The Last Samurai
|The Last Samurai|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Edward Zwick|
|Story by||John Logan|
|Music by||Hans Zimmer|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures|
The Last Samurai is a 2003 American epic war film directed and co-produced by Edward Zwick, who also co-wrote the screenplay with John Logan. The film stars Tom Cruise, who also co-produced, as well as Ken Watanabe, Shin Koyamada, Tony Goldwyn, Hiroyuki Sanada, Timothy Spall, and Billy Connolly. Inspired by a project by Vincent Ward, it interested Zwick, with Ward later serving as executive producer. The film production went ahead with Zwick and was shot in Ward’s native New Zealand.
Cruise portrays an American officer, whose personal and emotional conflicts bring him into contact with samurai warriors in the wake of the Meiji Restoration in 19th Century Japan. The film's plot was inspired by the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion led by Saigō Takamori, and on the westernization of Japan by foreign powers, though in the film the United States is portrayed as the primary force behind the push for westernization. To a lesser extent it is also influenced by the stories of Jules Brunet, a French army captain who fought alongside Enomoto Takeaki in the earlier Boshin War and Frederick Townsend Ward, an American mercenary who helped Westernize the Chinese army by forming the Ever Victorious Army.
The Last Samurai was well received upon its release, with a worldwide box office total of $456 million. It was nominated for several awards, including four Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, and two National Board of Review Awards.
In 1876, Civil War veteran of Gettysburg U.S. Army captain Nathan Algren is traumatized by his participation in the Indian Wars, and has become a bitter alcoholic. Algren is approached by his former commanding officer, Colonel Bagley, on behalf of Japanese businessman Omura, who wishes to hire US soldiers to train the Imperial Japanese Army to suppress a samurai rebellion. In exchange, Japan would ratify a lucrative trade agreement that would grant the U.S. exclusive rights to supply arms to the Japanese government. Although Algren despises Bagley for having ordered atrocities during the Indian wars, he accepts the job for the money and sails to Japan. Most of the soldiers being trained are nothing more than peasants and farmers and are slow learners. The training is interrupted when the samurai rebels attack a railroad owned by Omura; Bagley orders the regiment to mobilize, overruling Algren's objection that the soldiers are not yet ready. Algren is proved correct, during a battle in a foggy forest in Yoshino Province, the undisciplined and intimidated soldiers panic and are quickly routed by the samurai. Algren kills several samurai with his revolver and saber but is eventually knocked from his horse. Algren desperately fights using a spear tipped flagstaff until he collapses from complete exhaustion. As he is about to be vanquished, he kills his would-be executioner with the staff's spear tip, but is spared and taken captive to the rebels' village in the mountains.
In captivity and under guard, Algren is relatively free to explore the village and interact with its inhabitants. He meets with the leader of the samurai rebellion, Katsumoto Moritsugu, who wishes to have civilized conversations with him for the purpose of mutual understanding. Algren grows to respect the simple and disciplined lifestyle of the samurai and their families. As time passes, he integrates more fully with their society, learning samurai martial techniques as well as the Japanese language. From Katsumoto, he learns that the rebellion opposes Japanese westernization, and that he believes the samurai are acting in the best interest of Japan. Algren is housed with Katsumoto's sister Taka and her family; she initially dislikes him, but after Algren learns it was her husband (the samurai that was going to execute him) he killed in combat, he apologizes and the two grow closer. His stay in the village allows him to overcome his alcoholism, come to terms with the horrors of his past and learn the samurai way. Algren earns the samurai's respect and acceptance after they defeat a band of ninjas sent by Omura to assassinate Katsumoto.
Katsumoto travels to Tokyo to meet with his master and former student, the Emperor, and releases Algren. Algren learns that the Imperial Japanese Army has become much better trained and armed over the wintertime. Katsumoto realizes that the Emperor's influence in the government has been overshadowed by his advisers, led by Omura, who support westernization and intend to use the strengthened army to crush the samurai. In a council meeting, Katsumoto is arrested for carrying a sword. Rather than fulfill Omura's request to lead the Imperial Army against the rebellion, Algren organizes the samurai to free Katsumoto. The raid is successful and many soldiers are killed. Already mortally wounded Katsumoto's son Nobutada sacrifices himself to allow everyone else to escape.
