Kingdom of Sussex

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This refers to the "Kingdom of Sussex". For a general history of Sussex see the History of Sussex. For the modern county see Sussex or the current administrative divisions of East Sussex and West Sussex.
Sussex
Sūþseaxna rīce
Vassal of Wessex (686–726, 827–858)
Vassal of Mercia (771–796)

 

c. 477[nb 1]–858
Flag (attributed later) Coat of arms
Britain around AD 800
Capital Chichester[1]
Selsey (seat of South Saxon bishopric)
Languages Old English (Ænglisc)
Religion Paganism (before 7th century)
Christianity
 - Pre-Schism (after 7th century)
Government Monarchy
Monarchs (see full list)
 -  477-491 or later Ælle
 -  c.660-665 Æðelwealh
Legislature Witenagemot
Historical era Heptarchy
 -  Established c. 477[nb 1]
 -  Subject to Wessex c.686 to 726
 -  Subject to Mercia 771 to c. 796
 -  Subject to Wessex From c. 827[2]
 -  Full integration into crown of Wessex 858
Population
 -  450 est. 25,000[3] 
 -  1100 est. 35,000[4] 
Currency Sceat
Today part of  United Kingdom

Sussex (/ˈsʌsɪks/; Old English: Sūþseaxna rīce, "kingdom of the South Saxons") was a Saxon colony and later independent kingdom of the Saxons, on the south coast of England.

The South Saxons were ruled by the kings of Sussex.

Geography[edit]

Its boundaries coincided in general with those of the earlier kingdom of the Regnenses and the later county of Sussex. For a brief period in the 7th century, the Kingdom of Sussex controlled the Isle of Wight and the territory of the Meonwara[5] in the Meon Valley in east Hampshire. From the late 8th century, Sussex seems to have absorbed the Kingdom of the Haestingas, after the region was conquered by the Mercian king Offa.

A large part of its territory was covered in early times by the Forest of Andred or Andredsweald, known today as the Weald. This forest according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was 120 miles (190 km) wide and 30 miles (50 km) deep (although probably closer to 90 miles (140 km) wide).[6] It was inhabited by wolves, boars and possibly even bears.[6] It was so dense that even the Domesday Book did not record some of its settlements.[6] The heavily forested Weald made expansion difficult but also provided some protection from invasion by neighbouring kingdoms.[7] Whilst Sussex's isolation from the rest of Anglo-Saxon England has been emphasised, Roman roads must have remained important communication arteries across the forest of the Weald.[8] The Weald was not the only area of Sussex that was forested in Saxon times, for example at the western end of Sussex is the Manhood Peninsula, which in the modern era is largely deforested, however the name is probably derived from the Old English maene-wudu meaning "men's wood" or "common wood" indicating that it was once woodland.[9]

The coastline would have looked different from today. Much of the alluvium in the river plains had not yet been deposited and the tidal river estuaries extended much further inland.[10] It is estimated that the coastal plain may have been at least one mile broader than it is today.[10] Before people reclaimed the tidal marshes in the 13th century the coastal plain contained extensive areas of sea water in the form of lagoons, salt marsh, wide inlets, islands and peninsulas. To the South Saxons of the 5th and 6th centuries this coastline must have resembled their original homeland between coastal Friesland, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.[11]

The boundaries of the Kingdom of Sussex probably crystallised around the 6th and 7th centuries.[12] To the west, the Kingdom of Sussex bordered the Kingdom of Wessex at the River Ems. To the east at Romney Marsh and the River Limen (now called the River Rother or Kent Ditch), Sussex shared a border with the Kingdom of Kent. North of the Forest Ridge in the Wealden forest lay the sub-kingdom of Surrey which became a frontier area disputed between various kingdoms until it later became part of Wessex.

