Hypocorism

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"Pet name" redirects here. For naming of animals, see Pet naming.

A hypocorism (/hˈpɒkərɪzəm/; from Greek ὑποκορίζεσθαι hypokorizesthai, "to use child-talk"[1]), also known as a pet name or calling name,[2] is a shorter or diminutive form of a word or given name, for example, when used in more intimate situations as a nickname or term of endearment. However, shortening of names is certainly not exclusive to terms of affection; indeed, in many cases, a shortened name can also be used to intimidate or humiliate. The ambiguity would need to be clarified by context.

Derivation[edit]

Hypocorisms are often generated as:

  • a reduction (in English) of a longer word to a single syllable, then adding -y or -ie to the end, such as movie ("moving picture"), telly ("television") or Aussie ("Australian").
  • a contracted form of a personal name, such as Tony from Anthony, Rosy for Rosemarie or Vicky from Victoria.
  • a baby-talk form approximating the name's pronunciation, such as Bess for Elizabeth.
  • a personal name with a diminutive suffix; in some languages diminutive forms of names are used primarily when referring to children and the meaning can oscillate between tenderness and condescension when used for an adult.
    • -(c)ito/-(c)ita or -(c)ín/-(c)ina in Spanish, such as Juanita from Juana. Extra consonants may be interposed as in Carmelina and Carmencita from Carmen, or merged, as in Carmina.
    • -chen, -lein, -(l)i, -(e)le (usually used with names) in German, such as Hündchen or Hündlein (from 'Hund', meaning dog) or Kalli (from 'Karl', a name) or Häusle or Häusele (from 'Haus', meaning house); a back vowel in the root is normally subjected to umlaut, i.e. shift from u, o, a to ü, ö, ä respectively (e.g. Hund → Hündchen, Arm → Ärmchen, Holz → Hölzchen).
    • a similar form, -etto/-etta, in Interlingua.
    • the usual hypocoristic endings in the Dutch are in both words and personal names alike: -tje, -ke. When the name ends in a t or a d the ending is then a -je (e.g. Bert – Bertje). If the final consonant of a name is m, the ending is then -pje (e.g. Bram – Brampje) -metje (Bram – Brammetje) or -mie (Bram – Brammie). For the other consonants the hypocoristic form is -tje. In the southern parts of the Netherlands the hypocoristic form is often -ke (e.g. Peer – Peerke). Also in the Frisian the usual hypocoristic ending is -ke (e.g. Ype – Ypke). But this form (and others like -ske and -tsje) often makes the name feminine (e.g. Jetse – Jetske) like in Dutch (e.g. Jan – Jantje, Hans – Hansje). There is another productive hypocoristic ending: in the eastern part of the Netherlands (mostly in the province Drenthe), the female form is -chien Examples are Anne – Annechien, Lammert – Lammechien.
    • a parallel construction in Portuguese, with -(z)inho/-(z)inha, as in Aninha from Ana and Joãozinho from João.
    • same in Italian and Italian regional languages, with -ino/-ina and -etto/etta as in Paolino/Paoletto and Paolina/Paoletta from Paolo and Paola. There are also -ello/-ella, as in Donatello/Donatella from Donato and Donata, -uccio/-uccia, as in Guiduccio from Guido and -etto/-etta, as in Giulietta from Giulia. The forms -uzzo/-uzza, as in Santuzza from Santa, are typical of Sicilian dialect.
    • -ĉj- and -nj- affixes (for males and females respectively) in Esperanto; these replace the last consonant (or consonant cluster) of the root, thus patro → paĉjo (father), patrino → panjo (mother).
    • -chan, -tan, or -pi in Japanese, such as Kana-chan from Kana and Aki-chan from Akihiro. Gemination (doubling) of the consonant or lengthening of the vowel before the -chan to provide two moras is common, such as Settchan from Setsuko and Hii-chan from Hiroki.
  • reduplication in various languages, such as John-John or Didi.
  • in Cantonese and related dialects, the addition of a word-final very high tone, or changed tone sometimes in combination with the addition of the prefix A before the name. The A syllable is also used in other dialects originating in southern China as a term of endearment or closeness.
  • -ulus/-ula in Latin, most famously in the case of the Roman emperor Caligula, whose nickname means "little boot". He received the name from soldiers in reference to the small army sandals (caligae, singular caliga) he wore when he was young. Likewise the name Ursula is derived from ursa (bear) and means "little bear".
  • "-eleh/-leh" in Yiddish. An example is Leah – Leahleh.
  • a combination of multiple methods from those described above. For example, in Romanian, Ileana becomes Ilenuţa by addition of a diminutive suffix, and Ilenuţa becomes Nuţi by contraction.
  • In the Anglo-Saxon language, hypocoristic forms were made by truncating the name and adding '-a' (genitive '-an'); if that '-a' is preceded by a short vowel and then one consonant, that one consonant was doubled; sometimes assimilation happened, e.g. Cēomma for Cēolmǣr. These hypocoristic names are often the first component of a placename, for example Badby, which is recorded in 944 as Baddanbyrig (dative case) = (at/to) "Badda's fort".

As evident from the above-mentioned examples, hypocorisms frequently demonstrate (indirectly) a phonological linguistic universal (or tendency) for high-pitched sounds to be used for smaller creatures and objects (here as more "cute" or less imposing names). Higher-pitched sounds are associated with smaller creatures because smaller creatures can only make such high frequency sounds given their smaller larynxes.

The word "hypocorism" is the noun form in English; "hypocoristic" is the adjective form. Some other languages[which?] prefer to use the original Greek word "hypocoristicon" as a noun.[citation needed] The noun "hypocoristicon" seems to be rarely used in English.[citation needed]

Armenian[edit]

  • Անդրանիկ Andranik → Անդո Ando
  • Հովհաննես Hovhannes → Հովո Hovo
  • Տիգրան Tigran → Տիկո Tiko
  • Հայկ Hayk → Հայկո Hayko

Catalan[edit]

  • AntonTono
  • AntoniToni
  • BartomeuTomeu or Xumeu
  • BenetNeto
  • CarmeCarmina
  • ConcepcióCió or Conxita
  • DolorsDolo
  • ElisabetBet
  • FerranRano
  • FrancescCesc or Cesco, Xesc, Xisco, Cisco, Siscu, Quico
  • FrancescaXesca or Xisca, Cisca
  • GabrielBiel
  • IsabelBel
  • JacintCinto
  • JesúsSuso or Xuso
  • JoanChuano
  • JoaquimQuim or Ximo
  • JosefinaFinaFineta
  • JosepPep or Pitu
  • MagdalenaMalena or Magda
  • MariaMariona
  • Maria IsabelMaribel
  • MeritxellTxell
  • MiquelQuelo
  • MontserratMontse
  • NarcísNarcisetCiset
  • RafelFelo
  • SalvadorVoro
  • VicentSento

Croatian[edit]

