Honorific

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An honorific title is a word or expression with connotations conveying esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term "honorific" is used in a more specific sense to refer to an honorary academic title. It is also often conflated with systems of honorific speech in linguistics, which are grammatical or morphological ways of encoding the relative social status of speakers.

Typically, honorifics are used as a style in the grammatical third person, and as a form of address in the second person. Use in the first person, by the honored dignitary, is uncommon. Some languages have anti-honorific (despective or humilific) first person forms (expressions such as "your most humble servant" or "this unworthy person") whose effect is to enhance the relative honor accorded to the person addressed.

Modern English honorifics[edit]

Main article: English honorifics

The most common honorifics in modern English are usually placed immediately before a person's name. Honorifics which can be used (both as style and as form of address) include, in the case of a male, "Mr" (irrespective of marital status), and in the case of a female the honorific will depend on her marital status: if the female is unmarried, it is "Miss", if she is married it is "Mrs", and if her marital status is unknown, or it is not desired to specify it, "Ms." Someone who doesn't want to express a gender with their honorific may use Mx.

Other honorifics may denote the honored person’s occupation, for instance "Doctor", "Captain", "Coach", "Officer", "Reverend" for all clergy and/or "Father" (for a Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, or Anglican Christian priest), or Professor.[a] Holders of an academic Doctorate such as PhD are addressed as "Doctor" (abbreviated Dr). "Master" as a prefix ahead of the name of boys and young men up to about 16 years of age is less common than it used to be, but is still used by older people addressing the young in formal situations and correspondence.

Some honorifics act as complete replacements for a name, as "Sir" or "Ma'am", or "Your Honor". Subordinates will often use honorifics as punctuation before asking a superior a question or after responding to an order: "Yes, sir" or even "Sir, yes, sir."

Judges are often addressed as "Your Honor" (or "Honour") when on the bench, and the style is "His/Her Honor" the plural form is "Your Honors". If the judge also has a higher title, that may be the correct honorific to use: "Your Lordship". Similarly, a monarch (ranking as a king or emperor) and his consort may be addressed or referred to as "Your/His/Her Majesty", "Their Majesties", etc. (but there is no customary honorific accorded to a female monarch's consort, as he is usually granted a specific style). Monarchs below kingly rank are addressed as "Your/His/Her Highness", the exact rank being indicated by an appropriate modifier, e.g. "His Serene Highness" for a member of a princely dynasty, or "Her Grand Ducal Highness" for a member of a family that reigns over a grand duchy. Verbs with these honorifics as subject are conjugated in the third person (e.g. "you are going" vs. "Your Honor is going" or "Her Royal Highness is going".) Protocol for monarchs and aristocrats can be very complex, with no general rule; great offence can be given by using a form that is not exactly correct. There are differences between "Your Highness" and "Your Royal Highness"; between "Princess Margaret" and "The Princess Margaret". All of these are correct, but apply to people of subtly different rank. An example of a non-obvious style is "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother", which is an official style, but unique to one person.

In music, a distinguished conductor or virtuoso instrumentalist may be known as "Maestro".

In aviation, pilots in command of a larger civil aircraft are usually addressed as "Captain" plus their full name or surname. This tradition is slowly diminishing in the United States and most EU countries. However, many countries, especially in Asia, follow this tradition and address airline pilots, military pilots, and flight instructors exclusively as "Captain" even outside of the professional environment. In addition, such countries' etiquette rules dictate to place this title on all the official letters and social invitations, business cards, identification documents, etc. In the United States, when addressing a pilot, common etiquette does not require the title "Captain" to be printed on official letters or invitations before the addressee's full name. However, this is optional (akin to "Esq" after an attorney's name (used only by lawyers in the USA)) and may be used where appropriate, especially when addressing airline pilots with many years of experience.

Occupants of state and political office may be addressed with an honorific. A monarch may be addressed as His/Her Majesty, a president as Your Excellency or Mr/Madam President, a minister or secretary of state as "Your Excellency" or Mr/Madam Secretary, etc. A prime minister may be addressed as "the Honorable". A member of Parliament or other legislative body may have particular honorifics. A member of a Senate, for example, may be addressed as "Senator". The etiquette varies and most countries have protocol specifying the honorifics to be used for its state, judicial, military and other officeholders.

