Rosales

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Rosales
Illustration Rosa majalis0.jpg
Two rose plants, Rosa cinnamomea L. and R. rubiginosa L.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Barbeyaceae
Cannabaceae (hemp family)
Dirachmaceae
Elaeagnaceae (oleaster/Russian olive family)
Moraceae (mulberry family)
Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family)
Rosaceae (rose family)
Ulmaceae (elm family)
Urticaceae (nettle family)

Synonyms

Rhamnales
Rosanae
Urticales[2]

For other meanings, see Rosales (disambiguation).

Rosales is an order of flowering plants.[3] It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales.[4] It contains about 7700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank. The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families.[5]

The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[6] In their APG III system of plant classification, they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the taxobox on the right.[1] The relationships of these families were uncertain until 2011, when they were resolved in a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear genes and ten chloroplast genes.[7]

Well-known members of Rosales include: roses, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, apples and pears, plums, peaches and apricots, almonds, rowan and hawthorn, jujube, elms, banyans, figs, mulberries, breadfruit, nettles, hops, and cannabis.

Cronquist system[edit]

In the obsolete Cronquist system, the order Rosales was many times polyphyletic. It consisted of the family Rosaceae and 23 other families that are now placed in various other orders.[8] These families and their placement in the APG III system are:[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

The following phylogenetic tree is from a cladistic analysis of DNA that was published in 2011.[7]

Rosales

Rosaceae





Rhamnaceae




Elaeagnaceae




Barbeyaceae



Dirachmaceae





 urticalean rosids  

Ulmaceae




Cannabaceae




Moraceae



Urticaceae







References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ UniProt. "Order Rosales". Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  3. ^ Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). "Rosales". At: Trees At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below)
  4. ^ Hengchang Wang, Michael J. Moore, Pamela S. Soltis, Charles D. Bell, Samuel F. Brockington, Roolse Alexandre, Charles C. Davis, Maribeth Latvis, Steven R. Manchester, and Douglas E. Soltis (10 Mar 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (10): 3853–3858, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257, PMID 19223592 
  5. ^ Douglas E. Soltis, et alii. (28 authors). 2011. "Angiosperm Phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa". American Journal of Botany 98(4):704-730. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000404
  6. ^ Walter S. Judd, Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, and Michael J. Donoghue. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2
  7. ^ a b Shu-dong Zhang, Douglas E. Soltis, Yang Yang, De-zhu Li, and Ting-shuang Yi. "Multi-gene analysis provides a well-supported phylogeny of Rosales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60(1):21-28. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.04.008 PMID 21540119
  8. ^ Arthur John Cronquist. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-231-03880-5

External links[edit]