Demographics of Nauru
The demographic characteristics of Nauru, an island country in the Pacific Ocean, are known through national censuses, which have been analyzed by various statical bureaus since the 1920. The Nauruan Bureau of Statistics have been conducting this task since 1977—the first census since Nauru gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1968. The latest census of Nauru was conducted in 2011. The population of Nauru at the 2011 census had reached ten thousand. The population density is 478 inhabitants per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy is 59.7 years. The population rose steadily from the 1960s until 2006 when the Government of Nauru repatriated thousands of Tuvaluan and Kiribati workers from the country. Since 2002, Nauru's birth rate has exceeded its death rate; the natural growth rate is positive. Nauru is in the third stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, the population is dominated by the 15–64 year old segment. The median age of the population is 21.5, and the estimated gender ratio of the population is 0.91 males per one female.
Nauru is inhabited mostly by Nauruans (58%) and other Pacific Islander (26%), while minorities include Chinese (8%) and European (8%). The demographic history of Nauru is marked by several migrations: the area was first inhabited by Micronesian people approximately 3,000 years ago. The first European to find the island was John Fearn in 1798. Then, the country was annexed by Germany in the 1880s. The next was when Japanese occupied the island during World War II in the 1940s. During this time, the Japanese deported several thousands of Nauruans to other islands. In the 1960s, the country gained independence, where the percentage of Nauruans started to increase. The most recent demographic switch was in the 2000s, when the government repatriated several non-Nauruan population from the country.
The Nauruan language is the official language of Nauru, but English is often used in the country as well. Nauruan is declared as the primary language of 95.3% of the population. The 2011 census revealed that 66.0% of the population spoke English and 11.9% another language. The main religions of Nauru are Protestant (60.4%) and Roman Catholic (33.0%). The literacy rate in Nauru is 96.5%. The proportion of the country's population aged 15 and over attaining academic degrees is one of the lowest in the world, reaching 7.9% in 2011. An estimated 10.7% of the gross domestic product (GDP) is spend on education. Nauru has a universal health care system, and in 2012, an estimated 7.5% of its GDP was spent on healthcare. Nauru has the highest obesity ranking in the world, 97 per cent of men and 93 per cent of women are obese. In 2006, the average net monthly income was A$2,597. The most significant sources of employment are phosphate mining, banking industries, and various coconut products. In 2011 the unemployment rate in Nauru was 23%. The 2011 census enumerated 1,647 total households, averaging 6.0 persons per house. Average urbanization rate in Nauru is 100%.
|Historical population of Nauru|
|Source: Nauru Bureau of Statistics|
With a population of ten thousand in 2011, Nauru ranks around 230th in the world by population. Its population density is 478 inhabitants per square kilometer. The overall life expectancy in Nauru at birth is 59.7 years. The total fertility rate of 3.70 children per mother is one of the highest in the Oceania. Future estimates are indifferent; the Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook estimates the population of Nauru is decreasing to approximately 9.4 thousand in 2014, the Nauruan Bureau of Statistics estimate the population will increase to 20 thousand in 2038, and the United Nations projects the population will stay around ten thousand in the 2020s. The natural growth rate of Nauru is positive.
One explanation for the recent population change is when the Government of Nauru repatriated almost all of the remaining Tuvaluan and I-Kiribati workers, following large scale reduction from the Republic of Nauru Phosphate Corporation (RONPhos) and government workers. The census of 2006 stated 9,233 people were in Nauru: down 2.13% per year from the previous census of 2002. Throughout the history of Nauru, the country has experienced six major demographic changes, including the 2006 repatriation. The island was first inhabited by Micronesian people roughly 3,000 years ago. The first European to find the island was John Fearn in 1798. Then, the country was annexed by Germany in the 1880s. The next was when Japanese occupied the island during World War II in the 1940s. During this time, the Japanese deported several thousands of Nauruans to other islands. The final major demographic change was in the 1960s; the country gained independence, where the percentage of Nauruans started to increase.
|Year||Population||Births||Deaths||Change||Birth rate||Death rate||Crude change||Fertility Rate|
|Source: The World Factbook, Nauruan Bureau of Statistics|
Nauru, as of 2011, is mainly inhabited by Naurans (94%), while the main minority groups include Fijian (1%), Chinese (1%), and Solomon Isalnder (1%). This shows a major change from the previous major census of 2002, when Nauruans represented 75% of the population. According to the Constitution of Nauru does not exclude any ethnic group to become a citizen.
