Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway

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Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 1008 National Railway Museum (2).jpg
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway map at Victoria Station.jpg
A map of the LYR system forms part of the War Memorial at Manchester Victoria
Reporting mark LY
Locale Lancashire and Yorkshire
Dates of operation 9 July 1847–1 January 1922
Predecessor Manchester and Leeds Railway
Successor London and North Western Railway
London, Midland and Scottish Railway
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification 600 V DC third rail
3.5 kV DC overhead
1,200 V DC side contact third rail
Headquarters Manchester

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR) was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways. It was the third-largest railway system based in Northern England (after the Midland and North Eastern Railways).[citation needed]

The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company[citation needed] – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles (6 km). No two adjacent stations were more than 5.5 miles (9 km) apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, and the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, and it also ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company.[citation needed]

It amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922. One year later, the merged company became the largest constituent of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.

History[edit]

The L&YR was incorporated in 1847, being an amalgamation of several important lines, the chief of which was the Manchester and Leeds Railway (itself having been incorporated in 1836).

Constituent companies[edit]

The following companies, in order, were amalgamated into the L&YR. The dates shown are, in most cases, the Acts of Parliament authorising the incorporation and amalgamation of each company. In a few instances the effective date is used.[1]

The system[edit]

The system consisted of many branches and alternative routes, so that it is not easy to determine the location of its main line. For working purposes the railway was split into three divisions:

Whereas there were various lines between the Central and Western Divisions there was only one route between the Eastern and Central Divisions. This line cut through the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire using a number of long tunnels, the longest of which was Summit Tunnel (2,885 yards (2,638 m) in length) near Rochdale. There were six other tunnels each more than 1,000 yards (914 m) long.

Manchester Victoria railway station[edit]

Victoria railway station was one of the largest railway stations in the country at the time, and was the first of four stations to be named Victoria, pre-dating those in London, Sheffield and Nottingham.[citation needed] It occupied 13.5 acres (0.055 km2; 0.0211 sq mi) and had 17 platforms with a total length of 9,332 feet (2,844 m). After the grouping, a structural change led No. 11 platform to run through and join with No. 3 platform in the adjacent Manchester Exchange railway station, at 2,238 feet (682 m) between ramps becoming the longest railway platform in Britain.[3] Lately the station capacity has been reduced to two platforms for Metrolink trams, two bay platforms, and four through platforms under the Manchester Evening News Arena, which now replaces a significant area once occupied by the station. The main facade and station building of the original Hunts Bank station still exist and are kept in relatively good condition.

Electrification[edit]

L&YR lines to Aintree
to Southport
to Preston
Aintree
Seaforth & Litherland
Ford
Liverpool Overhead Railway
Sandhills
Liverpool Exchange
Main article: LYR electric units

The L&Y was the first in the country to electrify a mainline route. In Liverpool, the Fourth Rail system was used at 600 V DC, although this was later converted to a Third rail system. Suburban lines in the Liverpool area were electrified to reach a total of 37 route miles.

In 1912 Dick, Kerr & Co.'s Preston factory was considering tendering for a Brazilian contract, and approached the L&YR to use the Bury to Holcombe Brook Line for test purposes at Dick, Kerr's expense. The line from Bury Bolton Street Station to Holcombe Brook was electrified with the overhead 3.5 kV DC system, rolling stock was also supplied at their cost. After prolonged trials the trains entered public use on 29 July 1913. The L&YR purchased the equipment and stock on the successful completion of the trials in 1916.

Shell manufacture at the company's works at Horwich, 1915

In 1913 a decision was taken to electrify the Manchester to Bury route at 1.2 kV DC in an attempt to overcome competition from trams. Using the Third Rail system, trains powered by electric motor cars (or carriages) began running on 17 April 1916 but as Horwich was by then involved in war work, deliveries of the new electric stock were delayed and it was not until August 1916 that steam trains were withdrawn from the route. In 1920 the L&YR also considered electrifying the Manchester–Oldham–Shaw and Royton lines, but no work was carried out. During 1917 work began to convert the Bury to Holcombe Brook line to a Third Rail system, matching the Manchester to Bury system. Third Rail trains started to run on 29 March 1918.

