Kilit dialect

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Kilit
Native to Azerbaijan
Region Nakhchivan
Coordinates 38°56.7′N 46°5.9′E / 38.9450°N 46.0983°E / 38.9450; 46.0983
Extinct 20th century
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Kilit is an extinct Iranian dialect of Azerbaijan that is closely related to Talysh. It is probably a dialect of Iranian Tati, otherwise found only in Iran. It was spoken in the villages around Kilit, located 12 kilometers southwest from the city of Ordubad in a district with the same name of Nakhchivan in Azerbaijan. It was still used by non-native speakers as a second language in the 1950s.[1][2]

History[edit]

The language has been long known to the Russian historians and travelers since the middle of nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. The historian Chopin, first mentioned it back in 1852. He states the inhabitants of the village as amounting to 104. Zelinsky researched on the language in 1880 afterwards. In the 1950s a few speakers was reported who used the language probably only as a trade lingo or secret language. In 1966, A. G. Gasanov collected a few words and phrases.[3] Although the possibility of a migration cannot be ruled out, however it is more likely, given more data about Tatic languages and proto-Tatic, that this group extended at least as far as the areas in which the remanent languages are spoken today.[1]

Some available materials[edit]

The following is a kiliti text reported by Zelinsky:[4][5][6] Transliterated from Cyrillic [7][dubious ]:

English Kiliti Talyshi (Taleshdulaei) Persian
When Duke General came, vahti knâz' aslnda eranali èmiabia, vaqti sardăr ăma, väqti duk ženeral amäd,
he asked me: manè èštaša: ba mәnkăš xăsta: az män xast:
"Speak in your language so I see what is your language". "bi šema zun kasaka man vinèm ki, šema zun kalang zuna". "ba әštan zәvon gaf bәžan bәvinom šәma zәvon kamila" "be zäbane xodetan soxän begu bebinäm ke, zäbane šoma kodam zäban äst"
Whatever he asked me (got information from me), I said then. ha či ki, èšman haba èškata, mandže votma. ba mәnka harčә kәn dafarsәsta mәnin văta. här če ke, äz män porsid (xäbär gereft), män häm goftäm.
He asked me how we counted. èšman haba èškata ki, ki kalang ašmardia. ba mәnkă dafarsәst čәntarin bašmard. äz män xäbär gereft ke, čegune mišemarid.
Then I counted up to hundred. mandže ašmar dema desta sa. mәnin әšmarda dă sad. män häm šemordäm ta be säd.
That General wanted me to come to him. o eranal manè èštaša kûsèš. a sardări ba mәnkă xăsta bәšom čai var. an ženeral äz män xast pišäš beräväm.
He asked me: "Where do you stay?" èšman haba èškata: "kèing mandaniš?" ba mәnka dafarsa: "kiyă bamandiš?" äz män xäbär gereft: "koja mimani?"
Then I said that "dismiss me, I will go to my home". mandže votma ki, "manu murahast kai, manèm kaim". mәnin văta kәn, "ama bәrăxәn bašimon әštan ka". män häm goftäm ke, "mära moräxäs kon, miräväm xaneäm".
He said: "No, you should stay here". votma: "na, pista na haingu muni". vătәš: "ne , pi hiyă bәmona". goft: "nä, bayäd häminja bemani".
I said then: "That is your will, mandže votma: "ihtio hesta, mәnin văta: "әm әštә xăstaya, män häm goftäm: "in xaste to äst,
you tell me to stay, votim manem, bătiš bәmonәm, miguyi bemanäm,
so I (will stay) for the night." šav mandže". azni šav (bamandim)" män häm šäb (mimanäm)".
Whatever he asked me, I said then. ha či oj èščaman haba èškata, mandže votma. harči ba mәnka dafarsәst mәnin văta. här če ke äz män xäbär gereft, män häm goftäm.

Comparative list of numbers and some words mentioned by Zelinsky and Gasanov:

