Karkala

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Karkala
ಕಾರ್ಕಳ
city[1]
Gomateshwara Statue
Gommateshwara statue at Karkala
Nickname(s): Jain pilgrimage centre
Karkala is located in Karnataka
Karkala
Karkala
Location in Karnataka, India
Coordinates: 13°12′00″N 74°58′59″E / 13.2°N 74.983°E / 13.2; 74.983Coordinates: 13°12′00″N 74°58′59″E / 13.2°N 74.983°E / 13.2; 74.983
Country  India
State Karnataka
Region Tulu Nadu
Division Mysore Division
District Udupi
Zone Karkala
Ward 23
Settled 1912
Headquarters Udupi
Government
 • President Mrs Rahamath Nasir
 • Deputy President Mrs. Nalini Achar
Area
 • Total 23.06 km2 (8.90 sq mi)
Elevation 80 m (260 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,824
 • Density 1,089.16/km2 (2,820.9/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, Beary Language ( Beary Bashe)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 574 104
Telephone code 91-(0)8258
Vehicle registration KA-20
Nearest city Mangalore
Sex ratio 1.11 /
Legislature type Bicameral
Legislature Strength 156
Lok Sabha constituency Udupi Loksabha Constituency(15th)
Vidhan Sabha constituency Karkala Vidhansabha Kshethra(122nd)
Distance from Mysore 250 kilometres (160 mi) (land)
Website www.karkalatown.gov.in
The Famous Jain Centre

Karkala (Tulu/Konkani/Kannada/Beary Language ( Beary Bashe): ಕಾರ್ಕಳ [kaːrkəɭɐ]) is a town and the headquarters of Karkala taluk in the Udupi district of Karnataka, India. Located about 380 km from Bangalore, it lies near the Western Ghats.

The town was called Pandya Nagari (ಪಾಂಡ್ಯ ನಗರಿ) during the period of Jain rule, and later became known as Karikallu (ಕರಿಕಲ್ಲು), then Karkal (ಕಾರ್ಕಲ್) and finally to Karkala.

Karkala has a number of natural and historical landmarks.

History and origin[edit]

Karkala dates back to the beginning of the 10th century.

Etymology[edit]

Black granite is abundant in the area, and is in wide use in the local architecture. The name of the town is derived from kari-kal, meaning black stone in Tulu.Some assert that the original name was 'Kari Kola' meaning 'elephant lake' which is the existing 'Anekere'. Tulu-speaking people call the town Karla. Muslims, and Kannadigas call it Karkala, and the Roman Catholics call it Karkol. Its alternative name, Jain Thirtha, is the result of 300 years of Jain rule. It was called Karkal by the English; later, it was called Karkala in Kannada. Karkala is on the top of a granite bed that is about 300–500 ft thick.

Ancient legends

The Alupas were the first to rule Karkala. Their rule was followed by the Santaras, who were the feudatories of Alupas for many years. Karkala, or ancient Pandya Nagari, attained political and cultural importance from the time of the Kalasa-Karkala kingdom that was established by Bhairarasa Odeyas between 13th and 16th centuries. The Bhairarasas appear to be the descendants of the Santara chiefs, who ruled the western ghats region around the 11th century AD.

The royal family of Karkala shot to prominence right from the time of the Hoysalas. During the Vijayanagara period this family reached new heights of glory. Their kingdom extended over a wider area comprising Sringeri, Koppa, Balehonnur and Mudigere in Chikamagalur and most of the Karkala taluk. They were rich and maintained a large army. Despite engaging in wars, peace prevailed in the kingdom and this led to increased cultural activity and development.

The first important king was Veera Bhairava, who constructed basadis at Karkala and endowed land and money to numerous temples and basadis. Ramanatha and Veerapandya were his two sons. Ramanatha died during his father’s time. In his memory, a scenic lake called Ramasamudra was created, which still survives.

King Veera Pandya, at the insistence of his Guru Lalitakeerti, the pontiff of Karkala Jaina Math, installed a large statue of Bahubali on the rocky hill of Karkala. The date of the installation has been ascertained as February 13, 1432. Veera Pandya also installed the Brahmadeva Pillar in front of the statue in 1436.