Former military officers are sometimes addressed by their last military rank, such as "Captain", "Colonel", "General", etc.

Honorifics in other languages and cultures[edit]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Ancient Rome had Roman honorifics like that of Augustus, which turned into titles over time.

China[edit]

During the ancient and imperial periods, Chinese honorifics varied greatly based on one's social status, but with the end of Imperial China, many of these distinctions fell out of colloquial use. Some honorifics remain in use today, especially in formal writings for the court and business setting. In fact, the ability to use honorifics in China is now seen as a display of social status. In other words, educated people tend to rigidly use honorifics as a display of their status.

In addition, the use of honorifics vary greatly across Chinese-speaking regions in the world. In Taiwan, for example, honorifics are more widely used in daily interactions. In Mainland China, however, honorifics tend to recede to formal settings.

India[edit]

Indian honorifics abound, covering formal and informal relationships for social, commercial, spiritual, and generational links. Honorifics may be prefix, suffix, or replacement types. There are many variations.

  • Prefix type: The most common honorifics in India are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject. Honorifics which can be used of any adult of the appropriate sex include Sri (also Romanised as Shri, acronym for Sriman), Smt (acronym for Srimati), and Kum (acronym for Kumari). In Tamil, Thiru (acronym of Thiruvalar for males) and Thirumathi (for females) are used.In Telugu Chi.La.Sou( Chiranjeevini Lakshmi Soubhagyavathi) is commonly used by elders to mention before the names of younger people.In India honorifics mostly comes prior to the name of object.
  • Replacement type: Some honorifics, like Bhavān or Bhavatī, act as complete replacements for a name. For example, in Gujarati, for an uncle who is your mother's brother, the replacement honorific maama (long "a" then short "a") is used, and a male friend will often earn the suffix honorific of bhai.
  • Suffix type:
    • The traditional Hindi honorific is the suffix -ji. For example, M.K. Gandhi (the Mahatma) was often referred to as Gandhi-ji. (Hindi, like many languages, distinguishes between pronouns for persons older in age or status. Such a person is referred as aap; a person of same status is called tum (both translating as "you" in English, but similar in principle to the vous/tu distinction in French or the usted/tu distinction in Spanish). A similar distinction exists for third person pronouns. When honorifics are attached in Hindi, the verb matches the plural case.)
    • The traditional Kannada honorific is the suffix -avaru. For example, Visveswariah was referred to as Visveswariah-avaru.
    • The traditional Marathi honorific is the suffix -rao. For example, Madhav Scindia was referred to as Madhav-rao.
    • The traditional Tamil honorific is the suffix Avargal/Vaal. Dalai Lama would become Dalai Lama Avargal.
    • The traditional Telugu honorific is the suffix Garu. Thus, Potti Sriramulu would be Potti Sriramulu Garu.
    • The traditional Bengali honorific for ordinary men is the suffix Babu, used with the person's given (first) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Shubhash-Babu. For men with whom one has a more formal relationship, the suffix Moshai (mohashoi) is used with the person's family (last) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Basu-Moshai.

Italy[edit]

Italian honorifics are usually limited to formal situations. Professional titles like Ingegnere (engineer) are often substituted for the ordinary Signore (mister), while Dottore (doctor) is used very freely for any graduate of a university. When ending with an e, honorifics lose it when juxtaposed to a surname: dottor Rossi, cardinal Martini, ragionier Fantozzi. High religious positions as The Pope or Cardinals are addressed as Sua Santità Cardinal/Papa (His holiness Cardinal/Pope)

Japan[edit]

Japanese honorifics are similar to English titles like "Mister" and "Miss", but in Japanese, which has many honorifics, their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Japanese grammar as a whole tends to function on hierarchy — honorific stems are appended to verbs and many nouns primarily names, and in many cases one word may be exchanged for another word entirely with the same verb- or noun-meaning, but with different honorific connotations.

Java[edit]

Indonesia's Javanese majority ethnicity has many honorifics.[1]

I Gusti means "His or Her Royal Majesty". Bendara Raden Mas, Bendara Mas, or the contraction 'ndoro mean "Prince, flag-bearer 'His Highness'". Bapak and its contraction Pak mean: Sir, Mister, or literally "Father".

