Kooragang

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Kooragang
NewcastleNew South Wales
Kooragang wind turbine 20140217.jpg
Wind turbine on Kooragang Island
Kooragang is located in New South Wales
Kooragang
Kooragang
Coordinates 32°52′34″S 151°46′4″E / 32.87611°S 151.76778°E / -32.87611; 151.76778Coordinates: 32°52′34″S 151°46′4″E / 32.87611°S 151.76778°E / -32.87611; 151.76778
Population 18 (2011)[1]
 • Density 0.58/km2 (1.5/sq mi) [Note 1]
Postcode(s) 2304
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)[Note 2]
Area 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi)[Note 3]
Time zone AEST (UTC+10)
 • Summer (DST) AEDT (UTC+11)
Location
LGA(s) City of Newcastle[2]
Region Hunter[2]
County Northumberland[3]
Parish Newcastle[3]
State electorate(s) Port Stephens[4]
Federal Division(s) Newcastle[5]
Mean max temp[6] Mean min temp[6] Annual rainfall[6]
21.8 °C
71 °F
14.2 °C
58 °F
1,131.3 mm
44.5 in
Suburbs around Kooragang:
Tarro Tomago Fullerton Cove
Hexham Kooragang Fern Bay, Stockton
Sandgate Mayfield West, Mayfield North, Carrington, Newcastle, Stockton Stockton

Kooragang is the northernmost and largest suburb of the city of Newcastle, in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.[2] Dominated by Kooragang Island, the eastern part of the suburb is primarily industrial, while the western part of the suburb consists of nature reserves.[7] Covering an area of 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi), it has a tiny permanent population. At the 2011 census, the population of Kooragang and industrial areas in neighbouring Mayfield North and Carrington was only 18.[1]

Geography[edit]

Kooragang extends from Stockton in the southeast, to the eastern bridge at Hexham[Note 4] in the northwest, a distance of 12.4 km (7.7 mi). Except for a small portion of land in Hexham, the north and south arms of the Hunter River forms Kooragang's borders. At its greatest, the suburb is approximately 3.8 km (2.4 mi) from southwest – northeast. Vehicular access to Kooragang is via three bridges. From Mayfield West the Tourle St bridge is the primary access to Kooragang, Stockton and Port Stephens from Newcastle suburbs. In the east of the suburb, the "Stockton Bridge" connects Kooragang to Stockton. Access to the western part of the suburb is via the Ash Island bridge at Hexham.[7]

Kooragang is generally low and flat, with some build-up in the industrial area in the eastern part of the suburb, on Kooragang Island.[7]

History[edit]

Kooragang is dominated by Kooragang Island, which was created by reclaiming land, combining a number of smaller islands in the Hunter River estuary.[8] The original islands were separated by mud flats and various channels and were first explored and surveyed by Europeans in 1801.[8] Larger islands included Ash Island, Upper Moscheto, Moscheto Island, Dempsey Island, and Spit Island.[9]

Ash Island was the largest of the islands, named because of the Ash trees that grew upon it. By 1821, much of Ash and other timber on the island had been harvested. In 1827 Alexander Scott was granted 1,036 ha (2,560 acres) of land there. After settling on the island in 1831, it grew as a community with many visitors. The original wooden bridge linking the island to the mainland was eventually replaced with a concrete bridge that is still used today. Fifty families lived on the island until it was devastated by the 1955 Hunter Valley floods. By the 1960s, industrial development closer to Newcastle resulted in a land reclamation scheme that combined the smaller islands into what is now Kooragang Island. The western part of Kooragang island, which is now home to the Kooragang Wetland Rehabilitation Project, is still known as Ash Island.[8]

Kooragang Island[edit]

Coal exports[edit]

The eastern and more well-known part of Kooragang Island is primarily a coal export port.[10] It was established in 1984 with a capacity of 15 million tonnes per annum.[11] By 2013 the capacity had been increased to 120 million tonnes per annum.[11] In July 2013 a record high of 10.3 million tonnes of coal was processed through the port of Newcastle, with 83 of the 114 ships being loaded at the Kooragang terminal.[12]

Transport of coal to Kooragang Island from Hunter valley coal mines is achieved via the Sandgate Flyover, with coal trains being moved through the port by a balloon loop.

Other industries[edit]

In addition to coal exports, many other industries exist on Kooragang Island, some having existed there since before the coal export port was established. Industries include Mountain Industries, which operates a bitumen plant, Blue Circle Southern Cement, SimsMetal recyclers and Orica Kooragang, which manufactures agricultural fertiliser and explosives for the mining industry. Orica Kooragang opened in 1969.[13]

Electricity generation[edit]

A single 600 kW wind turbine was installed on the island between Cormorant Road and the Hunter River in 1997, generating enough power for 150 homes per year.[14][15] However, its future is in question because it sits on land that may be needed for a future ship turning basin.[15]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This is the average density based on the ABS definition of Kooragang, not on the actual suburb itself.
  2. ^ Kooragang is primarily flat. The average elevation of the suburb is as shown on 1:100000 map 9232 NEWCASTLE.
  3. ^ Area calculation is based on 1:100000 map 9232 NEWCASTLE.
  4. ^ Although known as the "Hexham bridge", there are actually two bridges crossing the Hunter River. Both are in the suburb of Tarro with the north and south ends of the bridges in Tomago and Hexham respectively.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Kooragang (State Suburb)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Suburb Search – Local Council Boundaries – Hunter (HT) – Newcastle City Council". New South Wales Division of Local Government. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Kooragang". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  4. ^ "Port Stephens". New South Wales Electoral Commission. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "Newcastle". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c "Kooragang". Land and Property Management Authority - Spatial Information eXchange. New South Wales Land and Property Information. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c Dorey, Fran (28 May 2012). "A history of Ash Island". australianmuseum.net.au. Australian Museum. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  9. ^ "Kooragang Island in 1871". coalriver.wordpress.com. Coal River Working Party. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  10. ^ "Kooragang Island". Newcastle City Council website. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Kooragang Coal Terminal". Port Waratah Coal Services. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  12. ^ Carr, Matt (2 August 2013). "Coal exports at a record high". The Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "History – Orica Kooragang Island". orica.com. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  14. ^ "Renewable energy generation (EA owned/operated)". EnergyAustralia website. EnergyAustralia. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  15. ^ a b Kelly, Matthew (30 May 2013). "Kooragang wind turbine future in spin". The Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2013.