Jagjivan Ram

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Jagjivan Ram
Deputy Prime Minister of India
In office
24 March 1977 – 28 July 1979
Serving with Charan Singh
Prime Minister Morarji Desai
Preceded by Morarji Desai
Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister of Defence
In office
24 March 1977 – 1 July 1978
Prime Minister Morarji Desai
Preceded by Sardar Swaran Singh
Succeeded by Sardar Swaran Singh
In office
27 June 1970 – 10 October 1974
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Preceded by Bansi Lal
Succeeded by Chidambaram Subramaniam
Personal details
Born (1908-04-05)5 April 1908
Chandwa, Bhojpur District, Bihar, British Raj (now India)
Died 6 July 1986(1986-07-06) (aged 78)
Political party Indian National Congress-Jagjivan (1981–1986)
Other political
affiliations
Indian National Congress (Before 1977)
Congress for Democracy (1977)
Janata Party (1977–1981)
Children Suresh, Meira
Alma mater Banaras Hindu University
University of Calcutta

Jagjivan Ram (5 April 1908 – 6 July 1986), known popularly as Babuji, was an Indian independence activist and politician from Bihar. He belonged to the Dusadh caste and was a leader of the Dalit (Untouchable) community. He was instrumental in foundation of the All-India Depressed Classes League, an organisation dedicated to attaining equality for untouchables, in 1935 and was elected to Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1937, that is when he organised, rural labour movement.

In 1946, he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's interim government, the first cabinet of India as a Labour Minister and also a member of Constituent Assembly of India, where he ensured that social justice was enshrined in the Constitution.[1] He went on serve as a minister with various portfolios for more than forty years as a member of Indian National Congress (INC). Most importantly he was the Defence Minister of India during the Indo-Pak war of 1971, which resulted in formation of Bangladesh. His contribution to the Green Revolution in India and modernising Indian agriculture, during his two tenures as Union Agriculture Minister are still remembered, especial during 1974 drought when he was asked to hold the additional portfolio to tide over the food crisis.[2][3]

Though he supported Prime Minister Indira Gandhi during the Emergency (1975–77), he left Congress in 1977 and joined the Janata Party alliance, along with his Congress for Democracy. He later served as the Deputy Prime Minister of India (1977–79), then in 1980, he formed Congress (J).[4]

Early life and education[edit]

Jagjivan Ram was born at Chandwa near Arrah in Bihar, to a family of five siblings, elder brother Sant Lal, and three sisters. His father Sobhi Ram was with British Indian Army, posted at Peshawar, but later resigned due to some differences and bought some farming land in his native village Chandwa, and settled there. He also became a Mahant of Shiv Narayani sect, skilled in calligraphy he illustrated many book of the sect and distributed locally.[5][6]

Young Jagjivan started going a local school in January 1914, but shortly afterward his father died prematurely, leaving him and his mother Vasanti Devi to economic hardships. He joined Aggrawal Middle School in Arrah in 1920, where the medium of instruction was English for the first time, and joined Arrah Town School in 1922, it was here that is faced caste discrimination for the first time, yet remained unfazed. An often cited incident occurred in the school, there was this tradition of having two water pots in the school, one for Hindus and another for Muslims, so when Jagjivan drank water from the Hindu pot, while being from an untouchable class, the matter was reported to the Principal, who placed a third pot for "untouchables" in the school, but this pot was broken by him twice, eventually the Principal decided against placing the third pot.[5][6] A turning point in his life came in 1925, when Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya visited his school, and impressed by his welcome address, invited him to join Banaras Hindu University.[citation needed]

Jagjivan Ram passed his matriculation in the first division and joined the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1927, where he was awarded the Birla scholarship, and passed his Inter Science Examination; while at BHU he organised the scheduled castes to protest against social discrimination.[7] As a Dalit student, he would not be served meals in his hostel, denied haircut by local barbers, a Dalit barber would arrive from Ghazipur from occasionally to trim his hair, eventually he left BHU and pursued graduation from Calcutta University. In 2007, the BHU set up a Babu Jagjivan Ram Chair in its faculty of social sciences to study caste discrimination and economic backwardness.[8][9]

He received a BSc degree from the University of Calcutta in 1931, here again he organised conferences to draw the attention towards issues of discrimination, and also participated in the anti-untouchability movement started by Mahatma Gandhi.[7]

Early career[edit]

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose took notice of him at Kolkata, when in 1928 he organised a Mazdoor Rally at Wellington Square, in which approximately 50,000 people participated. When the devastating Bihar earthquake of 1934 occurred he got actively involved in the relief work and his efforts were appreciated.[10] When popular rule was introduced under the 1935 Act and the scheduled castes were given representation in the legislatures, both the nationalists and the British loyalists sought him because of his first-hand knowledge of the social and economic situation in Bihar, Jagjivan Ram was nominated to the Bihar Council. He chose to go with the nationalists and joined Congress, which wanted him not only because he was valued as an able spokesperson for the depressed classes, but also that he could counter Ambedkar; he was elected to the Bihar assembly in 1937. However, he resigned his membership on the issue of irrigation cess.[11]