|Source: Nauruan Bureau of Statistics|
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Personal income, jobs, and unemployment
Net monthly income in 2006 averaged A$2,597 (A$2,773 in 2014). In the same year, gross monthly income averaged A$9,554 (A$10,203 in 2014). This was calculated during the mini-census of 2006, which featured 54.4% response rate of the population. The income was calculated using the following factors: first job salary, subsistence, other business income, second job salary, services to other households, benefits, house gifts consumed and received, and other income. Compared to other countries that use the Australian dollar—Kiribati, Australia, and Tuvalu—Nauru ranks number one in terms of income.[A] Since 2013, Nauru does not have a minimum wage.
Nauru's number of employed people has steadily risen and fallen. According to the 2011 census, there are 908 employed persons and 2,883 unemployed persons, making an unemployment rate of 23%. A majority of the population are employed in phosphate mining, public administration, education, and transportation. A dentition census was closed in 2008, which caused the unemployment rate to rise to 30%, and approximately ten percent of the population relied on working at the center.
Urbanization and housing
A[A] For Kiribati, the average annual income was reported as A$8,745, which was divided by 12 months to receive a monthly income. For Australia, the minimum (A$400) and maximum (A$599) average income was taken from the 2006 census and divided by two to receive the average weekly income; this amount was multiplied by 4.33 to receive the monthly income. For Tuvalu, the 2005 monthly income was used with an inflation calculator to provide the 2006 value.
- "Population Census of 2011". Nauruan Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "Nauru: Part 1 - Descriptive Section". UNESCO. 2000. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "WHO Western Pacific Region: Nauru Statistics Summary (2002–present)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Marks, Kathy (26 December 2010). "Fat of the Land: Nauru Tops Obesity League". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2011, p. 7
- "Nauru Stats at a Glance". Nauru Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Nauru". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2011, p. 164
- "Population". World Population Prospectus. United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Asian Development Bank 2007, pp. 2–3
- United Nations 2003, p. 11
- Firth, Stewart (1978). "German labour policy in Nauru and Angaur, 1906–1914". The Journal of Pacific History 13 (1). doi:10.1080/00223347808572337.
- Davidson, JW (January 1968). "The republic of Nauru". The Journal of Pacific History 3 (1): 145–150. doi:10.1080/00223346808572131.
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2011, p. 83
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2007, p. 18
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2011, p. 56
- Australian Consumer Price Inflation figures follow the Long Term Linked Series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009) 6461.0 – Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2009 as explained at §§3.10–3.11; this series comprises "from 1901 to 1914, the A Series Retail Price Index; from 1914 to 1946–47, the C Series Retail Price Index; from 1946-47 to 1948-49, a combination of the C Series Index, excluding rent, and the housing group of the CPI; and from 1948–49 onwards, the CPI." (3.10)
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2007, pp. 8–10
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics 2007, p. 8
- United States Department of State 2013, p. 13
- La Canna, Xavier (7 February 2008). "Nauru 'Hit' by Detention Centre Closing". The Age. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- Tiroa 2006, p. 15
- Tuvalu Government 2005, p. 35
- Asian Development Bank (2007). Country Economic Report: Nauru (Report). Asian Development Bank. http://web.archive.org/web/20110607064452/http://www.adb.org/Documents/CERs/NAU/CER-NAU-2007.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics (2007). Nauru Household Income and Expenditure Survey Report 2006 (Report). Nauruan Bureau of Statistics. https://www.spc.int/prism/country/nr/stats/Publication/Surveys/Nauru_HIES_Rpt_final.pdf. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Nauruan Bureau of Statistics (2011). National Report on Population and Housing: Census 2011 (Report). Nauruan Bureau of Statistics. http://www.spc.int/prism/nauru/index.php/nauru-documents?view=download&fileId=60. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Tiroa, Tekena (2006). Analytical Report on the 2006 Kiribati HIES (Report). National Statistics Office Kiribati. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/ki/stats/CensusSurveys/KI_Final%20HIES%20Report.pdf. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Tuvalu Government (2005). Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HEIS) 2004/2005 (Report). Tuvalu Government. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/tv/stats/Publication/Tuvalu%20HIES%20Report.pdf. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- United Nations (2003). First National Report to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD): Nauru (Report). United Nations. http://web.archive.org/web/20110722013720/http://www.unccd.int/cop/reports/asia/national/2002/nauru-eng.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2014.