Livery[edit]

LYR 0-8-0 Tender Engine on a period post card
LYR Aspinall 0-6-0ST No. 752 at Rainhill in 1980 showing the LYR freight loco colours of black with red lining
right LYR Club saloon of 1912 in contemporary colours

Locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway were originally painted dark green with ornate brass work and copper capped chimneys. Lining was black and white. In 1876 the dark green was changed to a light green and goods engines were painted plain black. 1878 saw the goods locomotives also appearing in light green. This livery was discontinued from 1883 when all locomotives were painted black. Lining was red and white for passenger locomotives and, if present, red only for goods locomotives.

Passenger coaching stock was originally painted teak, changing in 1875 to an overall light brown. In 1879 a decision was made to use 'a little brighter shade'. Finally in June 1881 it was announced that the lower panels were to be painted 'lake colour'. Between 1896 and 1914 the upper panels became buff with the lower in purple-brown, ends were dark brown. Roofs were normally dark grey but some did appear in red oxide.

Wagons were unpainted until 1902 except for the ironwork which was black. After 1902 it was painted dark grey. The illiterate symbol of an inverted solid triangle within a circle was replaced from 1902–3 with the letters LY. Brake vans were black and special traffic wagons were painted in various colours e.g. Gunpowder- red, Fish – white, Butter – pale blue etc.

The football team of the L&YR Carriage and Wagon works at Newton Heath, Manchester, evolved into Manchester United F.C..

Accidents[edit]

The Helmshore rail accident on 4 September 1860 saw 11 people killed and 77 injured when the rear portion of a Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway passenger excursion train became detached and ran back down the line where it collided with an on-coming passenger excursion train[4]

The Burscough Junction Station rail crash occurred on 15 January 1880 at the Burscough Junction station on the Liverpool to Preston section of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway line, resulting in nine fatalities[5][6]

An excursion train was in collision with a West Lancashire Railway passenger train at Preston Junction, Lancashire on 3 August 1896 due to the driver of the excursion train misreading signals. One person was killed and seven were injured.[7]

A passenger train was derailed on 15 July 1900 at Waterloo station, Sefton due to excessive speed. Seven people were killed and 30 were injured.[8]

An express passenger train collided with a light engine at Sowerby Bridge, Yorkshire on 22 October 1903 due to a signalman's error. A third train is in collision with the wreckage at low speed. One person is killed.[9]

A collision between a London and North Western Railway (LNWR) empty stock train and a passenger train at Huddersfield, Yorkshire on 21 April 1905 killed two people. The driver of the LNWR train had overran signals, but fatigue was as contributory factor.[10]

The Hall Road rail accident at Blundellsands in what is now Merseyside on 27 July 1905 saw 20 killed and 48 injured when two Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway electric passenger trains collided due to human error on the part of a signalman and a train driver.

Two locomotives were shunted into a siding at Hindley & Blackrod Junction, Lancashire on 22 January 1909, but one of them remained foul of the main line. A passenger train collided with it, killing one person an injuring 33.[10]

A passenger train was derailed on the Charlestown Curve when the track spread under it on 21 June 1912. Four people were killed and twelve were injured.[10]

A freight train became divided on 28 October 1913. The rear portion ran back and was derailed at Lockwood, Yorkshire.[11]

On 18 March 1915, an express passenger train overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with an empty stock train at Smithy Bridge, Lancashire. Four people were killed and 33 were injured.[12]

A viaduct at Penistone, Yorkshire collapsed on 2 February 1916 due to subsidence. A locomotive was on the bridge at the time, but its crew had time to escape before it fell.[8]

A freight train became divided at Pendlebury, Lancashire. The rear portion was too heavy for the banking locomotive to hold, and it was pushed back downhill and derailed by catch points, as were the wagons.[13]

The Lostock Junction train collision near Bolton on 17 July 1920 saw four fatalities and 148 injured as the result of a near head-on collision between two Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway passenger trains due to a signal having been passed at danger[14]

Post-grouping history[edit]

The L&YR amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922, prior to the 1923 Grouping, which involved the expanded LNWR forming part of the new London Midland and Scottish Railway. The general manager, secretary and chief mechanical engineer positions of the expanded company were taken by L&YR employees. Ex-L&YR lines formed the core of the LMS's Central Division.