  • AndrijaAndro, Andre Andrijica, Jašo
  • AntunAnte, Antiša, Tonči,Toni
  • DanijelDane, Danko
  • DavorinDavor, Dado, Rino, Darko
  • DominikDomo, Domko
  • FranjoFrane, Frano, Fran, Francek
  • IvanIvica, Ivo, Ivek, Ico, Ivko, Ićo, Iko
  • JerolimJerko, Jere, Jerkan
  • JosipJoso, Joža, Jozo, Joško, Joco, Jole, Joko
  • JurajJure, Jura, Juko, Jurica, Jurko, Juriša, Jureško
  • LukaLukša, Lukica, Luketa
  • MarkoMaro, Markec, Markan, Markica, Marketa
  • MatejMate, Mato, Matan, Matko
  • Mihovil or MihaelMiho, Mijo, Mišo, Miško
  • MiroslavMiro, Mirko
  • NikolaNiko, Nikša, Nikica, Niđo
  • Pavao or PavlePavo, Pave, Pavko, Pajo
  • PetarPero, Perica, Petko, Peko, Peran, Perko
  • RobertRobi, Robo
  • Stjepan or ŠtefanStipe, Stipo, Stipko, Stipica, Štef, Štefek, Štefko
  • ŠimunŠime, Šimunica
  • TomislavTomo, Tomek, Tomica, Tomiša
  • VladimirVlado, Vlatko, Vladan
  • ZvonimirZvone, Zvonko

Dutch[edit]

  • AbrahamAb, Bram
  • AdriaanAad
  • AlbertAppie, Ab, Bert
  • AlexanderAlex, Lex, Sander, Xander
  • AlexandraSandra, Sanne, Sanna, Alexia, Xandra
  • ArendAart
  • BeatrixTrix, Bea
  • CatharinaCarina, Katrien, Rina, Lina, Kathelijne, Katie, Rineke, Lineke, Katrijn, Trijntje
  • CharlotteLotte
  • CornelisKees, Cor, Nelis, Corné, Krelis
  • CorneliaNeeltje, Neelie, Corrie, Lia, Nel
  • DaniëlDaan
  • DiederikDirk
  • EleonoraNoortje, Noor, Nora, Ellie
  • Elisabeth, ElizabethLiesbeth, Elisa, Eliza, Lisa, Liza, Lies, Elsbeth, Els, Ellie
  • EsmeraldaEsmee, Merel
  • EstherSterre
  • François, FransiscusFrans, Frank, Suske, Ciske
  • FranciskaFranka, Ciska
  • FrederikFred, Freek, Derk, Frits
  • GeertruidaGertrude, Gerda, Trudy, Truus, Trui
  • GerardGert, Gerd, Geert, Gerrie
  • HendrikusHendrik, Henk, Driek, Rikus, Henri
  • HieronymusJeroen, Jerom
  • JohannesJohan, Jan, Jannes, Hannes, Hans, Han, John
  • JohannaJoke, Hanneke, Hanna(h), Hannie, Joanna
  • LeonardLeo, Leon, Lennaart, Lennert
  • Louisa, LouiseWiske
  • MachgielisMax
  • MagdalenaMagda, Lena, Lenie, Machteld, Madeleine
  • MariaMaartje, Marieke, Mieke, Marijke, Mijke, Meike, Ria, Riet
  • Margaretha, MargaritaMargreet, Margriet, Gretha, Marga, Grietje
  • MartinusMartijn, Martin, Tinus, Maarten, Marten, Mart
  • MattheüsMatthijs, Thijs, Matthias
  • NicolaasNico, Niek, Klaas
  • PetrusPeter, Pieter, Piet
  • PetronellaPetra, Pieternel, Nel, Nelleke, Nellie
  • RutgerusRuud, Rutger
  • SebastiaanSeb, Bas, Bastiaan
  • WilhelmusWillem, Wim, Pim, Wil
  • WilhelminaWillemien, Willemijn, Willeke, Mien, Wilma, Wil

English[edit]

English also forms nicknames in a variety of manners.

Shortening, often to the first syllable:

  • AbigailAbbie (also spelled Abby or Abi)
  • AbrahamAbe, Ham
  • Alan, Allan, AllenAl
  • AlbertAl, Bert
  • Alexander, Alexandra, AlexandriaAl, Alec, Alexa, Alexis, Alex, Eck, Lex, Lexie, Sandy, Xander, Xa
  • AlfredAlf, Fred
  • AlisonAl, Allie, Aly, Ali
  • AmandaAmy, Mandy
  • Andrew, AndreaDrew, Andie, Andy, Drea
  • Ann, Anne, AnnaAnnie
  • AnthonyTony, Ant
  • AntoinetteToni
  • ArchibaldArchie, Archy
  • ArthurArt, Arty
  • AudreyAud
  • BartholomewBart
  • Barbara, BarbraBarb, Babs
  • Benjamin, BenedictBen, Benji, Benny
  • BernardBernie
  • Bradford, BradleyBrad
  • BridgetBid
  • CarmelaCarmelitaLita
  • Caroline, CarolynCarol, Lyn, Carrie, Cary
  • CharlesCharlie/Charly, Chas
  • ChristopherChris, Criffer, Kit, Topher
  • CliffordCliff
  • CynthiaCindy
  • DaltynDalt
  • DanielDan, Danny
  • DavidDave, Davy
  • DeborahDeb, Debbie
  • DesmondDes
  • Dominic, DominiqueDom, Dommy, Nick, Nikki, Nikky, Nikkie
  • DorothyDot, Dottie
  • DouglasDoug
  • DudleyDud
  • Edwin, Edward, EdmundEd, Eddie, Ned, Ted
  • EleanorEllie
  • ElizabethEliza, Elisa, Betty, Bettie, Lib, Libby, Liz, Lizzie, Lisa, Liza, Beth, Bess, Besse, Bessie, Bessy,Betsy
  • Emma, EmilyEm, Emmy
  • EugeneEug, Gene
  • EzekielZeke
  • FlorenceFlo, Florrie
  • FrancisFrank
  • FranklinFrank, Frankie
  • FionaFi
  • GabrielGabe
  • GabrielleGabs, Gabby
  • GeoffreyGeoff, Jeff
  • GeraldGerry, Jerry
  • GertrudeGertie
  • GilbertBert, Gil
  • GillianJill
  • GregoryGreg
  • GwendolynGwen
  • HenryHal, Hank, Harry
  • HubertBert
  • IsaacZac, Zach
  • IsabellaIzzy, Bella, Bell
  • JacobJake, Jakey, Jace
  • JacquelineJackie
  • JamesJamie, Jim, Jimbo
  • JaneJaney
  • Janet, Janette, Janice, JanisJan
  • JasonJay, Jase, Jace
  • JeffreyJeff
  • Jeremy, JeromeJerry, Jezz
  • Joan, JoannaJo, Janet
  • JoelJoe
  • JonathanJon, Nathan, Johnny
  • JosephJoe
  • JosephineJo, Josie
  • JoshuaJosh
  • JudithJudy
  • KatherineKate, Kathy, Kat, Kay, Kitty
  • KatrinaKat, Trina
  • KellyKel
  • KennethKen, Kenny
  • KevinKev
  • Lawrence, LaurenceLarry, Laurie
  • LeonardLen, Lennie, Lenny, Leo
  • LeslieLes
  • LewisLew
  • LouisLou, Louie
  • LucilleLucy
  • LucasLuke, Luca
  • LucindaCindy
  • Madeleine, Magdalene, MagdalenaMaddie, Magda, Lena
  • Margaret, MarjorieMaggie, Margie, Marge
  • MartinMarty
  • MatthewMatt
  • MeganMeg
  • MelanieMel
  • MichaelMick, Micky, Mike, Mikey
  • MillicentMillie, Milly
  • MitchellMitch
  • MosesMoe
  • NancyNan
  • Natalie, NathalieNat, Allie
  • Nathan, NathanielNat, Nate
  • NellNellie, Nelly
  • Nicola, NicoleNikki, Nickie, Nicki, Niki, Nikky, Nici
  • NormanNorm, Normie
  • OswaldOz, Ozzie, Ozzy
  • PatriciaPat, Patty, Trish, Tricia
  • PatrickPat, Paddy
  • PeterPete, Petey
  • PriscillaCilla, Priss, Prisca, Prill
  • PrudencePru, Prue
  • RachelRach, Ray, Ray Ray, Rachelle, Raquel, Ricky
  • RandolphRandy, Rando
  • ReginaldReg, Reggie
  • RaymondRay
  • RichardDick, Rick, Ritch, Ritchie, Richie, Rich, Ricky, Rickey
  • RobertRob, Robby, Bert, Bob, Bobert, Bobby
  • RobertaBobbie, Robbie, Berta
  • Roderick, RodneyRod, Roddy
  • RogerRodge
  • Rudolf, RudolphRudy
  • RussellRuss
  • Samuel, SamanthaSam, Sammy
  • SandraSally, Andra, Sandy
  • SarahSara, Sadie
  • SebastianSeb
  • SidneySid
  • StanleyStan
  • StephanieSteph, Annie, Stephy
  • StevenSteve
  • TerenceTel, Terry
  • TheodoreTheo, Ted, Teddy
  • TheresaTess, Tessa, Terri
  • TimothyTim, Timmy
  • Valentine, ValerieVal
  • VictorVic
  • VictoriaTor,Tory, Vick, Vickie, Vicky
  • VincentVince
  • VirginiaGinger, Ginny
  • VivianViv
  • WalterWally, Walt
  • WilliamWill, Willy, Bill, Billy, Liam
  • WinifredWinnie, Freddie
  • ZacharyZack, Zach
  • Zebadiah, ZebedeeZeb

