Laminin, gamma 2

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Laminin, gamma 2
Symbols LAMC2 ; B2T; BM600; CSF; EBR2; EBR2A; LAMB2T; LAMNB2
External IDs OMIM150292 MGI99913 HomoloGene4062 GeneCards: LAMC2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LAMC2 202267 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3918 16782
Ensembl ENSG00000058085 ENSMUSG00000026479
UniProt Q13753 E9Q7G3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005562 NM_008485
RefSeq (protein) NP_005553 NP_032511
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
183.16 – 183.21 Mb
Chr 1:
153.12 – 153.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Laminin subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC2 gene.[1][2]

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene.

Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 2. The gamma 2 chain, formerly thought to be a truncated version of beta chain (B2t), is highly homologous to the gamma 1 chain; however, it lacks domain VI, and domains V, IV and III are shorter. It is expressed in several fetal tissues but differently from gamma 1, and is specifically localized to epithelial cells in skin, lung and kidney. The gamma 2 chain together with alpha 3 and beta 3 chains constitute laminin 5 (earlier known as kalinin), which is an integral part of the anchoring filaments that connect epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. The epithelium-specific expression of the gamma 2 chain implied its role as an epithelium attachment molecule, and mutations in this gene have been associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a skin disease characterized[2]


  1. ^ Kallunki P, Sainio K, Eddy R, Byers M, Kallunki T, Sariola H, Beck K, Hirvonen H, Shows TB, Tryggvason K (Nov 1992). "A truncated laminin chain homologous to the B2 chain: structure, spatial expression, and chromosomal assignment". J Cell Biol 119 (3): 679–93. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.3.679. PMC 2289671. PMID 1383240. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: LAMC2 laminin, gamma 2". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Baudoin C, Miquel C, Gagnoux-Palacios L et al. (1995). "A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in the LAMC2 gene in patients with the Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa". Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (10): 1909–10. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.10.1909. PMID 7849725. 
  • Burgeson RE, Chiquet M, Deutzmann R et al. (1994). "A new nomenclature for the laminins". Matrix Biol. 14 (3): 209–11. doi:10.1016/0945-053X(94)90184-8. PMID 7921537. 
  • Gedde-Dahl T, Dupuy BM, Jonassen R et al. (1995). "Junctional epidermolysis bullosa inversa (locus EBR2A) assigned to 1q31 by linkage and association to LAMC1". Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (8): 1387–91. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.8.1387. PMID 7987320. 
  • Pulkkinen L, Christiano AM, Airenne T et al. (1994). "Mutations in the gamma 2 chain gene (LAMC2) of kalinin/laminin 5 in the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa". Nat. Genet. 6 (3): 293–7. doi:10.1038/ng0394-293. PMID 8012393. 
  • Aberdam D, Galliano MF, Vailly J et al. (1994). "Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa is linked to mutations in the gene (LAMC2) for the gamma 2 subunit of nicein/kalinin (LAMININ-5)". Nat. Genet. 6 (3): 299–304. doi:10.1038/ng0394-299. PMID 8012394. 
  • Miyazaki K, Kikkawa Y, Nakamura A et al. (1994). "A large cell-adhesive scatter factor secreted by human gastric carcinoma cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (24): 11767–71. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.24.11767. PMC 48065. PMID 8265624. 
  • Vailly J, Verrando P, Champliaud MF et al. (1994). "The 100-kDa chain of nicein/kalinin is a laminin B2 chain variant". Eur. J. Biochem. 219 (1–2): 209–18. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb19932.x. PMID 8306988. 
  • Airenne T, Haakana H, Sainio K et al. (1996). "Structure of the human laminin gamma 2 chain gene (LAMC2): alternative splicing with different tissue distribution of two transcripts". Genomics 32 (1): 54–64. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0076. PMID 8786121. 
  • Mizushima H, Miyagi Y, Kikkawa Y et al. (1997). "Differential expression of laminin-5/ladsin subunits in human tissues and cancer cell lines and their induction by tumor promoter and growth factors". J. Biochem. 120 (6): 1196–202. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021541. PMID 9010770. 
  • Mizushima H, Koshikawa N, Moriyama K et al. (1998). "Wide distribution of laminin-5 gamma 2 chain in basement membranes of various human tissues". Horm. Res. 50 Suppl 2: 7–14. doi:10.1159/000053118. PMID 9721586. 
  • Chen M, Marinkovich MP, Jones JC et al. (1999). "NC1 domain of type VII collagen binds to the beta3 chain of laminin 5 via a unique subdomain within the fibronectin-like repeats". J. Invest. Dermatol. 112 (2): 177–83. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00491.x. PMID 9989793. 
  • Miller KA, Chung J, Lo D et al. (2000). "Inhibition of laminin-5 production in breast epithelial cells by overexpression of p300". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (11): 8176–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.11.8176. PMID 10713141. 
  • Olsen J, Lefebvre O, Fritsch C et al. (2001). "Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene promoter by hepatocyte growth factor (scatter factor)". Biochem. J. 347 (Pt 2): 407–17. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3470407. PMC 1220973. PMID 10749670. 
  • Hirosaki T, Mizushima H, Tsubota Y et al. (2000). "Structural requirement of carboxyl-terminal globular domains of laminin alpha 3 chain for promotion of rapid cell adhesion and migration by laminin-5". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (29): 22495–502. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001326200. PMID 10801807. 
  • Amano S, Scott IC, Takahara K et al. (2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): 22728–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002345200. PMID 10806203. 
  • Takizawa Y, Pulkkinen L, Chao SC et al. (2000). "Mutation report: complete paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 1: a novel mechanism for Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa". J. Invest. Dermatol. 115 (2): 307–11. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00052.x. PMID 10951251. 
  • Manda R, Kohno T, Niki T et al. (2000). "Differential expression of the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes between small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275 (2): 440–5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3331. PMID 10964684. 
  • Spirito F, Chavanas S, Prost-Squarcioni C et al. (2001). "Reduced expression of the epithelial adhesion ligand laminin 5 in the skin causes intradermal tissue separation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 18828–35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100381200. PMID 11279058. 
  • McArthur CP, Wang Y, Heruth D, Gustafson S (2001). "Amplification of extracellular matrix and oncogenes in tat-transfected human salivary gland cell lines with expression of laminin, fibronectin, collagens I, III, IV, c-myc and p53". Arch. Oral Biol. 46 (6): 545–55. doi:10.1016/S0003-9969(01)00014-0. PMID 11311202.