The LMS did little to develop the former L&YR routes. Nationalisation followed in 1948 followed by a period of rationalisation and modernisation. The L&YR system has survived largely intact, although the following routes have been closed, many within the L&YR's old East Lancashire division:

The routes today[edit]

Most ex-L&YR routes are now operated by Northern Rail. Manchester Victoria station has been rebuilt in a more modest form and retains the former terminal building. The Caldervale Line, as named by Metro (West Yorkshire) is also operated by Northern Rail and uses a large part of the former L&YR.

Shipping[edit]

The L&YR had the largest fleet of all the pre-grouping railway companies. In 1902 the assets of the Drogheda Steam Packet Company were acquired for the sum of £80,000[20] (£7,577,985 as of 2014).[21]

By 1913 they owned twenty six vessels, with another two under construction, plus a further five under joint ownership with the London and North Western Railway. The L&YR ran steamers between Liverpool and Drogheda, Hull and Zeebrugge, and between Goole and many continental ports including Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Hamburg, and Rotterdam. The jointly owned vessels provided services between Fleetwood, Belfast and Derry.

Ships operated by the L&YR.[22]

Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes
Berlin 1891[23] 1,090[23] Tonnage 1,111 according to Haws 1993. Built by Thompson of Dundee.[24] Acquired in 1895 with the takeover of Yorkshire Coal & Steamship Co. In Copenhagen at the outbreak of war in 1914 and decision taken to leave her there for safety. However, pressure for tonnage required that she leave that port in 1916 under disguise and crossed the North Sea to Hull, where she was renamed River Ribble.[25]
Colne 1903 875[26] Built by Clyde Shipbuilders at Port Glasgow for Goole-Copenhagen service of Goole Shipping Company. Taken over by Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1905. Sank on passage from Goole to Rotterdam on 11 March 1906 off the West Maas Lightvessel.[25][26]
Dearne 1909 984[27] Built By Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Newcastle, the first of ten sister vessels. Served mainly on Hamburg route and was in Hamburg at the outbreak of war. Vessel seized by Germany and was torpedoed on 22 December 1915 and sunk whilst in German commercial service.[27][28]
Don 1892 939[29] Built by W. Dobson, a sister of "Hebble" for Goole Steam Shipping's Ghent service.

Transferred to Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway service in 1905. Torpedoed and sunk whilst on a ballast passage from Cromarty to Blyth on 8 May 1915.[29][30]

Douglas 1907 950[31] Built by Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering in Port Glasgow for Goole Steam Shipping's Copenhagen service. Known as one of the 'butter boats' with her white hull. Transferred to L&NWR in 1922 and LMS in 1923 and again in 1935 to Associated Humber Lines. By this time she had her hull colour changed to black. Sold in 1937 to Stanhope S.S. Co and renamed "Stanhope" and later the same year to G M Mavroleon, Greece and renamed Nepheligeretis. Sold in 1938 to B Athanassiades and renamed Hermes then Suzy. Renamed Ioanna in 1940. Sunk on 1 June 1940 by gunfire from a U-Boat off Cape Finisterre. The logic of the particular attack was never explained.[31][32]
Equity 1888 918[33] Built By Earle's of Hull for Goole Steam Shipping and one of three ships bought from Co-Operative Wholesale Society in 1906. She had been lengthened in 1900 with a revised tonnage of 931 and had been employed on the Goole – Hamburg service. She was captured in Hamburg in 1914 and was returned to her owners in 1918 having spent the war period mainly serving traffic to Finland from Germany. In 1921 whilst on passge from Jersey to Goole on the 'potato trade' she grounded and sank but was later salved. She transferred to L&NWR and LMS in 1922 and 1923 respectively. She again grounded at Alderney in June 1930, but despite being partially swamped she was salved again. She was eventually scrapped in December 1931 at Greenock.[33][34]
Hebble 1891 904[35] Built by W. Dobson for Goole Steam Shipping's Goole – Ghent service. Transferred to Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1905. Mined and sunk on 6 May 1917 whilst on passage from Newhaven to Rouen with military supplies.[30][35]
Hodder 1910 1,016[36] Sister of Dearne (1909). Built by Wm. Dobson at Sunderland for the Hamburg route. Was converted into a cable layer in 1915 for the Post Office and was based at Scapa Flow from where she carried out vital cable laying around the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Joined the L & N.W.R fleet in 1922 and the L.M.S in 1923 before transfer to Associated Humber Lines in 1935. Transferred to Holyhead – Dublin route in 1946 and finally scrapped in November 1956 at Dunston.[36][37]
Humber 1903 1,023[38] Built by A. McMillan and Co of Dumbarton for Goole Steam Shipping's Copenhagen service.

