Kanshi Ram

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Kanshi Ram
Kanshi Ram.jpg
Personal details
Born March 15, 1934
Khawas Pur village of Ropar District of Punjab (India)
Died October 9, 2006
New Delhi
Political party Bahujan Samaj Party
Religion Buddhism

Kanshi Ram (March 15, 1934 – October 9, 2006) was an Indian politician and social activist who , challenged the Indian caste system into which he was born and founded (1984) the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) to give greater political power to his people, the Dalits (“oppressed”), India’s lowest social caste and traditionally considered to be untouchable. He founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a political party with the stated goal of serving the traditionally lower castes of Indian society (that historically also included untouchables). He transferred the BSP's leadership to Mayawati. His leadership brought the party to power in India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh in 1995, at that point Mayawati became the state's Chief Minister.

Early life[edit]

Kanshi Ram was born to Bishan Kaur and Hari Singh in Ramdassia (Ad Dharmi/Mulnivasi) community of the Scheduled Caste group, which is the largest group in Punjab, at Khawaspur village in Ropar district of Punjab Kanshi Ram's father, who was to some extent literate, made sure that all his children were educated. Kanshi Ram had two brothers and four sisters, out of them all, he was the eldest and most highly educated with a BSc degree. He completed his Bachelor's degree in Science (B.Sc) from the Government College at Ropar affiliated to The Punjab University. After completing his graduation, Kanshi joined the Department of Defence Production and took up the position of scientific assistant. This was in Pune in 1958.


Kanshi Ram joined the offices of the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), then became part of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), in Pune.

During his tenure in the DRDO in 1965 he joined the agitation started by SCEWASTAMB(All India Federation of Scheduled Caste/Tribes Backward Class & Minorities Employees Welfare Associations) of Government of India to prevent the abolition of a holiday commemorating B.R. Ambedkar's birthday. It was after he joined the struggle against the abolition of Dr. Ambedkar's birthday as a holiday, in 1965, that his career in the fight for the oppressed community started. He studied the entire caste system and the works of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar closely and came up with many efforts to help the oppressed rise from the ditches they were tossed into. Finally in 1971 he quit his job and together with his colleagues established the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes and Minorities Employees Welfare Association. The Association was registered with the Puna Charity Commissioner. Through this association, attempts were made to look into the problems and harassment of the above mentioned employees and bring out an effective solution for the same. Another main objective behind establishing this association was to educate and create awareness about the caste system. This association turned out to be a success with more and more people joining it. In 1973, Kanshi Ram again with his colleagues established BAMCEF: Backward And Minority Communities Employees Federation. The first operating office was opened in Delhi in 1976 with the motto-"Educate Organize and Agitate". This served as a base to spread the ideas of Ambedkar and his beliefs. From then on Kanshi Ram continued building his network and making people aware of the realities of the caste system, how it functioned in India and the teachings of Ambedkar. Wherever he travelled he did the same and had many followers. In 1980 he created a road show named "Ambedkar Mela" which showed the life of Ambedkar and his views through pictures and narrations.

In 1981 he founded the Dalit Soshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti or DS4 as a parallel association to the BAMCEF. It was created to fight against the attacks on the workers who were spreading awareness on the caste system. It was created to show that workers could stand united and that they too can fight. However this was not a registered party but an organization which was political in nature. In 1984, he established a full-fledged political party known as the Bahujan Samaj Party. However, it was in 1986 when he declared his transition from a social worker to a politician by stating that he was not going to work for/with any other organization other than the Bahujan Samaj Party. During the meetings and seminars of the party, Kanshi Ram stated to ruling classes that if they promised to do something, it would pay to keep the promise, or else just accept that they were not capable of fulfilling their promises.

Political career[edit]

In 1978 he formed the, BAMCEF-Backward(SC/ST & OBC) and Minority Community Employees Federation. The BAMCEF was purely non political,Non Religious & Non Agitional organisation. Later on he formed another Social organisation known as DS4. He started his attempt of unifying the Dalit vote bank in 1981 and by 1984 he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party. The BSP found success in Uttar Pradesh but struggled to bridge the divide between Dalits and Other Backward classes.[1]

He unsuccessfully contested from East Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency) in 1991 and came at fourth position. Then he represented the 11th Lok Sabha from Hoshiarpur Constituency, Kanshiram was also elected as member of Lok Sabha from Etawah in Uttar Pradesh . In 2001 he publicly announced Kumari Mayawati as his successor.