Addition of a diminutive suffix, usually -ie or -y, often to an already shortened name. This suffix connotes smallness or endearment. Although most often applied to the names of children, it is not uncommon for an adult to be referred to by the diminutive, especially by family, friends and close acquaintances:

  • AgnesAggie
  • AlanAlAllie, Ally
  • Alexander, AlexandraSandy; LexLexi, Lexie; LeckLeckie
  • AlfredAlfAlfie
  • AmandaAmy, Mandy
  • AnneAnnie; NanNancy
  • ArthurArtArtie
  • AndrewAndy
  • BarbaraBarbBarbie
  • BarnabyBarney
  • BenjaminBenBenny / Bennie
  • CharlesCharlieChuckChucky
  • DanielDanDanny
  • DavidDaveDavy
  • DeborahDebDebbie
  • DennisDenny
  • DorothyDotDottie
  • Edwin, Edward, EdmundEdEddie/Eddy; NedNeddy
  • ElaineLainie
  • FrancesFranFranny
  • FranklinFrankFrankie
  • GabrielGabeGaby
  • GaryGazGazza
  • GeraldGerry
  • GeorgeGeorgie
  • GillianJillJilly
  • GraceGracie
  • HerbertHerb, BertHerbie, Bertie
  • IsabellaIzzy
  • JamesJamie, JimJimmy
  • JessicaJessJessie
  • Joel, JosephJoeJoey
  • JonathanJonJonnie/Jonny
  • KatherineKateKatie
  • KimberlyKimKimmy
  • KennethKenKenny
  • LawrenceLarry, Laurie
  • LeonardLenLenny
  • LouisLouLouie
  • MaryMollMolly
  • MichaelMick → 'Micky, Mike Mikey
  • NellNellie/Nelly
  • NicholasNickNicky
  • OliverOllie
  • OswaldOzOzzie
  • PatriciaPatPattie/Patty
  • PeterPetePetey
  • PriscillaCillaCilly
  • RichardRickRicky
  • RobertBobBobby
  • RonaldRonRonnie
  • RoseRosie
  • RosemaryRoseRosie/Rosy
  • StephenSteveStevie
  • SusanSueSusie/Suzy
  • ThomasTomTommy
  • TimothyTimTimmy
  • TobiasToby
  • VictoriaTorTori, VickVickie/Vicky
  • WallaceWallWally
  • WilliamWill, BillWillie, Willy, Billy
  • ZebadiahZebZebby

A short form that differs significantly from the name:

  • Ann, Anne, AnnaNan (from the phrase "Mine Ann")
  • BarbaraBabs
  • CharlesChuck, Chaz, Chic
  • Christopher, ChristineKit
  • DorothyDot, Dottie
  • EdwardEdNed, Ted, Teddy (e.g. Edward "Ted" Kennedy)
  • Eleanor, Ellen, HelenNell, Nellie
  • ElizabethBess, Bessie, Beth, Betsy, Betty, Liz, Lizzie
  • HenryHal, Hank, Harry
  • JamesJimJimbo, Jimmy
  • JohnJock, JackJackie
  • KatherineKate, Kitty
  • MargaretMeg, Maggie, Madge, Marge, Moll, Greta, Rita, Peg, Peggy, Daisy
  • MaryMae, Minnie, MollyPolly
  • MurrayMuzza
  • PhilippaPippa, Pip or Pippy
  • RichardRickDick
  • RobertBob; also Rob → Robin, Dobbin
  • SarahSally
  • TheodoreTed, Teddy
  • VirginiaGinger, Ginny

Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto forms nicknames by suffixing -njo (for females) and -ĉjo (for males) to the first letter(s) of the basic name.[3]

  • ElizabetoElinjo
  • MarioManjo
  • SofioSonjo
  • fratinofranjo
  • onklinoonjo
  • patrinopanjo
  • AleksandroAleĉjo
  • JohanoJoĉjo
  • PetroPeĉjo
  • fratofraĉjo
  • onklooĉjo
  • patropaĉjo

French[edit]

Informal French has a number of diminutive nicknames, although not as systematically as in English.

In French, for both male and female names, hypocorisms are most commonly formed by dropping the last syllable:

  • CatherineCathy
  • ChristelleChris
  • ChristopheChris
  • Frédéric, FrédériqueFred
  • Grégory, GrégoireGreg
  • Jean-MichelJean-Mi
  • JoannieJo
  • Marie-CharlotteMacha
  • Marie-JoséeMarie-Jo
  • MaximeMax
  • MichaëlMic
  • PhilippePhil
  • StéphaneSteph
  • StéphanieSteph

Dropping the first syllable is also attested:

  • ChristopheTophe

Sometimes, only central syllables are kept:

  • AugustinGus
  • EmmanuelManu
  • EmmanuelleManu

Another method commonly used is doubling one syllable of the name:

  • AndréDédé
  • AnnieNini
  • AugustinTintin
  • ChristineKikine
  • ChristopheTotophe
  • JosephJojo
  • JulieJuju
  • LouisLoulou
  • all female names ending in -tineTitine

For male names, the ending -ot is attested, although its use is rather dated:

  • CharlesCharlot
  • JeanJeannot
  • JulesJulot
  • PierrePierrot

It was also sometimes (but rarely) used for females:

  • MargueriteMargot

The ending -et for males was used around the Renaissance, and is now obsolete:

  • HenriHenriquet
  • JacquesJacquet

For female names, the ending -ette was used in the first half of the 20th century, and even often given as the official name:

  • AnneAnnette
  • JeanneJeannette
  • MarieMariette
  • PaulePaulette

Some names in -ette are not actual hypocorisms, but the only existing femalized form of a male name:

  • Antoine (male) → Antoinette (female)
  • Pierre (male) → Pierrette (female)
  • Nicolas (male) → Nicolette (female) (rare and dated) → Colette

The ending -on is rarer, often dated or obsolete, used for both genders:

  • AntoinetteToinon
  • FrançoiseFanchon
  • HenriRiton
  • MarieMarion
  • LouisLouison
  • LouiseLouison

The ending -ou is also rare:

  • AnneNanou

A special case is the ending in -ick/ -ic, which is the French writing for the hypocoristic form in Breton "-ig", used for both genders. The "-ig" form in Breton means "Little ...". This diminutive, in its French form of "ick" or "ic", became in vogue for official names in the second half of the 20th century:

  • Annick (original in Breton: Annaig), from Anne
  • Soizic (original: Soazig), from Frañsoaz, the Breton writing for the French "Françoise"
  • Loïc, probably from the French Louis
  • Yannick (original: Yannig), from Yann, meaning "John" in Breton

In Breton, the diminutive form "...ig" can be given to any kind of names, nouns or adjectives, (un tammig, a few), while in French it relates only to Christian names.