By the 680s, when Christianity was being introduced, there is no doubt that the district around Selsey and Chichester had become the political centre of the kingdom, though there is little archaeological evidence for a reoccupation of Chichester itself before the ninth century.[13] The capital of the Kingdom of Sussex was at Chichester,[1] the seat of the kingdom's bishopric was at Selsey. The traditional residence of the South Saxon kings was at Kingsham, once outside the southern walls of Chichester although within its modern boundaries.[14] Ditchling may have been an important regional centre for a large part of central Sussex between the Rivers Adur and Ouse until the founding of Lewes in the 9th century.[15]

The ancient droveways of Sussex linked coastal and downland communities in the south with summer pasture land in the interior of the Weald. The droveways were used throughout the Saxon era by the South Saxons and probably originated before the Roman occupation of Britain. The droveways formed a road system that clearly suggests that the settlers in the oldest developed parts of Sussex were concerned not so much with east-west connections between neighbouring settlements as with north-south communication between each settlement and its outlying woodland pasture. The droving roads had an enduring effect on the pattern of Sussex settlement. When churches came to be built, an ideal site was where a drove crossed a river. Eventually traders gravitated to churches, so founding villages, and in some cases market towns such as at Ditchling, Shermanbury, Thakeham, Ashurst and Shipley.[16]

Land divisions in the Kingdom of Sussex were sometimes different from other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and regions. By the Late Saxon period, the main administrative unit of Sussex was the district known as the rape.[17] Their origins may be earlier, possibly originating in the Romano-British period.[18] The rapes were sub-divided into hundreds, which served as taxation and administrative districts.[17] In England generally these contained a nominal 100 hides (a measure of taxable value linked to land area) but in Sussex they were generally much smaller.[17] Sussex may also have had eight virgates for every hide; in most of England a hide was usually made up of four virgates.

Population[edit]

The population of Britain as a whole is likely to have declined sharply around the 4th century from around 2-4 million in 200AD to less than 1 million in 300AD; there would have been a similarly sharp decline in the population of Sussex during this period.[19] At the end of the 4th century there was a decline in the birth rate across Roman Britain; this population decrease would have been exacerbated by the transfer to Continental Europe of three large armies, recruited in Britain in the last 30 years of Roman rule, as well as plague and barbarian attack.[20] Sussex's population around 450 is estimated to have been no more than about 25,000, rising gradually to around 35,000 by 1100.[21]

Approximate populations of Sussex towns shortly after the end of the Saxon period in 1086 at the time of the Domesday Book may have been as follows:

Rank Town[22] Population[23]

(1086 Estimate)

1 Chichester 1,200-1,500
2 Lewes 1,200
3 Steyning 600
4 Pevensey 500

History[edit]

Foundation[edit]

The foundation legend of the Kingdom of the South Saxons is given by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which states that in the year AD 477 Ælle arrived at a place called Cymenshore in three ships with his three sons.[24] The Chronicle describes how on landing Ælle slew the local defenders and drove the remainder into the Forest of Andred.[24] The Chronicle goes on to describe Ælle's battle with the British in 485 near the bank of Mercredesburne, and his siege of Pevensey in 491 after which the inhabitants were massacred.[25][26]

Cymenshore is traditionally thought to have been located at what is now known as the Owers Rocks, south of Selsey, however there is no archaeological evidence to support the existence of Ælle and his three sons in the Selsey area.[27][28] Most historians regard the foundation of Sussex with Ælle landing with three ships and three sons as a myth.[24][29][30]

The archaeological evidence that we do have indicates the area of settlement by the location of cemeteries of the period.[31] The origins of the settlers can be derived by comparing the design of grave goods and pottery with the designs of similar items in the German homelands.[32] The principal area of settlement in the 5th century has been identified as between the lower Ouse and Cuckmere rivers in East Sussex, based on the number of Anglo-Saxon cemeteries there.;[33] However exceptionally there are two cemeteries in West Sussex at Highdown, near Worthing and Apple Down, 11 km or 7 miles north west of Chichester.[34] The area between the Ouse and Cuckmere was believed to have been the location for the federate treaty settlement of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries.[33]

There is some evidence to support the treaty hypothesis, based on the grave finds of the period.[35] For example, the excavation of one of the cemeteries, at Rookery Hill at Bishopstone, East Sussex, yielded late Roman or insular Roman metalwork including a Quoit Brooch Style buckle, which would indicate settlement here to the early 5th century.[36] Subsequent excavations revealed a considerable area of Saxon buildings. Of the 22 buildings excavated three were sunken huts, 17 are rectangular founded on individual post holes, one is represented by post holes between which are beam slots, and one by eight single large posts.[36]

