Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zizyfon), commonly called jujube (//; sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), used primarily as a shade tree that also bears fruit.
It is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 ft), usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimetres (0.79–2.76 in) wide and 1–3 centimetres (0.39–1.18 in) broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5 millimetres (0.20 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 centimetres (0.59–1.18 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.
Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal (called Bayar), the Korean peninsula, and southern and central China, and also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there.
This plant has been introduced in Madagascar and grows as an invasive species in the western part of this island. This plant is also known as the "finab" in the eastern part of Bulgaria where it grows wild but is also a garden shrub, kept for its fruit. The fruit is picked in the autumn.
The species has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling. It was first described scientifically by Carolus Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum in 1753. Later, in 1768, Philip Miller concluded it was sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to merit separation into a new genus, in which he named it Ziziphus jujube, using Linnaeus' species name for the genus but with a probably accidental single letter spelling difference, 'i' for 'y'; for the species name he used a different name, as tautonyms (repetition of exactly the same name in the genus and species) are not permitted in botanical naming. However, because of Miller's slightly different spelling, the combination correctly using the earliest species name (from Linnaeus) with the new genus, Ziziphus zizyphus, is not a tautonym, and was therefore permitted as a botanical name; this combination was made by Hermann Karsten in 1882. In 2006, a proposal was made to suppress the name Ziziphus zizyphus in favor of Ziziphus jujuba, and this proposal was accepted in 2011. Ziziphus jujuba is thus the correct scientific name for this species.
Jujube fruit is called 红枣 (hóng zǎo) or just 枣 (zǎo) in Mandarin Chinese,"pomme surette" in French, "bor" in Konkani and Marathi, "ber" in Hindi, kul in Bengali,borai in Bangladesh, ilanthappazham or badari in Malayalam, இலந்த பழம் (ilanthai/elantha pazham) in Tamil-speaking regions, "ಎಲಚಿ ಹಣ್ಣು" (Yelchi Hannu) in Kannada and "Regi pandu" in Telugu. It is called zinzell in Malta. In Vietnamese, the fruit is called "táo tàu," which translates to "Chinese apple". In Urdu it is called "UNNAB"(عُناب).In Italian it is called "Giuggole".
Cultivation and uses
The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15 °C (5 °F). This enables the jujube to grow in mountain or desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water through the summer. The species Ziziphus jujuba grows in cooler regions of Asia. Five or more other species of Ziziphus are widely distributed in milder climates to hot deserts of Asia and Africa.
In Madagascar, jujube trees grow extensively in the western part of the island, from the north all the way to the south. It is widely eaten by free ranging zebus, and its seeds grow easily in zebu's feces. It is an invasive species, threatening mostly protected areas.
The freshly harvested as well as the candied dried fruit are often eaten as a snack, or with coffee. They are available in either red or black (called hóng zǎo or hēi zǎo, respectively, in Chinese), the latter being smoked to enhance their flavor. Both China and Korea produce a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruit in glass jars, and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags. To a lesser extent, jujube fruit is made into juice and jujube vinegar (called 枣醋 or 红枣醋 in Chinese); they are used for making pickles (কুলের আচার) in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In China there is even a wine made from jujube fruit, called hong zao jiu (红枣酒).
Sometimes pieces of jujube fruit are preserved by storing them in a jar filled with baijiu (Chinese liquor), which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called jiu zao (酒枣; literally "alcohol jujube"). The fruit is also a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies[which?].
In Vietnam and Taiwan, fully mature, nearly ripe fruit is harvested and sold on the local markets and also exported to Southeast Asian countries. The dried fruit is used in desserts in China and Vietnam, such as Ching bo leung, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.
In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as annab, while in neighboring Azerbaijan it is commonly eaten as a snack, and are known as innab. These names are related, and the Turks use a similarly related name, "hünnap". Ziziphus jujuba grows in northern Pakistan and is known as Innab, commonly used in the Tibb Unani system of medicine. There seems to be quite a widespread confusion in the common name. The Innab is Z. jujuba: the local name Ber is not used for Innab. Rather Ber is used for three other cultivated or wild species i.e. Z. spina-christi, Z. mauritiana and Z. nummularia in Pakistan and parts of India and is eaten both fresh and dried. Often the dry fruit (Ber) was used as a padding in leather horse-saddles in parts of Baluchistan in Pakistan.The Arabic names Sidr is used for Ziziphus species other than Z. jujuba.
Traditionally in India, the fruit is dried in the sun and the hard nuts are removed. Then, it is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and dried under the sun to make cakes called ilanthai vadai or "Regi Vadiyalu" (Telugu).
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (October 2012)|
The fruit and its seeds are used in Chinese and Korean traditional medicine, where they are believed to alleviate stress, and traditionally for antifungal, antibacterial, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, sedative, antispastic, antifertility/contraception, hypotensive and antinephritic, cardiotonic, antioxidant, immunostimulant, and wound healing properties.