In 1935, he contributed to the establishment of the 'All-India Depressed Classes League', an organisation dedicated to attaining equality for untouchables. He was also drawn into the Indian National Congress, in the same year he proposed a resolution in the 1935 session of the Hindu Mahasabha demanding that temples and drinking water wells be opened up to Dalits.[3] and in the early 1940s was imprisoned twice for his active participation in the Satyagraha and the Quit India Movements. He was among the principal leaders who publicly denounced India's participation in the World War II between the European nations and for which he was imprisoned in 1940.[1][12]

Parliamentary career[edit]

In 1946 he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's provisional government and also the subsequent First Indian Cabinet, as a Labour Minister, where he is credited for laying the foundation for several labour welfare policies in India.

Babu Jagjivan Ram & Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha after returning from International Labour Conference, 1947.

He was a part of the prestigious high profile Indian delegation that attended to attend the International Labour Organization (ILO)'s International Labour Conference on 16 August 1947 in Geneva along with the great Gandhian Bihar Bibhuti Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha[13] his chief political mentor and also the then head of the delegation, and few days later he was elected President of the ILO.[14] He served as Labour minister until 1952, later he several Ministerial posts in Nehru's Cabinet,Communications (1952–56), for Transport and railways (1956–62), and for Transport and communications (1962–63).

In Indira Gandhi's government he worked as minister for Labour, employment, and rehabilitation (1966–67), and Union minister for Food and agriculture (1967–70), where he is best remembered for having successfully led the Green Revolution during his tenure.[3][15] When the Congress Party split in 1969, Jagjivan Ram joined the camp led by Indira Gandhi, and became the president of that faction of Congress. He worked as the Minister of Defence (1970–74) making him the virtual No. 2 in the cabinet, minister for Agriculture and irrigation (1974–77). It was during his tenure as the minister of Defence that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was fought, and Bangladesh achieved independence. While loyal to prime minister Indira Gandhi for most of the Indian Emergency, in 1977 he along with five other politicians resigned from the Cabinet and formed the Congress for Democracy party, within the Janata coalition.

A few days before the elections, on a Sunday, Jagjivan Ram addressed an Opposition rally at the famous Ram Lila Grounds in Delhi. The national broadcaster Doordarshan allegedly attempted to stop crowds from participating in the demonstration by telecasting the blockbuster movie Bobby. The rally still drew large crowds, and a newspaper headline the next day ran "Babu beats Bobby" .[16] He was the Deputy Prime Minister of India when Morarji Desai was the prime minister, from 1977 to 1979, though initially reluctant to join the cabinet, and was not present at the oath-taking ceremony on 27 March 1977; he eventually did so at the behest of Jai Prakash Narayan, who insisted that his presence for necessary, "not just as an individual but as a political and social force" and took oath later on.[17] However, he was once again given the defence portfolio. Disillusioned with the Janata party he formed his own party, the Congress (J). He remained a member of Parliament till his death in 1986, after over forty years as a parliamentarian. He was elected from Sasaram parliament constituency in Bihar. His uninterrupted representation in the Parliament from 1936 to 1986 is a world record. .

Positions held[edit]

He holds the record for being the longest-serving cabinet minister in India for 30 years. (Ref. Kendriya Mantripraishad 1947–2004, published by Loksabha Secretriate) Union Minister of Labour, 1946–1952. Union Minister for Communications, 1952–1956. Union Minister for Transport and Railways, 1956–1962. Union Minister for Transport and Communications, 1962–1963. Union Minister for Labour, Employment and Rehabilitation, 1966–1967. Union Minister for Food and Agriculture, 1967–1970. Union Minister of Defence, 1970–1974, 1977–1979. Union Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1974–1977. Founding Member, Congress for Democracy party (aligned with Janata Party), 1977. Deputy Prime Minister of India, 23 March 1977 – 22 August 1979. Founder, Congress (J). He served as President of the Bharat Scouts and Guides from September 1976 to April 1983.[18]

Personal life[edit]

In August 1933 his first wife died after a brief illness, thereafter in June 1935 he married Indrani Devi, a daughter of Dr. Birbal, a well-known social worker of Kanpur, and the couple had two children, Suresh Kumar who was infamously reported in Menaka Gandhi's Surya newspaper, having sexual intercourse with a 21 year old woman named Sushma Chaudhary from a lower middle class Jat family.[19][20] and Meira Kumar.