Highdown is the only 5th century Saxon cemetery found outside the Ouse/ Cuckmere area, and is 2 km from a hoard of Roman gold and silver that was found in 1997.[37][38] The Patching hoard, as it came to be known, contained a coin as recent as 461AD. Thus Highdown cemetery would have been in use by Saxons when the hoard was buried at Patching.[38] The settlement that used Highdown as a burial ground, in the 5th century, has never been identified, but White speculates that there may have been some link between Patching and Highdown and Welch has suggested that a Romano-British community was based there and that they controlled a group of Saxon mercenaries.[33][38]

7th century[edit]

After 491 the written history of Sussex goes blank until 607, when the annals report that Ceolwulf of Wessex fought against the South Saxons.[39]

In 681 the founder of Selsey Abbey, the exiled St Wilfrid of Northumbria, arrived in the kingdom of the South Saxons and remained there for five years evangelising and baptising the people.[40] According to Bede, Æðelwealh, king of Sussex, had previously been baptised in Mercia at the suggestion of Wulfhere, who presented him with the Isle of Wight and the Meonwara.[40]

16th Century Barnardi picture of Cædwalla granting lands to Wilfrid.

There had been a famine in the land of the South Saxons when Wilfrid arrived.[40] Wilfrid taught the locals to fish, and they were impressed with Wilfrid's teachings and agreed to be baptised en masse.[40] On the day of the baptisms the rain fell on the "thirsty earth", so ending the famine.[40]

Æðelwealh gave 87 hides (an area of land) and a royal vill to Wilfrid to enable him to found Selsey Abbey.[40] The abbey eventually became the seat of the South Saxon bishopric, where it remained until after the Norman Conquest, when it was moved to Chichester by decree of the Council of London of 1075.[40][41]

Shortly after the arrival of St Wilfrid, the kingdom was ravaged and Æðelwealh slain by an exiled West Saxon prince Caedwalla.[42] The latter was eventually expelled, by Æðelwealh's successors, two Ealdormen named Berhthun and Andhun.[42] In 686 the South Saxons attacked Hlothhere, king of Kent, in support of his nephew Eadric. Soon afterwards in 686, Caedwalla managed to establish himself as ruler of Wessex and with his additional resources he once more invaded Sussex, killing Berhthun.[43] Sussex now became for some years subject to a period of harsh West Saxon domination.[43] Caedwalla also seized the Isle of Wight where he ruthlessly exterminated both its royal line and its population. According to John Hinds, Caedwalla's savage behaviour towards Sussex and the Isle of Wight can be explained by Sussex's westward expansion with assistance from Mercia at the expense of Wessex and Caedwalla was determined that this should never happen again.[44] It would appear that while Æðelwealh of Sussex has been overlord of the Isle of Wight and Wulfhere has been Æðelwealh's overlord, the Isle of Wight's native dynasty and its king, Arvald, remained in power.[44]

Of the later South Saxon kings we have little knowledge except from occasional charters.

In 692 a grant is made by a king called Noðhelm (or Nunna) to his sister, which is witnessed by another king called Watt.[45] There is a theory that Watt may have been a sub-king who ruled over a tribe of people centred around modern day Hastings in East Sussex, known as the Haestingas and Nunna is described, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as the kinsman of Ine of Wessex who fought with him against Geraint, King of the Britons, in 710.[33][46] According to Bede, Sussex was subject to Ine for a number of years.[47]

8th century[edit]

In 710 Sussex was still under West Saxon domination when King Nothhelm of Sussex is recorded as having campaigned with Ine in the west against Dumnonia. Sussex evidently broke away from West Saxon domination some time before 722 when Ine is recorded as invading Sussex, which he repeated three years later, killing a West Saxon exile named Ealdberht who had fled to the Weald of Sussex and Surrey.[48]

According to a charter dated 775, the former abbot of Selsey, Bishop Eadberht of Selsey (c.705 x?709) - (716 x?), was given a grant of land by King Nunna; the document included King Watt as a witness. However, the charter is now believed to have been a 10th or early 11th century forgery.[49][50][51]