In Persian traditional medicine it is used in combination with other herbal medicines to treat colds, flu and coughing.
Ziziphin, a compound in the leaves of the jujube, suppresses the ability to perceive sweet taste. The fruit, being mucilaginous, is very soothing to the throat and decoctions of jujube have often been used in pharmacy to treat sore throats.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
The jujube's sweet smell is believed[by whom?] to make teenagers fall in love, and as a result, in the Himalaya and Karakoram regions, boys take a stem of sweet-smelling jujube flowers with them or put it on their hats to attract girls.
In the traditional Chinese wedding ceremony, the jujube was often placed in the newlyweds' bedroom as a good luck charm for fertility, along with peanuts, longan, and chestnuts, punning on an invocation to "have an honored child soon".
In Japan, the natsume has given its name to a style of tea caddy used in the Japanese tea ceremony, due to the similar shape, and also to nightlights (ナツメ球), again due to the similarity between the shape of the bulb and the fruit.
In Madagascar, jujube trees are a good wood for charcoal, the second main source of cooking energy.
Pests and diseases
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
- ζίζυφον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- "USDA GRIN Taxonomy".
- Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
- Clarke, D. L. (1988). W. J. Bean Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Supplement. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4443-2.
- Kirkbride, Joseph H.; Wiersma, John H.; Turland, Nicholas J. (2006). "(1753) Proposal to conserve the name Ziziphus jujuba against Z. zizyphus (Rhamnaceae)". Taxon (International Association for Plant Taxonomy) 55 (4): 1049–1050. doi:10.2307/25065716. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Barrie, Fred R. (2011). "Report of the General Committee: 11". Taxon (International Association for Plant Taxonomy) 60 (4): 1211–1214. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Gupta, Anil K. "Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration", Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 10 July 2004, 59. Indian Academy of Sciences.
- S. Chaudhary. "Rhamnaceae" in: S. Chaudhary (Edit.). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Vol II (Part One) 2001.
- "Rare Fruit: Jujubes". Seasonalchef.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Volume 5, Fruits. Lim, T.K. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. 2013. p. 580. ISBN 978-9400756526.
- "Kamala's Corner: Indian Jujube - Elanthai Pazham". Kamalascorner.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- brodo di giuggiole
- Mill Goetz P. "Demonstration of the psychotropic effect of mother tincture of Zizyphus jujuba" Phytotherapie 2009 7:1 (31-36)
- Jiang J.-G., Huang X.-J., Chen J., Lin Q.-S.,"Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube", Natural Product Research 2007 21:4 (310-320)
- Mahajan R.T., Chopda M.Z. "Phyto-pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba mill - A plant review" Mahajan R.T., Chopda M.Z. Pharmacognosy Reviews 2009 3:6 (320–329)
- Naftali T., Feingelernt H., Lesin Y., Rauchwarger A., Konikoff F.M. "Ziziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation: A controlled clinical trial" Digestion 2008 78:4 (224-228)
- Ebrahimi, Sedigheh; Soheil Ashkani Esfahani, Azizollah Poormahmudi. (2011). "Investigating the efficacy of Zizyphus jujuba on neonatal jaundice". Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 21 (2): 320–324.
- Taati, Majid; Masoud Alirezaei, Mohamad Hadi Moshkatalsadat, Bahram Rasoulian, Mehrnoush Moghadasi, Farzam Sheikhzadeh, Ali Sokhtezari. (2011). "Protective effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract against ethanol-induced hippocampal oxidative stress and spatial memory impairment in rats". Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5 (6): 915–921.
- Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hua Li, In Koo Hwang, Jung Hoon Choi, Choong Hyun Lee, Dae Young Kwon, Shi Yong Ryu, Young Sup Kim, Il-Jun Kang, Hyung-Cheul Shin, and Moo-Ho Won. (2010). "Zizyphus Attenuates Ischemic Damage in the Gerbil Hippocampus via Its Antioxidant Effect". Journal of Medicinal Food 13 (3): 557–563. doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1254.
- Pahuja, M; Mehla J; Reeta KH; Joshi S; Gupta YK. (2011). "Hydroalcoholic extract of Zizyphus jujuba ameliorates seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in experimental models of epilepsy in rats". Epilepsy Behav. 21 (4): 356–363. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.05.013.
- Ralph E. Carson (2012). The Brain Fix: What's the Matter with Your Gray Matter: Improve Your Memory, Moods, and Mind. HCI Books. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-7573-1629-6.
- Kurihara, Y. (1992). "Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 32 (3): 231–252. doi:10.1080/10408399209527598. PMID 1418601.
- Martin, Laura C. (2007). Tea: the Drink that Changed the World. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle Pub. p. 91. ISBN 0-8048-3724-4.
- Fruit Facts: Jujube
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ziziphus zizyphus.|
- Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia. F. Morton, Yan Lin Aung, FL: 1986.