The name Soazig shows more than the ending "ig". Often in Breton a hypocoristic form of a Christian name can be made by putting away the first syllable. "Frañsoaz" becomes a familiar "Soaz" then, given to a child, the name is "Soazig", but not as an official name. This is also a difference between French and Breton: the diminutive ending "...ig" in Breton is only used as a temporary form for young children, while "...ick" is official and permanent in French names, and has lost his sense of a diminutive.

For words, French often produces hypocorisms either by truncating a word after the letter o, or by chopping off the end of the word and adding an o: McDo from McDonalds; gynéco from gynécologue; dico from dictionnaire; dodo (childish word for sleep, from dormir, to sleep); écolo from écologiste; coco from communiste; catho from catholique; psycho from psychologie.

The ending -oche (with or without an intervening consonant or phoneme to make it easier to pronounce) is also sometimes used: cinoche (cinéma), MacDoche (McDonalds), fastoche (easy-peezy, from facile, easy). Words or names may also be shortened or abbreviated without an O: fixs from fixations, 'ski bindings'; Jean-Phi from Jean-Philippe; amphi from amphithéatre (large classroom or lecture hall); ciné (another informal word for cinéma). These words are familiar/informal versions of the underlying words.

The connotation of familiarity (my friend Jean-Phi, as opposed to my new work colleague Jean-Philippe; cinoche, the place I often go for entertainment, as opposed to cinéma, the neutral word for a movie theater) is what makes them hypocorisms.

German[edit]

Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Max) or last (Hans) syllable(s), sometimes in contracted form as these examples show. Often the ending -i is added to these truncated nameforms. The name might also undergo a sound shift (Sepp). Further diminutives can be added with the suffixes -lein, -(e)l or -chen, e. g. Gretel or Gretchen as a diminutive for Grete.

  • Anna, AnneAnni
  • AntonToni
  • ElisabethLiesl
  • GeorgSchorsch (mostly Bavarian and Swiss German)
  • IgnazNazi (Bavarian; out of use), Nazl (mostly Bavarian German, still in use)
  • JohannesHannesHansHansi
  • Josef, JosephSepp (Bavarian), Jupp (Rhinelandic)
  • KarlKalle, Kalli
  • KatharinaKathi
  • MargareteGrete
  • MaximilianMax
  • MichaelMichi
  • SiegfriedSiggi, Ziggy (United States)
  • Susanne, Susanna, SusannSusi
  • Therese, TheresiaResi (mostly Bavarian)
  • UlrichUli (Ueli in Swiss German)
  • WilhelmWilli

Sometimes female names may have the ending -el instead of -i, or any other shortening, especially in southern Germany:

  • BarbaraBabsiBärbel
  • UrsulaUschi, Ulla, Ursel
  • Christina, ChristineTrina, Trine (northern Germany), Tina, TineChristel

An ending for nicknames, sometimes considered “typical German” is -z:

  • FriedrichFritz (but compare the much softer Fidi from northern Germany)
  • HeinrichHeini, Heinz, Hinz
  • KonradKunz

Hungarian[edit]

Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Kat-; Jul-) syllable, sometimes in contracted form as these examples show. Often the ending -i is added to these truncated nameforms (Kati, Laci, Julcsi, Ági, Feri). Further diminutives can be added with the suffixes -csi or -ka, e. g. Julcsi and Lacika as a diminutive respectively for Júlia and László. The shorter forms are often can be given as first names in their own right (Tóni, Lili, Béni etc.)

  • Anna (Anne) → Ani(ka)
  • György (George) → Gyuri
  • Istvan (Steven) → Pisti
  • János (John) → Jancsi
  • József (Joseph) → Józsi
  • Károly (Charles) → Karcsi
  • Margit (Margaret) → Manyi, Manci
  • Zsuzsa (Susan) → Zsuzsi
  • Teréz (Theresa) → Trézsi (obsolete)
  • Vilmos (William) → Vili

Icelandic[edit]

Hypocorisms usually consist of the first syllable of the name with a diminutive suffix ending in -i (masculine) or -a or ý (feminine). There are however some exceptions, for example Nonni which is an alternative from for Jón.

  • GuðmundurGummi, Gvendur
  • JónJónsi, Nonni
  • MagnúsMaggi
  • SigfúsFúsi
  • SigurðurSiggi
  • ÞorbjörgTobba
  • GuðrúnGunna
  • SigríðurSirrý
  • GuðríðurGurrý

Italian[edit]

Some diminutive forms can be further modified by abbreviation depending on the region. Some diminutive can be abbreviation of more than one name (ex. Pippo can be Giuseppe or Filippo, Lele can be diminutive of pretty much all the names which end in "ele": Gabriele, Raffaele, Emanuele).

A Catholic tradition until 1945, children were named after saints or biblical personas, therefore some people have an Anglosaxon hypocorism which derives from a very obsolete Italian name ex. Calogero, Gerardo or Virginio become Jerry, Genoveffa becomes Jenny, Anastasia becomes Stacy and Maria Grazia becomes Grace.

  • AgatinoTino
  • Alessandro, AlessandraSandro, Sandra, Ale, Alex
  • AngeloAngelinoLino
  • AntonioAntoninoTonino (Southern Italy), Totò (Naples), Nino
  • BenitoTito
  • CalogeroGerry
  • CarmineCarm
  • DomenicoMimmo
  • FedericoChicco
  • FilippoPippo, Filli, Fili
  • FilomenaMena
  • GaetanoNino (Campania), Tano (Sicily)
  • GennaroGennarinoRino
  • GiovanniGiovanninoNino, Giuann (Southern Italy), Gianni, Zani (Venice), Nanni (Rome)
  • GiuseppePeppePeppinoPino, Pippo, Puccio, Pucci (Southern Italy), Pinin (Piedmont), Geppo, Geppetto, Beppe, Bepi
  • GraziaGraziella
  • GuglielmoGuglielminoMino, Guglia, Elmo
  • LorenzoEnzo
  • LuigiLuiginoGino, Gigi, Gigetto (Rome)
  • MatteoTeo
  • PasqualePasqualinoLino
  • RaffaeleRaffalinoLino, Lello, Lele
  • SalvatoreTuri, Turiddu, Uccio (Sicily), Totò (Palermo), Salvo (Catania), Totore, Rino (Naples), Tore (Sardinia), Turi (Calabria), Sal, Sally
  • VincenzoEnzo