There is another charter, that is thought to be genuine, that records a series of transactions of a piece of land near modern day Burpham in the Arun Valley.[52][53] It starts off with a grant of land, at Peppering, by Nunna to Berhfrith probably for the foundation of a minster.[54] Berhfrith transferred the land to Eolla, who in turn sold it to Wulfhere. The land then went to Beoba who passed it on to Beorra and Ecca.[54] Finally King Osmund bought the land from his comes Erra and granted it to a religious woman known as Tidburgh.[54] The charter is undated but it has been possible to date the various transactions approximately, by cross referencing people who appear both on this charter and on other charters that do provide dates.[54] On the transaction, where Eolla has acquired the land from Berhfrith and sells it to Wulfhere [c. AD 705 x (716x?)], Nunna's subscription is followed by a certain Osric who was possibly Nunna's co-ruler.[55] The other witnesses who followed Osric were Eadberht and Eolla, both who can be identified as ecclesiastics.[55]

Nunna's last surviving charter, which is dated 714 in error for 717,[56] is witnessed by a King Æðelstan.

A little later, Æðelberht was King of Sussex, but he is known only from charters. The dates of Æðelberht's reign are unknown beyond the fact that he was a contemporary of Sigeferth, Bishop of Selsey from 733, as Sigeferth witnessed an undated charter of Æðelberht[57] in which Æðelberht is styled Ethelbertus rex Sussaxonum.

After this we hear nothing more until about 765, when a grant[58] of land is made by a king named Ealdwulf, with two other kings, Ælfwald and Oslac, as witnesses.

In 765[59] and 770[60] grants are made by a King Osmund, the latter one was later confirmed by Offa of Mercia.

The independent existence of the Kingdom of Sussex came to an end in the early 770s.[43] In 771, King Offa of Mercia conquered the territory of the Haestingas; he may have entered Sussex from the Kingdom of Kent, where he was already dominant.[43] By 772 he apparently controlled the whole of the Kingdom of Sussex.[43] Offa also confirmed two charters of Æðelberht, and in 772[61] he grants land himself in Sussex, with Oswald, dux Suðsax', as a witness. It is probable that about this time Offa annexed the kingdom of Sussex, as several persons, Osmund, Ælfwald and Oslac, who had previously used the royal title, now sign with that of dux.

Offa may not have been able to maintain control in the period 776-785 but he appears to have re-established control afterwards.[62] Mercian power collapsed in the years following Offa's death in 796, and the South Saxons re-emerged as an independent political entity. This status was to be short-lived because the power of Wessex was rising and Sussex was to become the first kingdom of the old heptarchy to be annexed in a process that brought about the gradual unification of the Ænglecynne and the foundation of a united England.

9th century[edit]

After the Battle of Ellandun in 825[62] the South Saxons submitted to Ecgberht of Wessex, and from this time they remained subject to the West Saxon dynasty. According to Heather Edwards in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, it is probable that Sussex was not annexed by Wessex until 827.[2] The earldom of Sussex seems later to have been sometimes combined with that of Kent. In 858 on the death of Æthelwulf of Wessex, Sussex and the other south-eastern kingdoms are fully integrated into the crown of Wessex.

From 895 Sussex suffered from constant raids by the Danes, till the accession of Canute, after which arose the two great forces of the house of Godwine and of the Normans. Godwine was probably a native of Sussex, and by the end of Edward the Confessor's reign a third part of the county was in the hands of his family.

900–1066[edit]

It is thought that the Æellingi (the South Saxon royal house) continued to govern Sussex as eorldermen (earls) under West Saxon sovereignty until the Norman Conquest in 1066.