Abinava Pandya ascended the throne next and it was he who installed a carving of manastambha in front of the Neminatha Basadi in Hiriyangadi in 1457 AD. An intricately carved 54-foot-high (16 m) pillar stands in front of the Basadi. The Neminatha Basadi was renovated in 1946. An oriental school with free boarding and lodging facilities is being run here by the Bhujabali Brahmacharya Ashrama.

Abhinava Pandya’s successor was Pandya VI. He built the Kere Basadi in the middle of a lake called Anekere in 1545 AD. It is in this lake that the king’s elephants used to bathe. The Basadi and the lake still exist.

The next important king was Immadi Bhairava (Bhairava II). He constructed the Chaturmukha Basadi on top of a small rocky hill in 1586 AD. The Basadi has four identical entrances from the four quarters leading to the Garbagriha and hence is popularly known as Chaturmukha Basadi. This is the most celebrated structural temple in Karkala[citation needed] and is referred to in inscriptions as Tribhuvana Tilaka Jina Chaityalaya and Ratnaraya Dhama. The Chaturmukha Basadi is built in the form of a square mandapa or hall with a lofty doorway and pillared portico on each of its four sides and a pillared verandah. The roof is flat and is made of massive granite slabs. It has lifesize statues of three theerthankaras on each side and small images of 24 theerthankaras. It took 30 years to construct this temple. In all, there are 108 pillars inside and outside the temple.

This place also came under the rule of Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar, soldier, and poet. It was under him that some of the untold and disappearing landmarks of Karkal(ಕಾರ್ಕಲ್) were made. One of the most immanent of the time was the Kotay kani moat made in front of the Karkal Kotay castle, which was used during his war against the East India Company. In this war against EIC, few of Indian Kingdom of Mysore’s elite soldiers with huge contribution and service towards the land and kingdom were granted Title and Land in the township of Karkalla. One such title is Karkala Patayath. Second such marvel of the same regime is to discover the usage of a Gavi (or cave) route to travel to various surrounding location unseen through the mountains located near Shivati Keray (Lord Shivas lake).

There are 18 basadis of antiquity, including Mahaveera Basadi, Chandranathaswamy Basadi, Adinathaswamy Basadi, Ananthanatha Basadi, Guru Basadi, and Padmavathi Basadi. However, the rulers of Karkala were tolerant towards other religions. Therefore, temples of other religions exist, including the temples of Anantashayana and Venkataramana, Mahamaya Mukhyaprana, and Adi Shakti. The St Lawrence Church was built in 1845 in a village called Nitte (Attur hamlet) where people of all religions congregate every year in January for the feast of St Lawrence.

History[edit]

The Alupas were the first to rule Karkala. Their rule was followed by the Santaras, who were the feudatories of Alupas for many years. Karkala, or ancient Pandya Nagari, attained political and cultural importance from the time of the Kalasa-Karkala kingdom that was established by Bhairarasa Odeyas between 13th and 16th centuries. The Bhairarasas appear to be the descendants of the Santara chiefs, who ruled the western ghats region around the 11th century AD.[2]

The royal family of Karkala rose to prominence during the time of the Hoysalas. During the Vijayanagara period, they expanded their kingdom to cover Sringeri, Koppa, Balehonnur, and Mudigere in Chikamagalur and most of the Karkala taluk.

The king Veera Bhairava[3] constructed basadis at Karkala and endowed land and money on numerous temples and basadis. Ramanatha and Veerapandya were his two sons. Ramanatha predeceased his father, and in his memory, a lake called Ramasamudra was created, which still survives. Later, King Veera Pandya installed a large statue of Bahubali on the rocky hill of Karkala. The date of the installation has been ascertained as February 13, 1432. Veera Pandya also installed the Brahmadeva Pillar in front of the statue in 1436. His successor, Abinava Pandya, installed an intricate 54-foot-high (16 m) carving of manastambha in front of the Neminatha Basadi in Hiriyangadi in 1457 AD. Later, Pandya VI built the Kere Basadi in the middle of a lake called Anekere in 1545 AD.