Nepali (नेपाली)[edit]

  • राम Raam → रामे Raamé
  • पार्वती Paarvatee → पारु Paaru
  • बिष्णु/बिस्नु Bishnu/Bisnu → बिस्ने Bishné
  • रुक्मणी Rukmani → रुकु Ruku

Polish[edit]

In Polish there are multiple affixes used to create the diminutive. Some of them are -ka, -sia, -cia, -unia, -enka, -śka, -lka for feminine nouns and -ek, -uś, -ciek, -czek, -uń, -eńki, -lki for masculine (among others). Some of the stems change, particularly to more archaic forms of the name (e.g. AndrzejJędrek). Some masculine names take an -o suffix that is considered as an archaic form, present in Polish language since the pagan times. Masculine names occasionally take an -a suffix, which is a more archaic Slavic form[citation needed] as in Russian (e.g. JakubKuba). Here is a list of common names with some of them:

  • Adam → Adaś
  • AgnieszkaAga, Agniesia, Agusia, Agunia
  • AleksandraOla, Oleńka, Olusia, Olka, Olcia
  • AleksanderOlek, Alek, Oluś
  • AndrzejAndrzejek, Jędrek, Jędruś
  • AnnaAnia, Anka, Anusia, Andzia', Anulka
  • AntoniAntek, Antoś, Tosiek, Tońcio, Toni
  • AntoninaTosia, Tola, Tośka
  • ArkadiuszArek, Aruś, Areczek
  • BarbaraBasia, Baśka, Basieńka, Basiunia
  • BartłomiejBartek, Bartuś
  • BartoszBartek, Bartuś
  • DariuszDarek, Dareczek
  • EdwardEdek, Edzio
  • ElżbietaEla, Elżunia, Elunia
  • EmiliaEmilka
  • EugeniuszGenek, Gienek
  • EwaEwka, Ewusia, Ewcia, Ewunia
  • FelicjaFela, Felka, Felcia
  • GenowefaGienia, Gienka
  • GrzegorzGrzesiek, Grześ, Grzesio
  • HannaHania, Hanka
  • HelenaHelenka
  • HenrykaHenia, Heńka
  • HenrykHenio, Heniek
  • IwonaIwonka
  • JadwigaJadzia, Jagoda, Jadwisia
  • JakubKuba, Kubuś
  • JarosławJarek, Jaruś, Jareczek
  • JanJaś, Janek, Jasiek
  • JanuszJanuszek
  • JerzyJurek, Jerzyk, Juruś
  • JoannaJoasia, Asia, Aśka, Joaśka
  • JuliaJulka, Julcia, Jula
  • KarolinaKarolinka, Karolcia
  • KatarzynaKasia, Kaśka, Kasieńka, Kasiunia
  • KazimierzKazek, Kazio, Kazik
  • KrzysztofKrzysiek, Krzyś, Krzysio
  • LechLeszek, Lechu, Lesio (Leszek may also appear as a given name)
  • LeszekLech, Lechu, Lesio
  • MaciejMaciek, Maciuś, Maćko
  • MagdalenaMadzia, Magdzia, Magdusia, Magda
  • MałgorzataMałgosia, Małgośka, Gośka, Gosia, Gosieńka
  • MariaMarysia, Maryśka, Mania, Marysieńka, Majka
  • MarekMaruś, Mareczek
  • MichałMichaś, Misiek
  • MirosławMirek, Mireczek, Mirko, Miruś
  • PawełPawełek, Pawcio
  • PiotrPiotrek, Piotruś
  • RomanRomek, Romeczek, Romuś
  • RyszardRysiek, Rysio
  • SławomirSławek, Sławuś
  • TadeuszTadek, Tadzio, Tadzik
  • TomaszTomek, Tomuś, Tomcio, Tomaszek, Tomeczek
  • WładysławWładek, Władzio
  • WłodzimierzWłodek
  • WitoldWitek
  • WojciechWojtek, Wojtuś
  • ZofiaZosia, Zośka
  • ZbigniewZbyszek, Zbyszko

Portuguese[edit]

In Portuguese, abbreviations of the name are common, such as suffixes for diminutive and aumentative. For males, the suffix -inho (diminutive) and the suffix -ão (aumentative) are the most used. In several parts of Brazil, -inho is informally replaced by -im, in diminutive words. The same occur with hypocorisms as, for example, "Luisim" instead of "Luisinho". For females, -inha (diminutive) is the most used in Portuguese, while aumentative is uncommon. In composed names, some mixed forms can occur, such as José Carlos being called "Zeca", or Maria Luísa being called "Malu".

The phenomenon also occurs with addresses other than personal names; for example, a cachorro or cão (both are names for the animal dog) can be affectionately called cachorrinho or cãozinho (the most common translations of the English word puppy).

Male examples

  • AlbertoBeto, Betinho
  • Alexandre → Alex, Xano, Xaninho, Xande, Xanocas
  • António, Antônio → "Tó", Toninho, Toni, Tonico, "toneca"; in Brazil: Tonho, Toinho, Tonhão
  • AugustoGuto
  • CarlosCarlinhos, "Carlitos", Caco, "Cacá", "Carlão"
  • DanielDan, Dani
  • EduardoDu, Edu, Dudu, Duda
  • FernandoNando
  • Filipe/ → "Filipinho", "Pipo", Felipão, Lipe, Fefê
  • FranciscoChico, Chiquinho, Chicão, "Quico", "Paco", "Fran"
  • FredericoFred, "Quico"
  • "Gonçalo" → "Gongas, Gonça
  • GuilhermeGui
  • GustavoGuto, Guga, Gugu
  • JoãoJoãozinho, Juca, Janjão, "Ju"
  • João CarlosJuca, Juquinha, "Joca"
  • JoaquimQuim, Quinzinho, Quincas, Joca
  • José, Zezinho, "Zezito", "Zeca", "Zezé"
  • José CarlosZeca, Zequinha
  • LuísLuisinho, Lula
  • Manuel → "Manel", "Manelinho", Mané, Maneco, "Nelo", "Nelito", "Neca"
  • Miguel → "Miguelinho", "Miguelito", "Micas", Guel
  • PedroPedrinho, "Pedrito", Pedrocas, Pepeu, "Pepe", "Pepas"
  • RaimundoMundinho
  • Ricardo → "Ricardinho", "Riqui", "Cacá", Cardo
  • SamuelSamuca
  • SebastiãoTião

Female examples

  • AnaAninha, Aninhas, Anita, Anicas
  • AdrianaDri, Drica
  • Alexandra → Xana, Xaninha, Alex
  • Antónia → "Antoninha"
  • AntonietaTieta
  • AparecidaCida, Cidinha
  • BeatrizBia
  • CarolinaCarol
  • CatarinaCati"
  • CecíliaCeci, Ciça, "Cilinha"
  • CristinaCristininha, Tina, Cris
  • Eduarda → Duda
  • Elisabete → "Bé", Bete, "Beta"
  • Filipa → Pipa, Lipa
  • Fátima → Fá, Fati, Fatinha
  • Helena → Lena, Leninha
  • IsabelIsabelinha, Belinha, Bel, Bebel, Becas, Isa
  • JoanaJoaninha, , Ju
  • JúliaJulinha, Ju, Juju
  • "Leonor" → Nonô, Léo
  • Letícia, Lelê
  • LúciaLu, Lulu, Lucinha, Luci
  • LuísaLuisinha, Lu, Lulu, Isa, Lula
  • MarcelaMarcelinha, Cela, Celinha
  • MargaridaGuida, Guidinha, Magui
  • MariaMariazinha, Micas, Mia, (in Alentejo) Bia
  • Renata, Renatinha
  • Rita → Ritinha
  • Rosa → Rosinha, Rosita
  • TeresaTeresinha, "Teca", "Terê"