Ibu and its contraction Bu mean: Madam, Ma'am, Ms, or Mrs, literally "Mother".

Raden Emas and its contraction Mas mean: Mr. among colleagues, friends, and others of slightly higher age or social status, literally "Golden Son", "Lord", or "Heir Apparent". Raden Emas Behi, contracted to Mas Behi, means "2nd Heir Apparent" and is now obsolete. Raden Behi, contracted to Den Behi, means "Heir Apparent" and is now obsolete. mbak yu and the more common mbak are derived from Surakarta court to address adolescent or marriage age unmarried women, but is now for women, with no age or marital status connotation.

Eyang Puteri and its contraction Eyang mean: grandmother, literally "Grand Lady".

Eyang Putera Kakung and its contraction Eyang Kakung mean: grandfather, literally "Grand Sir".

Bapak Gede and its contraction Pak de are used for a big father, uncle, or relative older than one's father, literally "Grand Sir".

Bapak Cilik and its contraction Pak lik are used for a very familiar friend or sir, literally a small father or a relative younger than one's Gaflakapus father — but very familiar.

Mbok is not an honorific and denotes an older woman of very low status.

Bang or Bung is a somewhat outdated, egalitarian term to refer to a brotherhood among males. Bang is Betawi language for Mas.

Kiswahili[edit]

In areas of East Africa, where the Bantu language Kiswahili is spoken, mzee is frequently used for an elder to denote respect by younger speakers. It is used in direct conversation and used in referring to someone in the third person.

Korean[edit]

Korean honorifics are similar to Japanese honorifics; their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Korean grammar as a whole tends to function on hierarchy — honorific stems are appended to verbs and some nouns, and in many cases, one word may be exchanged for another word entirely with the same verb- or noun-meaning, but with different honorific connotations. Linguists say that there are six levels of honorifics in Korean but, in daily conversation, only three of them are widely used in contemporary Korean. Suffix -si-(시) is used at most honorific verbs, but not always.

Malay[edit]

Malay honorifics are the Malay language's complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. Singapore, whose Malay royalty was abolished by the British colonial government in 1891, has adopted civic titles for its leaders.

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan has a large number of honorific forms that may be used with or as a substitute for names. The most common honorifics in Pakistan are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject or immediately after the subject. There are many variations across Pakistan.

  • Prefix type: The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan for a male is the prefix Mohtaram. For example, Syed Mohammad Jahangir would become Mohtaram Syed Mohammad Jahangir. The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan for a female is the prefix Mohtarama. For example, Shamim Ara would become Mohtarama Shamim Ara.
  • Suffix type: The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan for a male is the suffix Sahab. For example, Syed Zaki Ahmed would become Syed Zaki Ahmed Sahab. The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan for a female is the suffix Sahiba; for instance, Shamim Ara would become Shamim Ara Sahiba.

Philippines[edit]

The usage of Filipino honorifics differ from person to person. Like the occasional insertion of the word "po" in conversation. Though some have become obsolete, many are still widely used in order to denote respect, friendliness, or affection. Some new "honorifics" mainly used by teenagers are experiencing surges in popularity.

Tagalog honorifics like: Binibini/Ate ("Miss"), Ginang/Aling/Manang ("Madam"), Ginoo/Mang/Manong/Kuya ("Mr.", "Sir")

Depending on one's relation with the party being addressed, various honorifics may be used.

As such addressing a man who is older, has a higher rank at work or has a higher social standing, one may use Mr or Sir followed by the First/ last/ or full name. Addressing a woman in a similar situation as above one may use Ms, Ma'am, or Madam followed by First/ last/ or full name. Older married women may prefer to be addressed as Mrs.
[Note: The use of Sir/Ms/Ma'am/Madam followed by the first and/or last name (or nickname) is usually restricted to Filipino, especially vernacular, social conversation, even in TV and film depictions. Despite this, some non-Filipinos (like some foreign students and professionals) are learning to address the older people the Filipino way.]