There are 18 basadis of antiquity, including Mahaveera Basadi, Chandranathaswamy Basadi, Adinathaswamy Basadi, Ananthanatha Basadi, Guru Basadi, and Padmavathi Basadi. However, the rulers of Karkala were tolerant towards other religions. Therefore, temples of other religions exist, including the temples of Anantashayana and Venkataramana, Mahamaya Mukhyaprana, and Adi Shakti. The St Lawrence Church was built in 1845 in a village called Nitte (Attur hamlet) where people of all religions congregate every year in January for the feast of St Lawrence.

Religion[edit]

Karkala is a town of historical importance and a pilgrim centre for Jains. Jainism is widely practised here. The single stone 42-foot (13 m) statue Gomateshwara (Lord Bahubali) is located about 1 km from the center of the town and is the second tallest in Karnataka . There are about 18 Jain basadis here. This statue of Lord Bahubali was installed at Karkala on February 13, 1432 on the instructions of the pontiff of Karkala, Lalitakeerti. There are several other temples, mosques and churches in and around Karkala. Several jain temples were constructed namely Chaturmukha Thirthankara Basadi, Hiriyangaddi Neminatha Basadi, and Anekere Padmavathi Basadi. All of these sites mentioned are listed in Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India.

The other statues of Bahubali in the state are at Shravanabelagola installed by Chavundaraya, which is 57 feet tall, at Venur installed by Timmaraja, which is 35 feet (11 m) tall, and at Dharmasthala installed by Dr. Veerendra Heggade, which is 39 feet (12 m) tall.

Fairs and festivals[edit]

Mahamastakabhisheka, held once every 12 years and Attur Fest, held once a year are some festivals of Karkala which attract major crowd from all over the country.

Mahamastakabhisheka[edit]

Every twelve years, hundreds of thousands of Jain devotees congregate to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a ceremony where the Gommateshwara statue is bathed and anointed with milk, water, and saffron paste and sprinkled with sandalwood powder, turmeric, and vermilion. The last Mahamastakabhisheka was held in February 2002, and the next will be in 2014. An annual Rathotsava is held in February.

Landmarks[edit]

Karkala is a pilgrimage location for Jains and it attracts tourists. There are several Hindu temples, Jain Basadis, Mosques, Churches and lakes in Karkala.

Archaeological Survey Of India protected sites[edit]

The following historical structures are the great examples of art and architecture. They are protected by various laws of the Government of India. Few of the ASI protected sites are

  • Anathapadmanabha Temple, Ananthashayana
  • Chathurmukha Basadi
  • Gommateshwara Statue
  • Manasthamba, Hiriyangadi, Karkala
  • Lava Kusha Kambala, Miyar, Karkala

Padutirupathi Karkala[edit]

Padutirupathi is a temple dating back to the 14th century when the Jain Bhairarasa Odeyars ruled Karkala and surrounding place. It still serves as a gathering place for the people of Karkala today.[4]

St. Lawrence Shrine[edit]

St. Lawrence Shrine, or Attur church, was built in the 18th century by Christians who fled Portuguese rule in India. It is a Catholic church dedicated to St. Lawrence, and serves the Christian population of India.

Geography[edit]

Karkal is located at 13°12′N 74°59′E / 13.2°N 74.98°E / 13.2; 74.98.[5] It has an average elevation of 81 metres (265 feet).

Meteorological Details[edit]

City area 23.06 km2.
Number of properties 9526 habitats
Length of roads 77.5 km
Total water supply 2 MLD
Type of land Wet
Water supply source Mundli River
Summer temperature 38°C
Winter temperature 24°C
Annual rainfall 4372.7mm
Agriculture crops Paddy, coconut, arecanut, jackfruit
Latitude 13.2000
Longitude 74.9833
Altitude (feet) 265
Lat (DMS) 13°11'60 N
Long (DMS) 74°58'60 E
Altitude (meters) 80

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[6] Karkal town had a population of 25,118. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Karkal has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 79%. In Karkal, 9% of the population is under six years of age. According to recent statistics by town municipality, 25,635 people currently reside in this town, while as per the recent statistics Karkala taluk has a population of 2.10 Lacs (previous 2001 census is 2,04,571).