Romanian[edit]

  • AdrianAdi
  • AlexandruAle, Alex, Alecu, Sandu
  • AnaAnița, Anica
  • AntonToni
  • AndreeaDeea
  • Cătălin(a)Cătă
  • ClaudiuClaudel, Clau, Diu, Diuţu
  • ConstantinCostică, Titi
  • CristianCristi
  • DanielDan, Dani,Dănuţ
  • DorinaDori, Dana
  • ElenaEma, Lena, Lenuţa
  • EugenJenică; EugeniaJeni
  • FernandaAnda
  • FlorentinaIna, Flori
  • GabrielGabi
  • GeorgetaGeta
  • GeorginaGina
  • GheorgheGeorgică, Gică, Gigi, Guţă, Ghio
  • HoraţiuHori
  • IleanaNuţi
  • Ion, IoanIonel, Ionuţ, Nelu, Neluțu, Nuțu
  • MarilenaMari
  • MariaMărioara, Mimi, Mioara
  • MihaelaMela, Ela, Eluța, Mica
  • MonicaMoni
  • NicolaeNicu, Nicuşor, Nae, "Niki"
  • OctavianTavi
  • OvidiuOvi
  • PetrePetrică, Petruţ, Petrişor
  • RalucaRalu, Uca
  • ŞtefanFane, Fănel, Fănică, Ştefănel
  • Tiberiu/TiborTibi
  • TeodorTeo
  • ValentinVali
  • VasileLică, Vasilică, "Sile"
  • ViorelRelu
  • VictoriaVictorița, Vica
  • VladVlăduţ, Duțu

Russian[edit]

Russian has a wide variety of diminutive forms for names, to the point that for non-Russian speakers it can be difficult to connect a nickname to the original. Diminutive forms for nouns are usually distinguished with an -ик (-ik), -ок (-ok), -ёк (-yok) (masculine gender), -чк-/-шк- (-chk-/-shk-) and -оньк-/-еньк- (-on’k-/-en’k-) suffixes. Names can be somewhat more arbitrary, but still follow a loose pattern. A list of common names and their diminutive forms:

  • AlekseyAlyosha, Alyoshen'ka, Alyoshka, Lyosha, Lyoshka, Lyoha
  • Aleksandr and AleksandraSasha, Sashen'ka, Sashechka, Sashka, Sanya, San'ka, Shura, Shurka, Shurik, Shurochka
  • AlyonaAlyonka, Alyonooshka
  • AnastasiyaNastas'ya, Nastya, Nasten'ka, Nastyushka, Nastyona, Nast'ka, Natasha, Asya, Stasya
  • AndreyAndryusha, Andryukha, Dyusha, Dyukha, Andron, Dron
  • AnnaAnya, Anyuta, Anyutka, Anechka, Annushka, Nyuta, Nyura, Nyurka, Nyusha
  • ArtyomTyoma,Tyomych
  • BorisBorya, Boren'ka, Boryusha, Bor'ka
  • DmitryDima, Dimka, Dimochka, Dimulia, Dimon, Dimych, Mitya, Miten'ka, Mitёnka, Mityusha, Mit'ka
  • ElenaLena, Lenka, Lenochka, Lenochek, Lenok, Elenchyk, Lenyusya
  • GalinaGalya, Galka, Galechka
  • GennadyGena, Gesha, Genka, Genych, Genchik, Genochka
  • GeorgiyZhora, Gosha, Goga
  • GlebGlebka
  • GrigoriyGrisha, Grinya, Grikha
  • IgorIgoryok, Igoryochek, Gosha, Garik
  • IrinaIra, Irochka, Irunya, Irisha, Irishka, Irka, Irinka, Irusya
  • IvanVanya, Ivanushka, Vanechka, Van'ka, Vanyusha
  • KirillKiryusha, Kirya
  • KonstantinKostya, Kosten'ka, Kostik, Kost'ka, Kotya, Koka
  • Kseniya and OksanaOksanka, Ksana, Sana, Ksyuha, Ksyusha
  • LeonidLyonya, Lyonechka, Lyon'ka, Lyonchik
  • LevLyova, Lyovochka, Lyovka
  • LyudmilaLyuda, Mila
  • Margarita (given name)Rita, Ritka, Ritusya, Ritunya, Ritik
  • MariyaMasha, Manya, Man'ka, Manyunya, Mashen'ka, Mashechka, Mashka, Marusya, Makha
  • MikhailMisha, Mishen'ka, Mischechka, Mishanya, Mishka, Mishutka, Mikha
  • NadezhdaNadya, Nad'ka, Naden'ka, Nadyusha
  • NataliyaNatasha, Nata, Natashen'ka, Natakha, Natusyen'ka, Natusik, Natashka
  • NikolayKolya, Kolen'ka, Kolyunya, Nikolen'ka, Nikolasha, Kol'ka, Kolyan
  • OlegOlezhka, Olezha, Olezhek, Olegushka, Lega, Lyoka
  • OlgaOlya, Olen'ka, Olechka
  • PavelPasha, Pashka, Pashen'ka, Pavlik, Pakha, Pakhan
  • PyotrPetya, Pet'ka, Peten'ka, Petrusha, Petyunya
  • RadimirRadya, Mira
  • RomanRoma, Romka, Romochka, Romych
  • SergeySeryozha, Seryoga, Seryozhen'ka, Seryozhka, Seriy, Sega
  • StepanStyopa, Styopan'ka, Stepan'chik, Styopushka, Styopka
  • StanislavStasya, Stasik, Stasen'ka
  • SofiyaSonya, Sonechka, Sofa, Sofochka
  • SvetlanaSveta, Svetochka, Svetyushka, Svetka
  • Svyatoslav and VyacheslavSlava, Slavik, Slavochka
  • TatyanaTanya, Tanechka, Tanyusha, Tan'ushka, Tan'ka, Tan'chik
  • VadimVadik, Vadimka, Vadya, Vadisha, Vadyusha
  • ValeriyValera, Valerka, Valerik
  • ValeriaLera, Lerusha, Lerka
  • ViacheslavSlava, Slavik, Vyachik, Slavyan, Slavutich
  • ViktorVitya, Viten'ka, Vit'ka, Vityok, Vityay
  • VitalyVitalik', Vitalya, Vyetal'"
  • ViktoriyaVika, Vita, Vikulechka, Vikusik
  • VladimirVolodya, Volod'ka, Voloden'ka, Vova, Vovka, Vovochka, Vovan
  • YaroslavYarik, Yaroshka, Slava, Slavik, Slavochka
  • YefimFima, Fimochka
  • YekaterinaKaterina, Katya, Katechka, Katen'ka, Katyukha, Katyusha, Kat'ka
  • YevgenyZhenya, Zhen'ka, Zheka, Zhenyok, Zhenechka
  • YevgeniaZhenya, Zhenechka, Zhen'ka
  • YuriyYura, Yurka, Yurik, Yurok

Some names can also be modified with a -ka ending to add a further level of familiarity, but are not normally used for adults who are not family members.