The death of Eadwine, Ealdorman of Sussex, is recorded in 982, because he was buried at Abingdon Abbey in Berkshire, where one version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was compiled. According to the abbey's records, in which he was called princeps Australium Saxonum, Eadwinus nomine (Eadwine leader of the South Saxons), he bequeathed estates to them in his will, although the document itself has not survived.[63] Earlier in the same year he witnessed a charter of King Ethelred the Unready[64] as Eaduuine dux. His name was also added to a forged charter dated 956 (possibly an error for 976).[65]

In the next generation, Wulfnoth Cild, Thegn of Sussex, played a prominent part in English politics. In 1009 his actions resulted in the destruction of the English fleet, and by 1011 Sussex, together with most of South East England, was in the hands of the Danes. In an early example of local government reform, the Anglo-Saxon ealdormanries were abolished by the Danish kings and replaced with a smaller number of larger earldoms. Wulfnoth Cild was the father of Godwin, who was made Earl of Wessex in 1020. His earldom included Sussex. When he died in 1053, Godwin was succeeded as Earl of Wessex (including Sussex) by his son Harold, who had previously been Earl of East Anglia.

Edward the Confessor, who had spent much of his early life in exile in Normandy, was pro-Norman and in Sussex gave to the abbot of Fécamp Abbey the minster church at Steyning, as well as confirming land existing land grants at Hastings, Rye and Winchelsea. To his chaplain, Osborn, later William's Bishop of Exeter, Edward gave the harbour and other land at Bosham.[66] Many of the Saxon nobles grew jealous and from 1049 there was conflict between the disgruntled Saxon nobility, the king and the incoming Normans. [67]Godwine and his second son Harold kept the peace off the Sussex coast by using Bosham and Pevensey to drive away pirates. [68] In 1049 the murder by Sweyn Godwinson of his cousin Beorn after Beorn has been tricked in going to Bosham resulted in the entire Godwine family being banished; when they returned in 1052 to an enthusiastic welcome in the Sussex ports, Edward had to reinstate the Godwine family.[69]

In 1064 Harold sailed from Bosham, from where a storm cast him up in Normandy. Here he was apparently tricked into pledging his support for William of Normandy as the next king of England[70] On 14 October 1066, Harold II, the last Saxon king of England was killed at the battle of Hastings and the English army defeated, by William the Conqueror and his army.[71] It is likely that all the fighting men of Sussex were at the battle, as the county's thegns were decimated and any that survived had their lands confiscated.[71] At least 353 of the 387 manors, in the county, were taken from their Saxon owners and given to the victorious Normans by the Conqueror, Saxon power in Sussex was at an end.[72]

Life and Society[edit]

Economy[edit]

A cash economy by the 10th century is suggested by the various mints which became increasingly plentiful after King Æthelstan reorganised England's coinage.[73] There were mints at Chichester, Lewes and Steyning. A new mint also seems to have existed on a temporary basis at the Iron Age hillfort at Cissbury which may have been refortified as a refuge during the Danish invasions in the reign of Æthelred the Unready.[74] The Cissbury mint seems to have worked in close association with the mint at Chichester rather than replacing it.[75] Lewes seems to have prospered with overseas trade; coins from Lewes stamped 'LAE URB' travelled as far as Rome.[76] The substantial sea-faring trade of Lewes is indicated by the payment of 20 shillings for munitions of war payable whenever Edward the Confessor's fleet put to sea. This is the probable origin of the Cinque Ports organisation that flourished under the Normans.[77] By the end of the Anglo Saxon period and the Domesday Survey of the Normans in 1086, Sussex contained some of the richest and most heavily populated pockets of England on the coastal plain, albeit alongside some of England's most economically underdeveloped areas in the Weald.[78]

Agriculture seems to have flourished on the Sussex coastal plain and on the Sussex Downs.[79]

Religion[edit]

After the departure of the Roman army, the Saxons arrived in Sussex in the fifth century and brought with them their polytheistic religion.[80][81] The Saxon pagan culture probably caused a reversal of the spread of Christianity.[82] Wilfrid's biographer records that in the year 666 Wilfrid's ship ran aground on the Sussex coast near Selsey where it was attacked and a pagan priest sought to cast magic spells from a high mound.[83] Bede also refers to a mass suicide committed by groups of 40 or 50 men who jumped from cliffs during a time of famine. It is probable that these suicides represented sacrifices to appease the god Woden.[84]

