strings are compared as numbers, rather than literal text:

{{#ifeq: 01 | 1 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: x01 | x1 | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: 2.000 | 002 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: 2.5 | 2+.5 | equal | not equal}}not equal (use #ifexpr for arithmetic)
{{#ifeq: {{#expr:10^3}} | 1000 | equal | not equal}}equal

The comparison is case-sensitive, checking to match capital letters:

{{#ifeq: King | king | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: {{lc:TopCat}} | topcat |equal|not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: {{lc:{{{catname}}} }} | topcat |equal|not equal}}

So, when checking the value of a parameter named "{{{catname}}}" then the function {{lc:___}} can be used to instantly convert to lowercase text, during the comparison. The value of {{{catname}}} will not be changed for later use, instead it is only compared as lowercase letters.

## Using #ifexpr

Using #ifexpr can check a math formula or multiple conditions. The parser function #ifexpr evaluates a mathematical or boolean expression and branches depending on the boolean true/false value of the result (where zero means false):

{{#ifexpr: expression | value if true | value if false }}
{{#ifexpr: ( {{{1}}}+{{{2}}} ) * 2.63 > 45 |above 45 |not above 45}}
{{#ifexpr: {{{1}}} > 0 and {{{1}}} < 1.0 or {{#ifeq:{{{decimal}}}| yes}} |is decimal |not decimal}}

The expression result is evaluated exactly in the same manner as for function #expr, with the same operators being available. The output is then evaluated as a boolean expression.

An empty input expression evaluates to false:

{{#ifexpr: | yes | no}}no

As mentioned above, zero evaluates to false and any nonzero value (such as 6.7) evaluates to true.

Invalid data will diplay an error message. However, function #ifexpr is equivalent to using #ifeq with #expr inside, but flipping the true/false (then/else) clauses:

{{#ifeq: {{#expr: expression }} | 0 | value if false | value if true }}

An invalid or wrong input expression will trigger the true-value part (an error message is treated as an ordinary string; it is not equal to zero, so we get value if false).

{{#ifexpr: = | yes | no }}Expression error: Unexpected = operator
{{#ifeq: {{#expr: = }} |0 | yes | no }}no

Either or both of the return values may be omitted; no output is given when the appropriate branch is left empty:

{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | yes }}yes
{{#ifexpr: 0 = 0 | yes }}yes
{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | | no}}
Tip To check comparisons based on dates (If current date and time is after some other date and time), first convert the time to number of seconds after January 1, 1970 using function {{#time: U }}, then simply add and subtract dates.

## Using #switch

The #switch function can branch to dozens or hundreds of different paths depending on a value, to act as a case statement which chooses among alternatives. A #switch expression is a quick way to handle multiple code values for a parameter; however, the performance slows when more than 100 branches, and common values should be listed higher among the choices, to run 3x-8x faster. In rare cases, a #switch could have over two thousand branches, but it takes time just to scan all the branches, even before comparing the values.

See: Help:Switch parser function, for a full description and examples.

## Using #if

Using #if can check to see if a parameter has been passed.

This function evaluates a test string and determines whether or not it is empty. A test string containing only white space is considered to be empty.

{{#if: test string | value if test string is not empty | value if test string is empty (or only white space) }}
{{#if: {{{1|}}} |parameter 1 has data | parameter 1 is empty}}
{{#if: {{{xx|}}} |parameter xx passed | parameter xx omitted}}

## Using #iferror

Using #iferror can check to see if an expression value triggers an error, to then do something for that condition, else it shows the value which was being tested.

## Using #ifexist

The function #ifexist can check to see if a page name or image/media file exists yet. It is extremely fast, but has been limited to 500 instances per page.

## Using #expr

Using #expr can evaluate a mathematical or boolean expression, to augment the comparisons, and handle error messages.

{{#expr: ( {{{1}}}+{{{xshift}}} - 6 ) * 18.4}}
{{#expr: ln(7)^3 - abs(-0.344) + floor(5/3) round 3 }}
{{#expr: {{{n}}}>0 and {{{n}}}<1.0 }}

For more examples, see: Help:Calculation.

For the use of these functions in tables, see: WP:Conditional tables.