Serbian[edit]

  • AleksandarAca, Aco, Sale, Saša
  • AleksandraSandra, Saša, Saška
  • AnaAnica, Anka
  • Anđelka, AnđelijaAnđa
  • Arsenije, ArsenArsa, Arso
  • BiljanaBilja
  • BlagojeBlaža, Blažo, Blago
  • Bogdan, Bogoljub, BogojeBogi, Boša, Bole
  • BojanBoki, Bole
  • Borislav, Boriša, BorivojeBora, Boro
  • BosiljkaBosa
  • BožidarBoža, Božo, Boško, Bole
  • Branislav, Branimir, BrankoBane, Brana, Brano
  • Branislava, BrankaBrana
  • BudimirBuda, Budo
  • ČedomirČeda, Čedo
  • DanicaDana
  • Danilo, DankoDača, Dačo
  • DarkoDare
  • DejanDeki, Dejo
  • DesankaDesa
  • DimitrijeMita, Mito
  • DraganaGaga
  • DraganGaga, Gagi
  • Dragica, DragojlaDraga
  • DragišaDragi, Gidra, Giša
  • Dragoljub, Dragoslav, DragomirDraža, Drakče, Dragi, Gidra, Gagi
  • DraženDraža, Dražo, Žodra, Drale
  • DušanDuško, Dule, Duki, Duda
  • Đorđe, ĐorđijeĐoka, Đoko, Đole
  • Đurađ, ĐurđeĐura, Đuro
  • FilipFića, Fićo
  • GoranGoksi, Goša
  • GordanaGoga, Goca
  • Ivan, IvicaIvke, Ivo, Ivko
  • Ivana, IvankaIva, Ivka
  • KatarinaKaća, Kata
  • Kosta, KonstantinKole, Koča
  • LenaLenče, Lenka
  • LjiljanaLjilja
  • Ljubomir, Ljubiša, Ljubisav, LjubodragLjuba
  • Jasna, JadrankaJaca
  • Jelena, JelicaJela, Jeca
  • Jovan, JovicaJova, Jovo, Joca, Jole
  • Jovana, JovankaJoka
  • LazarLaza, Lazo
  • Leposava, LepavaLepa
  • Maksim, MaksimilijanMaksa, Makso
  • Marija, Marica, MarijanaMara, Maša, Maca, Maki
  • MarkoMare
  • Milan, Miloš, Mihailo, Mihajlo, Miljan, Milovan, Miodrag, Milivoje, Milorad, Milutin, Milun, Milenko, Milojko, Milisav, Milomir, Miomir, MilićMiško, Miša, Mišo, Šomi, Mićko, Mića, Mićo, Ćomi, Mile, Milo, Mija, Mijo
  • Milena, Milica, Milijana, MilkaMica, Mila
  • Mirjana, MiroslavaMira, Mirka
  • Miroslav, MirojeMika, Miki, Miro
  • Mladen, MlađanMlađa, Mlađo, Đomla
  • Momčilo, MomirMoma, Momo
  • Nadežda, NadicaNada
  • Nataša, NatalijaNata
  • NebojšaNeša, Nešo, Šone, Nebo
  • NenadNeša, Nešo, Šone, Nele, Neno
  • NikolaNidža, Nidžo, Džoni
  • OgnjenOgi
  • PantelijaPanta, Panto
  • PavlePaja, Pajo
  • Petar, PericaPera, Pero
  • PredragPeđa, Preša, Predo
  • RadmilaRada, Rajka
  • Radomir, Radoslav, Radislav, Radisav, Radiša, Radoš, Radašin, Radovan, Radoje, Radojica, Radivoje, RadenkoRade, Raša, Rašo, Rajko
  • Ratimir, Ratibor, RatkoRato
  • RužicaRuža, Ruška
  • SlađanaSlađa
  • Slavoljub, Slavomir, Slaviša, SlavenSlavko, Slave
  • SlobodanSloba, Slobo, Boba, Bodo
  • Snežana, SnježanaSneža, Snježa, Sneška, Sneki
  • Srboljub, SrbislavSrba, Srbo
  • SretenSreta, Srele
  • SrđanSrđa, Srđo, Srle, Srki
  • Stanislav, Stanimir, Stanoje, StankoStane
  • Stevan, Stevica, StefanSteva, Stevo
  • Svetislav, Svetozar, Svetomir, SvetolikSveta, Sveto
  • Svetlana, SvjetlanaCeca, Seka
  • TanasijeTasa, Taško
  • TihomirTika, Tiho
  • TodorToša
  • TomislavToma, Tomo, Tole
  • UrošUrke
  • Vasilije, VasiljVasa, Vaso, Vasko
  • VeliborBora, Boro, Velja, Veljo
  • Velimir, VeljkoVelja, Veljo
  • Veroljub, VeroslavVerko
  • VeselinVesa, Veso, Vesko
  • VesnaVeca, Veki
  • VioletaViki
  • VitomirVita, Vito
  • Vladimir, VladanVlada, Vlado, Vlatko
  • VlastimirVlasta
  • Vojislav, VojinVoja, Vojo
  • Vuk, Vukašin, VukanVule, Vučko, Vučina, Vukša, Vuksa, Vuki
  • ZvonimirZvonko
  • ZoranZoki, Kiza, Zoksi
  • Zorica, ZoranaZoka
  • ŽelimirŽeljko
  • Živorad, Žikica, Živojin, ŽivkoŽika, Žile

Slovak[edit]

In Slovak, feminine diminutives usually end in -ka and masculine in -ko.

  • AlexandraSaša, Saška
  • MáriaMarika
  • JakubJakubko, Kubo, Kubko
  • JozefJožo, Jožko
  • KristínaKika, Kristínka
  • Martin, MatejMaťo, Maťko
  • NatáliaNatálka
  • RastislavRasťo, Rastík
  • StanislavStano, Stanko

Slovene[edit]

In Slovene, diminutives are very common. In many cases they have almost completely replaced their originals (such is the case of Špela for Elizabeta, Branko for Branislav, or Alenka, Majda, and Magda for Magdalena). Especially among female names, the etymological link of the diminutive with the original name has been lost and the diminutive is perceived by most speakers to be a separate name (such is the case for Mojca, deriving from Marija, or Maja and Alenka deriving from Magdalena). In other cases, especially among male names, this link has been kept, but frequently boys are given diminutives as their given names (such as Miha instead of Mihael, Ivo instead of Ivan, or Nejc instead of Jernej etc.)