Æðelwealh became Sussex's first Christian king when he married Eafe, the daughter of Wulfhere, the Christian king of Mercia. In 681 AD Saint Wilfrid, the exiled Bishop of York, landed at Selsey and is credited with evangelising the local population and founding the church in Sussex. King Æðelwealh granted land to Wilfrid which became the site of Selsey Abbey. According to Bede, it was the last area of the country to be converted.[85][40] Whilst Wilfrid is credited with the conversion of the Kingdom of Sussex to Christianity, it is unlikely that it was wholly heathen when he arrived.[86] Æðelwealh, Sussex's king, had been baptised. Damianus, a South Saxon, was made Bishop of Rochester in the Kingdom of Kent in the 650s and may indicate earlier missionary work in the first half of the 7th century.[87] At the time of Wilfrid's mission there was a monastery at Bosham containing a few monks led by an Irish monk named Dicul.[88]

Shortly after Æðelwealh granted land to Wilfrid for the church, Æðelwealh was killed by Cædwalla of Wessex, Sussex was conquered by Cædwalla and Christianity in Sussex was put under control of the diocese of Winchester. It was not until c.715 that Eadberht, Abbot of Selsey was consecrated the first bishop of the South Saxons.[89]

In the late 7th or early 8th century, St. Cuthman, a shepherd who may have been born in Chidham and had been reduced to begging set out from his home with his disabled mother using a one-wheeled cart.[90] When he reached Steyning he saw a vision and stopped there to build a church.[90] Cuthman was venerated as a saint and his church was in existence by 857 when King Æthelwulf of Wessex was buried there.[90] Steyning was an important religious centre and St Cuthman’s grave became a place of pilgrimage in the 10th and 11th centuries.[90]

The church built at Steyning was one of around 50 minster churches across Sussex[91][92] and these churches supplied itinerant clergy to surrounding districts.[93] Other examples include churches at Singleton, Lyminster, Findon and Bishopstone.[94] The jurisdiction of each minster church in the pre-Viking era seems to match early land divisions that were replaced by hundreds in the 10th or 11th centuries.[91] It was not until 200-300 years after its conversion to Christianity in the 680s that a network of local parish churches existed in Sussex.[95]

Slavery[edit]

Wilfrid's first act after he was given land at Selsey by King Aethelwealh to build a monastery was to free from slavery 250 male and female slaves who were tied to the estate. These people were probably mainly of Romano-British descent.[96] This is an indication of the very high percentage of slaves in England at this time.[97]

Heraldic device[edit]

The shield or emblem of Sussex, sometimes referred to as a coat of arms, consists of six gold martlets on a blue field. It was attributed to the Kingdom of Sussex later in a work by John Speed from 1622.