Was taken over by Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1905. She collided with and sank the German steamer Modena owned by Robert M Sloman Jr. in 1910 ; but was sunk herself on 12 February 1912 after a collision with SS Answald of the Hamburg Bremer – Afrika Linie off the Elbe No.1 Lightvessel.[38][39]

Irwell 1906 1,092[40] Tonnage 1,040 according to Haws 1993. Built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson for the Goole-Rotterdam service with her sister Mersey. Transferred to L&NWR and LMS in 1922 and 1923 respectively, and on to Associated Humber Lines in 1935. Was based in Icelandic waters as a Naval supply ship in World War II. In 1946 switched to Larne-Loch Ryan service and finally scrapped in March 1954 at Gateshead.[40][41]
Liberty 1900 895[42] Built by Earle's of Hull in 1890 according to Haws 1993. The sister of Equity also bought from Co-Operative Wholesale Society in 1906. Transferred to L&NWR and LMS in 1922 and 1923. Scrapped at Sunderland in December 1931.[42]
Mersey 1906 1,087[43] Tonnage 1,037 according to Haws 1993. Built at Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson. Entered service from Goole to Rotterdam. In 1915 switched to GWR's Weymouth – Channel Isles service. Converted with Hodder to a cable layer in 1917 and was released back to her owners in 1920. Transferred to L&NWR, LMS and AHL in 1922, 1923 and 1935 respectively. Hit a mine on 20 February 1940 and sunk in the English Channel with a loss of 14 lives.[43][44]
Nidd 1900 996[45] Built by Wm. Dobson for service on the Antwerp route and transferred to L and Y in 1905. Served in both cross-channel and in the Mediterranean during war period, returning to her owners Antwerp service in 1919. Chartered to Great Western Railway in 1932 for Weymouth – Jersey trade. Scrapped in 1933 at Mostyn.[30]
Rawcliffe 1906 866[46] Built by John Crown and Sons at Sunderland. Bought from Wetherall Steamship Co in 1906. Transferred to L&NWR and LMS in 1922 and 1923. Scrapped at Bowness in December 1931.[41]
River Ribble 1891[23] 1,090[23] Renamed in 1916 from Berlin. Sold to J.J. King of Garston and scrapped in September 1933 at Gateshead.[23][25]
Saltmarshe 1907 930 A sister of Rawcliffe except built at Wm. Pickersgill and Co., in Sunderland. Had very similar history to her sister being purchased from Wetherall. Scrapped at Bowness in December 1931.[41]
Spen 1908 900[47] Built by Wm. Dobson. Used by the Admiralty 1914–1918 for cross-channel service out of Newhaven. To L.& N.W.R in 1922 and L.M.S. in 1923. Scrapped in September 1933 at Middlesbrough.[28][47]
Unity 1902 1,091[48] The third vessel bought from Co-Operative Wholesale Society in 1906 having been built at Murdoch and Murray in Port Glasgow. Served on the Goole – Hamburg route. Having avoided a torpedo attack which sank another vessel from the line in April 1918, she was torpedoed on 2 May 1918 by UB-57 and sunk south-east of Folkestone.[44][48]

Ships jointly operated with the London and North Western Railway[49]