Announcement for conversion to Buddhism[edit]

Kanshi Ram carrying Buddhist flag on his shoulders.

In 2002, Kanshi Ram, announced his intention to convert to Buddhism on 14 October 2006, the fiftieth anniversary of Ambedkar's conversion. He intended for 20,000,000 of his supporters to convert at the same time. Part of the significance of this plan was that Ram's followers include not only Untouchables, but persons from a variety of castes, who could significantly broaden Buddhism's support. But, he died 9 October 2006.[2] Mayawati his successor said "Kanshi Ram and me had decided that we will convert and adopt Buddhism when we will get "absolute majority" at the Centre. We wanted to do this because we can make a difference to the religion by taking along with us millions of people. If we convert without power then only we two will be converting. But when you have power you can really create a stir," she said.[3]


He was already a diabetic and he suffered from a heart attack in 1994 followed by the formation of a clot in the brain artery in 1995. He has suffered a brain stroke in 2003.[4] From around 2004 or so, Kanshi Ram stopped appearing publicly as he was suffering from various health problems. He convalesced at the home of Mayawati.


On October 9, 2006, he died of a severe heart attack in New Delhi. Kanshi Ram, who suffered from multiple ailments such as stroke, diabetes and hypertension, was virtually bed-ridden for more than two years.

According to his wish,[5] last ritual were performed as per buddhist tradition, the pyre of Kanshi Ram was lit by his soul heir Kumari Mayawati.[4] His ashes were placed in Urn and kept at Prerna Sthal, with huge procession accompanied by lakhs of supports.[6][7]

In his condolence message, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described Mr Ram as "one of the greatest social reformers of our time...his political ideas and movements had a significant impact on our political evolution". "He had a larger understanding of social change and was able to unite various underprivileged sections of our society and provide a political platform where their voices would be heard," Mr Singh said.Under Mr Ram's leadership, the BSP won 14 parliamentary seats in the 1999 federal elections. [8]

Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals[edit]

The body of Kanshi Ram was consigned to flames with Buddhist rituals. The last rites were performed in the presence of his two brothers and sister. BSP president Mayawati personally supervised the last journey of her mentor. Earlier, the body was brought to the party office around 1 p.m. and kept there for an hour for people to pay homage. Several national and State leaders, including Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit, paid their tributes at the party office. Then the body, wrapped in the tricolour, was taken to the Nigam Bodh Ghat in a glass casket mounted on a flower-decked vehicle. The cremation took place around 4 p.m.

Vice-President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, Congress president Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul Gandhi, the former Prime Minister I.K. Gujral, and Bharatiya Janata Party leader Sushma Swaraj were present at the funeral.

During the funeral procession, party workers and followers raised slogans hailing Kanshi Ram as "the leader of the Dalits." A group of Buddhist monks accompanied the procession. While the leader had not formally converted to Buddhism, he was said to have been very close to it.

As per Kanshi Ram's wishes, his mortal remains would not be immersed in any river but would be kept in the party offices in Delhi and Lucknow, Ms. Mayawati said.[9]


Books Kanshi Ram in his historical book, "THE CHAMCHA AGE", (an Era of the Stooges) published on 24 th September, 1982 , on the occasion of 50 th anniversary of the Poona -Pact, has vividly exclusively dealt with the disadvantages of the Chamcha Age.

A) Caste and Community-wise Chamchas.

  • 1) The scheduled Castes - Reluctant Chamchas.
  • 2) The Scheduled Tribes - Initiated Chamchas
  • 3) The Other Backward Castes - aspiring Chamchas
  • 4) The Minorities - Helpless Chamchas.

B) Party - Wise Chamchas.

  • C) Ignorant Chamchas.
  • D) Enlightened Chamchas or Ambedkarite Chamchas
  • E) Chamchas of the Chamchas.
  • F) Chamchas Abroad.


  1. ^ The Dalit Chanakya Ram Narayan Rawat in Outlook - October 23, 2006
  2. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm
  3. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/oct/16look.htm?zcc=rl Mayawati claims Kanshi Ram's legacy
  4. ^ a b HT News
  5. ^ "Kanshi Ram's ashes will not be immersed: Mayavati". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  6. ^ "Maya gives city traffic blues!". Hindustan Times. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  7. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_8012/is_20061019/ai_n39423316/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6032563.stm Indian Dalit leader passes away
  9. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/10/stories/2006101003771200.htm Kanshi Ram cremated as per Buddhist rituals

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