Culture[edit]

The people follow tuluva culture.Distinctive features of tuluvas include rituals of Bhuta Kola, Nagaradhane and Yakshagana etc. Tuluva New Year is called Bisu, which falls on the same day as Baisakhi, Vishu and Thai New Year.

Language and people[edit]

Karkala is a multicultural and multilingual town that follows four religions, namely Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism. Tulu, Kannada, Urdu, and Konkani [Beary language|Beary]are the most prevalent local languages, though Hindi and English are also well understood. There are also Tuluva communities, Urdu and Beary speaking Muslims, Marathi-speaking Maharashtrian Brahmins (chitpavans) and a few Maratha Kshatriyas. The Protestant Christians Tulu or Konkani.

Tradition[edit]

Hulivesha (Tiger dance) is a unique form of folk dance in Dakshina Kannada. It is considered as the favored carrier of Goddess Sharada (the deity in whose honor Dussera is celebrated), and is performed during the Dussera celebration. It is also performed during other festivals like Krishna Janmasthami. Bhuta Kola or spirit worship is practised, usually at night. Kambala, or buffalo racing, is also conducted in paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfighting) is another favourite sport for village people. To its supporters, Cockfight, an ancient sport involving a fight between specially reared fowls held at the temples precincts in northern parts of Kasaragod, is not a blood sport but a feature of the rich cultural heritage of Tulunadu and an ancient ritual associated with the ‘daivasthanams’ (temples) here.[7] Nagaradhane, or snake worship, is also practised, according to the popular belief that the Naga Devatha (snake God) go underground and guard the species above. Konkani speaking GSBs have their own tradition of celebrating Rathotsava and Deepotsava like the Kannada speaking Brahmins.

The Christians in Karkala celebrate a special feast known by various names, some of these names are Saanth Maari, Attur Parish Feast, ಅತ್ತೂರು ಜಾತ್ರೆ(Atturu Jatray) and Attur Church festival. This festival is always scheduled to take place in the last week of the month of January and takes place for three days continuously usually Tuesday,Wednesday and Thursday. Thousands of people from all over India attend.

The Muslims offer prayers five times a day at the Masjids and eid prayers at Eidgah on Eid ul fitr and Eid ul adha occasions and Jains have their Jain Milans yearly.

Administration[edit]

The Karkala Town Municipal Council (Karkala Purasabhe in Kannada; ಕಾರ್ಕಳ ಪುರಸಬೆ) is the municipal corporation. Also, Karkala comes under Udupi-Chikkamaglur LokaSabha Constituency.

Transportation[edit]

State and national highways are the main mode of transportation in Karkala. The closest airports and railroads are in Bajpe in Mangalore and Indrali in Udupi,

Roads connected[edit]

Karkala is connected to 3 major state roads and one major highway:

  • National Highway NH 13 (Solapur-Karkala-Mangalore via Shimoga)
    • This will be a 4-lane, 60-meter wide, grade separated highway till Mangalore from Karkala.
  • State Highway SH 1 (Karkala-Nitte-Padubidri) which is also connected to National Highway 66 at Padubidri
  • State Highway SH 37 (Karkala-Bailur-Manipal-Udupi)
  • State Highway SH 1

Railway lines (Proposed)[edit]

2 Railway lines have been proposed to be built, which will pass through Karkala.[8] They are

  • Kulur-Karkala-Uppingady
  • Padubidri-Karkala-Moodbidri-Venoor

Commerce[edit]

A large steel plant is located in the outskirts of the town named Lamina Foundries ltd. In this semi-urban township Industries are limited to cashew, rice, and coconut-oil only. There is one dynamite factory at Varanga village.

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]