Ship Launched Tonnage (GRT) Notes and references
Colleen Bawn 1903 1,204 Relegated to cargo service in 1914. Scrapped in 1931.[50][51]
Duke of Albany 1907 2,259 Requisitioned by the Royal Navy as HMS Duke of Albany, an Armed Boarding Vessel. Torpedoed and sunk in 1916.[51]
Duke of Argyll 1909 2,052 Sold in 1927 to Angleterre-Lorraine-Alsace and renamed Alsace. Scrapped in 1937 at Altenwerder, Germany.[51][52]
Duke of Clarence 1892 1,458 Requisitioned by the Admiralty in 1914, returned to LNWR in 1920. Scrapped in 1930.[50][51]
Duke of Connaught 1875 1,082 Built by Barrow Shipbuilding Company. Scrapped in 1893[50]
Duke of Connaught 1902 1,680 Scrapped in 1934.[51]
Duke of Cornwall 1898 1,540 Sold in 1928 to Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, renamed Rushen Castle. Scrapped in 1948.[51]
Duke of Cumberland 1909 2,052 Sold in 1927 to Angleterre-Lorraine-Alsace, renamed Picard. Sold in 1936 to A Anghelatos, Greece and renamed Heliopolis. Scrapped at Genoa, Italy in 1939.[51][53]
Duke of Lancaster 1895 1,520 Sold to Isle of Man Steam Packet Company in 1912, renamed The Ramsey. Requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1914. Sank in August 1915 by SMS Meteor.[51][54]
Duke of York 1894 1,473 Sold to Isle of Man Steam Packet Company in 1912 and renamed Peel Castle. Sold in 1930. Scrapped in 1939 at Dalmuir, West Dunbartonshire.[51][55]
Earl of Ulster 1878 1,107 Sold in 1894 to Harland & Wolff[50]
Iverna 1895 995 Acquired with the takeover of Drogheda Steam Packet Company in 1902. Scrapped in 1912.[50][51]
Kathleen Mavourneen 1885 988 Acquired with the takeover of Drogheda Steam Packet Company in 1902. Scrapped in 1903.[50][51]
Lune 1892 253 Used for pleasure trips to Blackpool and Morecambe. Sold to Cosens & Co Ltd in 1913, renamed Melcombe Regis. Scrapped in 1920.[51][56]
Mellifont 1903 1,204 Scrapped in 1933[51]
Norah Creina 1878 894 Acquired with the takeover of Drogheda Steam Packet Company in 1902. Scrapped in 1912.[50][51]
Prince Arthur 1864 708 Built as Alfred for Bristol Steam Navigation Co. Was renamed Old Dominion when sold for use as a US Confederate blockade runner within weeks of being completed. Vessel returned to UK in 1865 and was renamed Sheffield when purchased by Liverpool & Dublin Steam Navigation Co Ltd. Further renaming in 1869 as Prince Arthur and was taken over by the joint railway operators in 1870.[57] Sold in 1877 to T Seed Ltd, Fleetwood.[50]
Prince of Wales 1886 1,429> Sold in 1896 to Spain.[50]
Princess of Wales 1870 936 Built by Andrew Leslie and Co. at Hebburn-on-Tyne and was re-engined in 1882-3 (a repeat of Thomas Dugdale). Sold to Naval Construction & Armaments Ltd., of Barrow[58] and broken up in 1896.[50]
Royal Consort 1844 522 Built in 1844 for North Lancashire Steam Navigation Co Ltd. Bought in 1870, scrapped in 1893.[50]
Thomas Dugdale 1873 1,000 Built by Andrew Leslie and Co. at Hebburn-on-Tyne. Re-engined in 1882. Sold in 1888 to Irish National Steamship Co Ltd.[50] Purchased by Laird's of Glasgow in 1890 and renamed Laurel eventually being broken up in 1893.[59]
Tredagh 1876 901 Acquired with the takeover of Drogheda Steam Packet Company in 1902. Scrapped in 1904.[50][51]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Awdry 1990
  2. ^ Paget-Tomlinson 2006, pp. 148–149
  3. ^ Rennison 1996, p. 258.
  4. ^ Yolland, Col. W. (3 October 1860). "Accident Returns: Extract for the Accident at Helmshore on 4th September 1860". Board of Trade. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Rosbottom, Ernest (1987) Burscough – The Story of an Agricultural Village. pp.179, 182. Carnegie Press, Preston.
  6. ^ "Accident at Burscough Junction on 15th January 1880". The Railways Archive. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Hoole, Ken (1982). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 3. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-906899-05-2. 
  8. ^ a b Trevena, Arthur (1980). Trains in Trouble. Vol. 1. Redruth: Atlantic Books. pp. 18, 29. ISBN 0-906899-01-X. 
  9. ^ Hall, Stanley (1990). The Railway Detectives. London: Ian Allan. p. 65. ISBN 0 7110 1929 0. 
  10. ^ a b c Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 6, 8, 13. ISBN 0-906899-35-4. 
  11. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 14. ISBN 0-906899-37-0. 
  12. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1991). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 7. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 17. ISBN 0-906899-50-8. 
  13. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1993). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 8. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 10. ISBN 0-906899-52-4. 
  14. ^ Pringle, J.W. (12 August 1920). "Accident Returns: Extract for the Accident at Lostock Junction on 17th July 1920". Ministry of Transport. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  15. ^ Wells 1995, p. 114[full citation needed]
  16. ^ "Oldham – Rochdale Line". Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 
  17. ^ "Oldham and Rochdale line – conversion work start date announced". Light Rail Transit Association. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  18. ^ Suggitt, Gordon (2003). Lost Railways of Lancashire. Newbury, Berkshire: Countryside Books. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-1-85306-801-0. OCLC 52565677. 
  19. ^ Marshall 1981, p. 155
  20. ^ New Zealand Tablet, 9 January 1902.
  21. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  22. ^ "Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, Page 2: East Coast Services – Goole Shipping Co". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "1098383". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  24. ^ Haws 1993, p. 68
  25. ^ a b c Haws 1993, p. 69
  26. ^ a b "1114041". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  27. ^ a b "1122970". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  28. ^ a b Haws 1993, p. 73
  29. ^ a b "1098389". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  30. ^ a b c Haws 1993, p. 66
  31. ^ a b "1122958". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  32. ^ Haws 1993, pp. 72–73
  33. ^ a b "1091317". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  34. ^ Haws 1993, p. 70
  35. ^ a b "1098385". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  36. ^ a b "1128872". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  37. ^ Haws 1993, p. 74
  38. ^ a b "1114043". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  39. ^ Haws 1993, pp. 69–70
  40. ^ a b "1122954". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  41. ^ a b c Haws 1993, p. 72
  42. ^ a b "1091322". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  43. ^ a b "1122953". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  44. ^ a b Haws 1993, p. 71
  45. ^ "1104228". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  46. ^ "1122955". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  47. ^ a b "1122968". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  48. ^ a b "1113120". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  49. ^ "Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, Page 1: West Coast Services – L&NWR Joint Services". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Feeder Lines – Eastern & North Western Companies + Zeeland & Stena Lines". The Ships List. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, Page 1: West Coast Services – L&NWR Joint Services". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  52. ^ "1127575". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  53. ^ "1127574". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  54. ^ "Background on HMS Ramsey". Navy News. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  55. ^ "1104233". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
  56. ^ "Melcombe Regis (1913–1920)". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  57. ^ Haws 1993, p. 83
  58. ^ Haws 1993, p. 84
  59. ^ Haws 1993, p. 85