Legacy[edit]

The place he was cremated has been turned into the memorial Samata Sthal, and his birth anniversary is observed as Samatha Diwas., (Equality Day) in India, his centenary celebrations were held all over the nation in 2008, especially at his statues at the Parliament and at Nizam College; demands for awarding him posthumous Bharat Ratna have been raised from time to time Hyderabad.[21][22] Andhra University which had conferred an honorary doctorate on him in 1973, and in 2009 on the occasion of his 101st birth anniversary, his statue was unveiled on the university premises .[23]

His daughter, Meira Kumar, is a prominent INC leader, who has won his former seat Sasaram, both 2004 and 2009 and was later the Minister for Social Justice in the Manmohan Singh government (2004 – '09), thereafter she became the Speaker of Lok Sabha in 2009. To propagate his ideologies, the 'Babu Jagjivan Ram National Foundation', has been set up by Ministry of Social Justice, Govt. of India in Delhi.[24]

The first indigenously built electric locomotive to have been built in India, a WAM-1 model, was named after him, which was recently restored by the Eastern Railway.

Works[edit]

  • Ram, Jagjivan; Shachi Rani Gurtu (1951). Jagjivan Ram on labour problems. Ram. 
  • Ram, Jagjivan (1980). Caste challenge in India. Vision Books. 

Books on Jagjivan Ram[edit]

  • Sharma, Devendra Prasad (1974). Jagjivan Ram: the man and the times. Indian Book Co. 
  • Chanchreek, Kanhaiyalal (1975). Jagjivanram: a select bibliography, 1908–1975. S. Chand. 
  • Singh, Nau Nihal (1977). Jagjivan Ram: symbol of social change. Sundeep Prakashan. 
  • Ram, Jagjivan (1977). Four decades of Jagjivan Ram's parliamentary career. S. Chand. 
  • Ramesh Chandra, Sangh Mittra (2003). Jagjivan Ram And His Times. Commonwealth Publishers. ISBN 81-7169-737-2. 
  • Secretariat, Lok Sabha (2005). Babu Jagjivan Ram in parliament: a commemorative volume. Lok Sabha Secretariat. 
  • Maurya, Dr. Omprakash. Babu Jagjivan Ram. Publications Division, Govt. of India. 

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "`Jagjivan Ram an example of development politics' . He was considered to be one of the corrupt politicians, who tried to unsuccessfully bribe Dr. Varghese Kurien, the father of green revolution.". The Hindu. 6 April 2007. 
  2. ^ M. S. Swaminathan (7 February 2008). "Jagjivan Ram & inclusive agricultural growth". The Hindu. 
  3. ^ a b c "Prez, PM call for a second green revolution". The Times of India. 6 April 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "Jagjivan Ram". Britannica.com. 
  5. ^ a b Profile Jagjivan Ram:Early life
  6. ^ a b Bakshi, S. R. (1992). Jagjivan Ram: The Harijan Leader. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. pp. 1–2. ISBN 81-7041-496-2. 
  7. ^ a b Jagjivan ram Research Reference and Training Div., Ministry of I & B, Govt. of India.
  8. ^ "Denied table, given Chair". The Telegraph (Kolkata). 1 November 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  9. ^ "BHU News: A chair for late Jagjivan Ram inaugurated". IT-BHU. August 2007. 
  10. ^ "Valedictory Centenary Lecture by President of India on Jagjivan Ram Centenary Function". President of India website. 5 April 2008. 
  11. ^ Past Presidents Indian National Congress INC Official website.
  12. ^ "8th Lok Sabha:Members Bioprofile". Lok Sabha. 
  13. ^ Kamat. "Biography: Anugrah Narayan Sinha". Kamat's archive. Retrieved 2006-06-25. 
  14. ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1984). Selected works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Volume 14, Part 2. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund. p. 340. 
  15. ^ "Babu Jagjivan Ram Bhavan to be built". The Hindu. 6 April 2007. 
  16. ^ "Emergency: Memories of the dark midnight". The Hindu, Business Line. 25 June 2005. 
  17. ^ Mirchandani, G.G. (2003). 320 Million Judges. Abhinav Publications. p. 178. ISBN 81-7017-061-3. 
  18. ^ Bharat Souts and Guides
  19. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/proj_tabloid/politics.shtml
  20. ^ http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3076/464/1600/sureshsex3.jpg
  21. ^ "Confer Bharat Ratna on Jagjivan Ram: Naidu". The Hindu. 6 April 2006. 
  22. ^ "Tributes paid to Jagjivan Ram". The Hindu. 6 April 2007. 
  23. ^ "Jagjivan Ram's services recalled". The Hindu. 6 April 2009. 
  24. ^ "A brief on Babu Jagjivan Ram National Foundation". 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Bansi Lal
Minister of Defence
1970–1974
Succeeded by
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Preceded by
Morarji Desai
Deputy Prime Minister of India
1977–1979
Served alongside: Charan Singh
Succeeded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Preceded by
Sardar Swaran Singh
Minister of Defence
1977–1978
Succeeded by
Sardar Swaran Singh
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Dharma Vira
President of the Bharat Scouts and Guides
1976–1983
Succeeded by
Shankarrao Chavan