Algren and the samurai return to the village to prepare for the army's coming assault. Before the warriors depart for battle, Taka dresses Algren in the armor worn by her husband, and the two share a kiss. As the battle commences, the samurai deploy several tactical novelties to gain the edge over the Imperial Army. The Imperial soldiers are cut off by a fire trap set by the samurai, and following a lethal hail of arrows Algren and Katsumoto lead a wave of swordsmen in a charge against them. As both sides clash, more Imperial platoons arrive, only to be countered by samurai polearm-armed warriors and cavalrymen. The struggle persists, leaving many dead on both sides before the remaining Imperial soldiers retreat. Knowing that they cannot withstand another assault, Katsumoto orders a final horseback charge that breaks through the Army's defensive lines (scaring Omura) and is only stopped by last-minute Gatling gun fire. During the charge, Algren spots Bagley firing on Katsumoto, and kills him by throwing his samurai sword at him. In a very short space of time, the Gatling fire guns down the remaining samurai and grievously injures Algren, who nevertheless helps Katsumoto achieve an honorable death by performing seppuku. The Imperial Army collectively kneels and bows in a show of respect for the fallen samurai.
Days later, as negotiations over the trade agreement conclude, an injured Algren interrupts the proceedings and presents Katsumoto's sword to the Emperor, stating that Katsumoto would have wanted him to have it and to remember the cause for which he and his ancestors had died. The Emperor realizes that while Japan must modernize, it must also grow strong on its own terms and in line with its history and culture. He rejects the trade agreement and confiscates the Omura family's assets to give back to the people. As the film closes, questions are raised to what happened to Algren, whether he died from his wounds or traveled back to America. The film shows Algren returning to the isolated mountain village to live with Taka and her children in peace.
- Tom Cruise as Captain Nathan Algren, a veteran of the American Civil War and the Indian Wars, born in the British Empire but a naturalised American.
- Ken Watanabe as Lord Moritsugu Katsumoto
- Hiroyuki Sanada as Ujio
- Shin Koyamada as Nobutada
- Tony Goldwyn as Colonel Bagley
- Masato Harada as Omura
- Shichinosuke Nakamura as Emperor Meiji
- Timothy Spall as Simon Graham
- Seizo Fukumoto as the Silent Samurai
- Koyuki as Taka
- Billy Connolly as Sergeant Zebulon Gant
- Shun Sugata as Nakao
- Sosuke Ikematsu as Higen
- Scott Wilson as Ambassador Swanbeck
- Togo Igawa as General Hasegawa
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2012)|
Filming took place in New Zealand, mostly in the Taranaki region, with Japanese cast members and an American production crew. This location was chosen due to the fact that Egmont/Mount Taranaki resembles Mount Fuji, and also because there is a lot of forest and farmland in the Taranaki region. American Location Manager, Charlie Harrington, saw the mountain in a travel book and encouraged the producers to send him to Taranaki to scout the locations. This acted as a backdrop for many scenes, as opposed to the built up cities of Japan. Several of the village scenes were shot on the Warner Brothers Studios backlot in Burbank, California. Some scenes were shot in Kyoto and Himeji, Japan. There were 13 filming locations altogether Tom Cruise did his own stunts for the film.
The film is based on an original screenplay entitled "The Last Samurai", from a story by John Logan. The project itself was inspired by writer and director Vincent Ward. Ward became executive producer on the film – working in development on it for nearly four years and after approaching several directors (Francis Ford Coppola, Peter Weir), until he became interested with Edward Zwick. The film production went ahead with Zwick and was shot in Ward’s native New Zealand.
The film was based on the stories of Jules Brunet, a French army captain who fought alongside Enomoto Takeaki in the earlier Boshin War and Frederick Townsend Ward, an American mercenary who helped Westernize the Chinese army by forming the Ever Victorious Army. The historical roles of the British Empire, the Netherlands and France in Japanese westernization are largely attributed to the United States in the film, for American audiences.
|The Last Samurai: Original Motion Picture Score|
|Film score by Hans Zimmer|
|Released||November 25, 2003|
|Hans Zimmer chronology|
The Last Samurai: Original Motion Picture Score is the score to the 2003 film of the same name, released on November 25, 2003 by Warner Sunset Records. All music on the soundtrack was composed, arranged, and produced by Hans Zimmer, performed by the Hollywood Studio Symphony, and conducted by Blake Neely. It peaked at number 24 on the US Top Soundtracks chart.