  • AlbertBert, Berti, Berto
  • AleksanderSandi, Saša, Sašo, Aleks, Sanja
  • AleksandraSandra, Saša
  • AleksejAleš,Aleks
  • Alojzij, AlojzLojze, Lojz
  • AmalijaMalija, Malči
  • AnaAnica, Anka, Ančka, Anita, Anja
  • AndrejDrejc, Drejko
  • AngelaAngelca, Angelika
  • AntonTone, Toni (regional)
  • AntonijaTončka
  • AvguštinGušti, Guštin (regional)
  • BenjaminBeno
  • BogoslavBogo
  • BožidarBožo, Boško
  • BranislavBranko
  • CecilijaCilija, Cilka
  • DanaDanica
  • DimitrijMitja, Mito
  • EdvardEdo, Edi
  • EgidijTilen, Ilj, Tilj, Tiljan (regional), Tiljo (regional)
  • ElizabetaŠpela, Beti, Betka
  • FerdinandFerdo
  • FilipLipe
  • France, Franc, FrančišekFran, Frane, Franci, Franček, Franek (regional), Feri (regional)
  • FrančiškaFrancka
  • Gregor, GregorijGrega
  • HelenaAlenka, Lenka
  • HenrikHinko, Hari, Henko, Riko, Riki
  • Ignacij, IgnacNace
  • IvanIvo, Vane, Vanko
  • IvanaIvanka, Vanka
  • JakobJaka
  • JanezJanko, Jani, Jan, Anže, Anžej, Anzej (regional)
  • JernejNejc, Nejo
  • Jožef, JosipJože, Joško, Pepi (regional), Juš
  • JožefaPepca, Jožica
  • JurijJure, Juro (regional)
  • KarelKarlo, Karol, Čarli
  • KatarinaKatja, Katra
  • LeopoldPolde
  • LucijaLučka
  • MagdalenaMaja, Alenka, Majda, Magda
  • MargaretaMeta, Metka
  • MarijaMojca, Mara, Marica, Marina, Mojcej (regional)
  • MartinTine
  • MartinaTina
  • Matej, MatjažMatija, Matic, Tjaž
  • MihaelMiha
  • NikolajNiko, Nik, Miki (regional)
  • PavelPavle
  • PeterPero
  • RudolfRudi
  • Sebastijan, SebastjanBoštjan
  • StanislavStanko, Slavko
  • StanislavaSlavka
  • ŠtefanijaŠtefka
  • TerezijaZinka
  • UršaUrška
  • ValentinTine
  • ValentinaTina
  • VincencCene, Vinko

Spanish[edit]

Spanish forms diminutives by adding one of several diminutive suffixes. -ito/a, -cito/a, -ecito/a, -ico/a, -cico/a -illo/a, -cillo/a, -uelo/a, -zuelo/a, -ete/a, -ín, -iño/a:

  • JuanaJuanitaJu
  • JorgeJorgitoJor
  • AntonioAntoñín, Antoñito, Antoñete, Antoñillo, Toño

It is common for a person to be known by 2 first names: José Luis, María Teresa, Juan Carlos etc. Combining the 2 names into one is another common way to form a hypocorism:

  • María TeresaMaritere, Mayte, Maité, Marité
  • María LuisaMarisa, Marilú, Malú
  • María del CarmenMayca, Mame, Mamen
  • María IsabelMaribel, Marisa
  • Luz MaríaLuzma
  • María FernandaMarifer, Mafer
  • María SalvadoraMarisa
  • Juan CarlosJuanca
  • Juan EstebanJuanes
  • Juan ManuelJuanma
  • Juan MiguelJuanmi
  • Juan PabloJuampi

Many Spanish nicknames, however, are or can seem very unlike the original name. Notice, however, that the -ch- [tʃ] sound is common in these diminutives:

  • AlbertoBerto, Beto
  • AlfonsoFon, Fonso, Fonsi, Poncho
  • AnastasioTasio, Tacho
  • AnicetoCheto
  • AntonioToño, Toni, Antón
  • BeatrizBea, Beti
  • CarlosCacho
  • ConcepciónConcha, Conchita, Conchi
  • ConsueloChelo
  • DiegoYago
  • DoloresLola, Lolita
  • EduardoEdu, Edy, Lalo
  • EnriqueQuique, Rico
  • ErnestoNeto
  • FelicianoChano
  • FelipeFeli, Pipe
  • FedericoFede, Quico, Kiko
  • FernandaFer, Nanda
  • FernandoFer, Fernan, Nando, Fercho
  • FranciscoFran, Paco, Curro, Pancho, Pacho, Pacheco, Quico, Francis
  • GracielaChela, Gra
  • GuadalupeLupe, Lupita
  • GuillermoGuille, Guillo, Memo, Picho
  • IgnaciaNacha
  • IgnacioNacho
  • InmaculadaInma, Macu
  • IsabelIsa, Chavela, Chabela, Chábel, Chava
  • JesúsChuy, Chus, Chucho, Suso, Jesusín
  • JorgeCoque
  • JoséPepe, Chepe
  • José MaríaChema, Josema
  • JuanJuancho, Juani
  • LauraLala, Lau, Yaya
  • LidiaYiya
  • LuisLucho, Güicho
  • LuisaLucha
  • ManuelManu, Manolo, Lolo
  • María FernandaMáfer, Marifer
  • María JoséCoté, Marijose, Majo
  • MariselaChabela, Chela
  • MaximinaChimina
  • MercedesMeche, Merci
  • MiguelMigue
  • RamónMoncho, Monchi, Ramoncito
  • Refugio, María del RefugioCuca
  • RobertoRober, Berto, Beto
  • RosarioChayo, Charo
  • RosilloChillo
  • SantiagoSanti, Chago
  • SergioCheco
  • SilviaChiva
  • SoledadSole, Lola
  • TomásTommy, Tomi", "Tom
  • VicenteVicen, Chente

Also, several names (especially female) may have their endings cut off and the vowel -"i" added at the end in the formation of pet names:

  • BeatrizBeti
  • JavierJavi (m.), Javy
  • LeticiaLeti
  • Pilar, María del PilarPili
  • SusanaSusi

Speakers of Philippine languages follow the same system.

Swedish[edit]

Male hypocorisms are often based on the first syllable of the name (shortening it if it's long), plus the ending -"e". Hypocorisms are almost always two-syllabic with a grave accent.

  • AndersAdde, Ante
  • AndreasAdde, Ante
  • BengtBengan, Benke
  • BoBosse
  • DanielDanne
  • FilipFille
  • FransFrasse
  • FredrikFredde
  • GustavGurra
  • HansHasse
  • HenrikHenke
  • HenningHenke
  • JanJanne
  • JoakimJocke
  • JohnJonte
  • JonatanJonte
  • KarlKalle
  • KristerKrille
  • KristianKrille
  • KristofferKrille, Stoffe
  • LarsLasse
  • LeifLeffe
  • MagnusMange
  • MikaelMicke
  • NilsNisse
  • OskarOrre, Ogge
  • PerPelle, Perra
  • PontusPutte
  • RolandRolle
  • SebastianSebbe, Basse
  • SigvardSigge
  • StefanSteffe
  • SvenSvempa, Svenne
  • TobiasTobbe
  • TomasTompa
  • TorbjörnTobbe
  • TorstenTotta
  • UlfUffe
  • ViktorVicke
  • VilhelmVille

These forms may be quite old: the oldest possible attestation may be the name Sibbi on the Rök Runestone dating to about 800 AD.

Like male hypochorisms, female hypochorisms tend to be bisyllabic:

  • CharlottaLotta
  • KatarinaKattis, Katta
  • KristinaStina, Tina
  • MagdalenaMalena, Lena
  • SusannaSussi, Sanna

Turkish[edit]

  • AbdullahApo
  • HasanHaso
  • HaticeHatçe
  • MehmetMemo
  • SüleymanSülo
  • AlperAlp

Welsh[edit]

  • BronwenBron
  • CatrinCadi
  • DavidDai, Dewi
  • ElenNel, Neli
  • ElisabethBethan, Beth, Leusa
  • EstherNesta
  • HuwHuwcyn
  • IoanJac
  • IorwerthIori
  • MyfanwyMyfi
  • RichardDic
  • SiônSiôni
  • TomosTomi

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, online edition: "hypocorism". Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  2. ^ calling name
  3. ^ "Dek-naŭa leciono". Esperanto.mv.ru. Retrieved 2013-07-31.