On a professional level many use educational or occupational titles such as Architect, Engineer, Doctor, Attorney (often abbreviated as Arch./Archt./Ar., Engr., Dr. [or sometimes Dra. for female doctors], and Atty. respectively), even on an informal or social level, although their usage shows a sign of Filipino professionals' obsession with their academic accomplishments and their educational attainment that they go to extreme measures to flaunt them.[2] Despite this, some of their clients (especially non-Filipinos) would address them as simply Mr. or Mrs./Ms. followed by their surnames (or even Sir/Ma'am) in conversation. It is very rare, however, for a Filipino (especially those born and educated abroad) to address Filipino architects, engineers, and lawyers, even mentioning and referring to their names, the non-Philippine (i.e. standard) English way.
[Some foreigners who are doing businesses in the Philippines as architects, doctors, engineers, and lawyers (especially as instructors in Philippine colleges and universities) are sometimes addressed like their Filipino counterparts, especially if their wives (or husbands) are Filipinos. Even though Doctor is really a title in standard English, the "created" titles Architect, Attorney, and Engineer (among other examples) are a result of vanity (titles herald achievement and success; they distinguish the title holder from the rest of society) and insecurity (the title holder's achievements and successes might be ignored unless announced to the public),[2] even due to historical usage of pseudo-titles in newspapers when Filipinos first began writing in English, and many other anomalous reasons. See article on false title for details.]

Spanish[edit]

Spanish has a number of honorific forms that may be used with or as substitutes for names, such as señor or caballero ("Mr.", "Sir", "Gentleman"); señora ("Madam", "Mrs.", "Lady", "ma'am") and señorita ("Miss", "young lady"); licenciado for a person with bachelor's or a professional degree (e.g., attorneys and engineers); maestro for a teacher, master mechanic, or person with a master's degree; doctor ("doctor"); etc. Also used is don (male) or doña (female) for people of rank or, in some Latin American countries (e.g., Puerto Rico), for any senior citizen. In some Latin American countries, like Colombia, "Doctor" is used for any respected figure regardless of whether they have a doctoral degree (for instance Colombian presidents are often referred to as Doctor ___); likewise "Maestro" is used for artistic masters, especially painters.

Additionally, older people and those with whom one would speak respectfully (e.g., one's boss or teacher), are often addressed as usted, a formal/respectiful way of saying "you" (e.g. Dra. Polo, ¿cómo está usted? Dr. Polo, how are you?). The word usted historically comes from the honorific title vuestra merced (literally "your mercy"). Intimate friends and relatives are addressed as . In some regions, addressing a relative stranger as can be considered disrespectful or provocative, except when it's directed to a person notably younger than the speaker, or in an especially informal context.

Turkey[edit]

Turkish honorifics generally follow the first name, especially if they refer to gender or particular social statuses (e.g. Name Bey [Mr.], Name Hanım [Ms.], Name Hoca [teacher or cleric], Name Öğretmen [solely for teacher]). Such honorifics are used both in formal and informal situations. A newer honorific is Sayın [esteemed], which precedes the surname or full name, and is not gender-specific. (e.g. Sayın Name Surname, or Sayın Surname). They are generally used in very formal situations.

Examples[edit]

  • Your Highness
  • Your Honor
  • Your Lordship
  • Your Majesty
  • Your Worship

Opposition[edit]

People who have a strong sense of egalitarianism, such as Quakers and certain socialists, eschew honorific titles. When addressing or referring to someone, they will use the person's name, an informal pronoun, or some other style implying social equality, such as "brother", "friend", or "comrade". This was also the practice in Revolutionary France which used Citoyen[ne] ("Citizen") as the manner of address.

Feminist criticism of the use of separate honorifics for married and unmarried women (Mrs. and Miss) has led to some woman adopting the honorific "Ms."

See also[edit]

Culturally specific usage[edit]

General usage[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Note that US/Canadian usage of professor differs from most of the rest of the English-speaking world. See Professor for details.

Citations

  1. ^ James Joseph Errington: 1998. Shifting languages: interaction and identity in Javanese Indonesia in Issue 19 of Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language. Cambridge University Press: 1998. ISBN 0-521-63448-2, ISBN 978-0-521-63448-9. 216 pages 84-88
  2. ^ a b Avecilla, Victor (12 April 2014). "What's in a title and a degree?". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 27 April 2014.