English Kiliti Talyshi Persian
mouth gav gäv dähan
brother bole bәră, boli bäradär
nut zuz viz, voz, yuz gerdu (jowz)
where henda kiya, ku koja
bring bija bәjär bijar
braised meat gail gäylä, kavab gušte beryan
said gäji vateš goft
wild èšivin ašyă, èšivo (bear) vahši, dädmäneš
1 ivi i jek
2 dèv dy, de do
3 he se se
4 čoj čo, ču, čar čähar
5 pindž pendž, penj pändž
6 šaš šäš šeš
7 haft haft häft
8 hašt häšt häšt
9 nav näv, nä noh
10 dah da däh
11 dahai jonzä davy-i, yănza jazdäh
English Kiliti Talyshi Persian
12 dahadèv donzä davy-dy, dave-de, danza dävazdäh
13 dahahe senzä davy-se, dave-se, sinza sinzdäh
14 dahačio čordä davy-čo, dave-ču, čardä čahardäh
15 dahapind ponzä davy-pendž, dave-pendž, panzä panzdäh
16 dahašaš šonzä davy-šäš, dave-šäš, šanzä šanzdäh
17 dahahaft havdä davy-haft, dave-haft, hivdä hevdäh
18 dahahašt häždä davy-häšt, dave-häšt, häždä hiždäh
19 dahanav nonzä davy-näv, dave-näv, nuzda nuzdäh
20 vist vist, bist bist
30 si si si
40 čel' čyl, čel čehel
50 pindžoj pendžo, pendža pändžah
60 šešt šest, šäst šäst
70 havta hafto, hatu, häftad häftad
80 hašta häšto, häštu, häštad häštad
90 vahta näve, näved, näväd näväd
100 sa sa, säd säd
1000 hačoj häzo, häzu, häzar hezar

The identity[edit]

Chopin remarks that the inhabitants of Kilit village were professing Shiite faith and their language is not similar to any of the other local dialects. However he has been puzzled about their origin. He mentioned that they might be from Armenian origin or more likely Talyshi, Tat, Tajik or Zoroastrian.[8] Zelinsky considered it as a mixture of Kurdish, Persian and Arabic. Gasanov called it with a certain affinity towards Iranian languages. But only Zelinsky's materials are enough to understand that kiliti is not an argot, possesses an independent grammatical structure and have the main base of the root words and all the typical features of the Iranian languages. The existing materials also provide a sufficient basis to determine it as belonging to the northwestern Iranian group of languages. That language had no written tradition. According to Zelinsky, dozens of villages had spoken the language before, but it was just understandable to the villagers afterwards and then the Azerbaijani language replaced it.[3][4]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stilo, D. L. 1994. Phonological systems in contact in Iran and Transcaucasia. In Persian studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery By Muhammed Ali Jaza'iri, Mehdi Marashi, Mohammad Ali: Festschrift Jazayery, Published by Ibex Publishers, Inc., p. 90. ISBN 0-936347-35-X, ISBN 978-0-936347-35-6
  2. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  3. ^ a b Sources of kilit language (Источники о килитском языке)(Russian)
  4. ^ a b Zelinsky, S. P. 1880. Three Magali: Nakhichevan, Ordubadsky and Daralagezsky. Geografo-statistical and agricultural description. "Collected information about the Caucasus," t. VII, Tiflis. (Зелинский С. П. 1880. Три магала: Нахичеванский, Ордубадский и Даралагезский. Географо-статистическое и сельскохозяйственное описание. "Сборник сведений о Кавказе", т. VII, Тифлис.) (Russian)
  5. ^ The text reported by Zelinsky:
    Kiliti in Cyrillic: «Вахти князь аслнда еранали эмиабиа, манэ эшташа: бишемазун касака ман винэм ки, шемазун каланг зуна. Хачи ки, эшман хаба эшката, мандже вотма. Эшман хаба эшката ки, ки каланг ашмардиа, мандже ашмар дема деста са. О еранал манэ эшташа кюсэш эшман хаба эшката кэинг манданиш? мандже вотма ки, ману мурахаст каи манэм каим. Вотма на, писта на хаингу муни. Мандже вотма: ихтио хеста, вотим манем, шав мандже. Хачи ой эшчаман хаба эшката, мандже вотма…»
    The translation in Russian: Во время князя генерал приехал, меня потребовал: «иди на вашем наречии говори, я посмотрю, ваш язык какого сорта». Что не спросил меня, я ответил. Меня спросил, как считаете. Я сосчитал до ста. Тот генерал меня потребовал к себе, спросил меня: «Где останешься?» (где будешь ночевать?) Я сказал, что меня отпустите, я пойду домой. Сказал нет, должен остаться здесь». Я сказал, «Воля ваша, скажешь, останусь» Ночью остался. Что не спросил меня, я сказал (ответил)».
  6. ^ Gasanov, A. G. 1966. "O 'tainom' iazyke zhitelei sela Kilit Nakhichevankoi ASSR." In Voprosy Dialektologii Tiurkskix lazykov, Vol. 4, edited by R. I. Avanesov, N. A. Baskakov, et al. Baku: Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. (Russian)
  7. ^ Russian translit converter
  8. ^ Shopen, Ivan, 1852. Istoricheskiĭ pamiatnik sostoianiia Armianskoĭ-oblasti v ėpokhu eia prisoedineniia k Rossiĭskoĭ-Imperii. Published by V tip. Imp. Akademii nauk. P. 539 (Russian)

Further reading[edit]