Footnotes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ 477 is the traditional year given for the creation of the Kingdom of Sussex from Bede; many academics think the actual date was probably about 20 years earlier i.e. c. 457. Brandon 2006, p. 68
  1. ^ a b Bosworth, George F. (2012). Sussex - Cambridge County Geographies. Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781107646339. 
  2. ^ a b Edwards, Heather (2004). "Ecgberht [Egbert] (d. 839), king of the West Saxons in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  3. ^ Brandon 1978, pp. 225
  4. ^ Brandon 1978, pp. 225
  5. ^ Keys, Jim (2010). The Dark Ages. Lulu.com. p. 97. ISBN 9781445229850. 
  6. ^ a b c Seward Sussex. p.76
  7. ^ Cannon, John; Hargreaves, Ann (2009). The Kings and Queens of Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191580284. 
  8. ^ Brandon 2006, pp. 68
  9. ^ Brandon 2006, pp. 6-8
  10. ^ a b Martin Welch: Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex: from Civitas to Shire, in Brandon (1978), p.14
  11. ^ Brandon 2006, p. 91
  12. ^ Thomas, Gabor (January 2013). "Resource Assessment and Research Agenda for the Anglo-Saxon period" (PDF). South East Research Framework. 
  13. ^ Brandon 2006, pp. 68
  14. ^ Hamilton-Barr 1953, p. 29
  15. ^ Harris, Roland B. "Ditchling Historic Character Assessment Report, June 2005" (PDF). Lewes District Council. p. 13. 
  16. ^ Brandon 2006, pp. 32-34
  17. ^ a b c Leslie, Kim; Short, Brian (2010). An Historical Atlas of Sussex. History Press Limited. p. 30. ISBN 9780860771128. 
  18. ^ Brandon 2006, pp. 68
  19. ^ Brandon 1978, pp. 225
  20. ^ Brandon 1978, pp. 225
  21. ^ Brandon 1978, pp. 225
  22. ^ Brandon 2006, p. 77
  23. ^ Brandon 2006, p. 77
  24. ^ a b c ASC Parker MS. 477AD.
  25. ^ ASC Parker MS. 485AD.
  26. ^ ASC Parker MS. 491AD.
  27. ^ Martin Welch: Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex: from Civitas to Shire, in Brandon (1978), pp.13-35.
  28. ^ S. E. Kelly, Charters of the Selsey, Anglo-Saxon Charters Volume VI p. 118" - Oxford: Published for The British Academy by Oxford University Press, 1998. - Kelly believes that The Owers is where Cymenshore is, she gives the alternate spellings as Cumeneshore, Cumenshore, Cimeneres horan, Cymeneres horan
  29. ^ Welch.Anglo-Saxon England p.9.- When Aella and his three sons land from three ships on a beach named after one of the sons, we are reading legend rather than history.
  30. ^ Jones.The End of Roman Britain. p.71. - ..the repetitious entries for invading ships in the Chronicle (three ships of Hengest and Horsa; three ships of Ælle; five ships of Cerdic and Cynric; two ships of Port; three ships of Stuf and Wihtgar), drawn from preliterate traditions including bogus eponyms and duplications, might be considered a poetic convention.
  31. ^ Welch.Anglo-Saxon England. Chapter 5. Burial practices and Structures
  32. ^ Welch. Anglo-Saxon England. pp.9-13
  33. ^ a b c d Martin Welch. Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex in Peter Brandon's. The South Saxons. pp. 23-25.
  34. ^ Down.Chichester Excavations. p.9. (At Appledown) 282 cremations and inhumations were recorded.
  35. ^ Martin Welch, Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex, pp.25-26
  36. ^ a b Martin Bell: Saxon Settlements and buildings in Sussex, in Brandon (1978), pp. 39-40
  37. ^ Sally White. Early Saxon Sussex c.410-c.650 in Leslies. An Historical Atlas of Sussex. pp. 28-29
  38. ^ a b c Sally White. The Patching hoard published in Medieval Archaeology. pp.88-93
  39. ^ ASC Parker MS. AD607.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Bede.HE.IV.13
  41. ^ Kelly.Chichester Cathedral:The Bishopric of Selsey. p.1
  42. ^ a b Bede.HE.IV.15
  43. ^ a b c d e Kelly, S.E. (2004). "S. E. Kelly, ‘Kings of the South Saxons (act. 477–772)’in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  44. ^ a b Hinds, John (1997). The Anglo-Saxons from the Migration Period to the Eighth Century: An Ethnographic Perspective. Boydell Press. 
  45. ^ "S 45". Anglo-Saxons.net. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  46. ^ ASC Parker MS AD 710
  47. ^ HE.VI.15.
  48. ^ Swanton 1996, p. 42
  49. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p.26. W. de Gray Birch had suggested an emendation (of the date) to 725 but Kelly says this is still unsatisfactory since it is too late for Bishop Eadberht
  50. ^ "Cap. I/17/1 (S43)". Diocese of Chichester Capitular Records. Retrieved 13 May 2010.  With Professor H.L. Rogers findings on why manuscript is forgery.
  51. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p.26."..is without doubt a forgery and not an innocent 10th century copy of a genuine eighth-century charter."
  52. ^ Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p.34
  53. ^ "S 44". Anglo-Saxons.net. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  54. ^ a b c d Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p.31
  55. ^ a b Kelly. Charters of Selsey. p.33
  56. ^ "S 42". Anglo-Saxons.net. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  57. ^ "S 46". Anglo-Saxons.net. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  58. ^ "S 50". Anglo-Saxons.net. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
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References[edit]

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  • Wikisource-logo.svg s:Ecclesiastical History of the English People. (1903) Bede. Translation based on L.C. Jane
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Bibliography[edit]

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