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Blakemore, Michael (1984) The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-1401-9
  • Coates, Noel (1997) 150 Years of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, Hawkshill Publishing, ISBN 1-900349-11-6
  • Earnshaw, Alan (1992) The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway: Then & Now, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-2058-2
  • Haigh, A (1978) Railways in West Yorkshire, Dalesman Books, ISBN 0-85206-459-4
  • Haws, Duncan (1993). Merchant Fleets – Britain's Railway Steamers – Eastern & North Western + Zeeland and Stena. Hereford: TCL Publications. ISBN 0-946378-22-3. 
  • Littleworth, Chris (2002), Signal Boxes on Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Lines - North-East Lancashire, Signalling Record Society, ISBN 1-873228-21-X 
  • Littleworth, Chris (2013), Signal Boxes on Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Lines - North and West of Manchester: Part One, Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Society, ISBN 978-0-9559467-5-2 
  • Littleworth, Chris (2014), Signal Boxes on Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Lines - North and West of Manchester: Part Two, Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Society, ISBN 978-0-9559467-6-9 
  • Marshall, John (1969). The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Volume 1. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4352-1. 
  • Marshall, John (1970). The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Volume 2. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4906-6. 
  • Marshall, John (1972). The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, Volume 3. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5320-9. 
  • Mason, Eric (1975) [1954]. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in the Twentieth Century (2nd ed.). Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0656-3. 
  • Nock, O.S. (1969) The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway – A Concise History, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-0130-8
  • Paget-Tomlinson, E.W. (2006). The Illustrated History of Canal & River Navigations. Landmark countryside collection (Ashbourne: Landmark). ISBN 1-84306-207-0. 
  • Rennison, Robert William (1996). Civil Engineering Heritage. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-2518-1. 

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