- Track listing
All music composed by Hans Zimmer.
|1.||"A Way of Life"||8:03|
|2.||"Spectres in the Fog"||4:07|
|4.||"A Hard Teacher"||5:44|
|5.||"To Know My Enemy"||4:48|
|10.||"The Way of the Sword"||7:59|
|11.||"A Small Measure of Peace"||7:59|
|12.||"The Final Charge"||4:39|
The film achieved higher box office receipts in Japan than in the United States. Critical reception in Japan was generally positive. Tomomi Katsuta of The Mainichi Shinbun thought that the film was "a vast improvement over previous American attempts to portray Japan", noting that director Edward Zwick "had researched Japanese history, cast well-known Japanese actors and consulted dialogue coaches to make sure he didn't confuse the casual and formal categories of Japanese speech." However, Katsuta still found fault with the film's idealistic, "storybook" portrayal of the samurai, stating: "Our image of samurai is that they were more corrupt." As such, he said, the noble samurai leader Katsumoto "set (his) teeth on edge."
The Japanese premiere was held at Roppongi Hills multiplex in Tokyo on November 1, 2003. The entire cast was present; they signed autographs, provided interviews and appeared on stage to speak to fans. Many of the cast members expressed the desire for audiences to learn and respect the important values of the samurai, and to have a greater appreciation of Japanese culture and custom.
In the United States, critic Roger Ebert of Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, saying it was "beautifully designed, intelligently written, acted with conviction, it's an uncommonly thoughtful epic." Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 65% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 214 reviews, with the site's consensus stating: "With high production values and thrilling battle scenes, The Last Samurai is a satisfying epic", and with an average score of 6.4/10, making the film a "Fresh" on the website's rating system. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 55, based on 44 reviews, which indicates "mixed or average reviews".
The film was nominated for four Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actor (Ken Watanabe), Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design and Best Sound (Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer and Jeff Wexler). It was also nominated for three Golden Globe Awards: Best Supporting Actor (Watanabe), Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama (Tom Cruise) and Best Score (Hans Zimmer).
Awards won by the film include Best Director by the National Board of Review, Outstanding Supporting Visual Effects at the Visual Effects Society Awards, Outstanding Foreign Language Film at the Japan Academy Prize, four Golden Satellite Awards and Best Fire Stunt at the Taurus World Stunt Awards.
Criticism and debate
Motoko Rich of The New York Times observed that the film has opened up a debate, "particularly among Asian-Americans and Japanese," about whether the film and others like it were "racist, naïve, well-intentioned, accurate – or all of the above."
Todd McCarthy, a film critic for the Variety magazine, wrote: "Clearly enamored of the culture it examines while resolutely remaining an outsider's romanticization of it, yarn is disappointingly content to recycle familiar attitudes about the nobility of ancient cultures, Western despoilment of them, liberal historical guilt, the unrestrainable greed of capitalists and the irreducible primacy of Hollywood movie stars."
According to History professor Cathy Schultz, "Many samurai fought Meiji modernization not for altruistic reasons but because it challenged their status as the privileged warrior caste. Meiji reformers proposed the radical idea that all men essentially being equal ... The film also misses the historical reality that lots and lots of Meiji policy advisors were former samurai, who had voluntarily given up their traditional privileges to follow a course they believed would strengthen Japan."
The fictional character of Katsumoto bears a striking resemblance to the historical figure of Saigō Takamori, a hero of the Meiji Restoration and the leader of the ineffective Satsuma Rebellion, who appears in the histories and legends of modern Japan as a hero against the corruption, extravagance, and unprincipled politics of his contemporaries. "Though he had agreed to become a member of the new government," writes the translator and historian Ivan Morris, "it was clear from his writings and statements that he believed the ideals of the civil war were being vitiated. He was opposed to the excessively rapid changes in Japanese society and was particularly disturbed by the shabby treatment of the warrior class." Suspicious of the new bureaucracy, he wanted power to remain in the hands of the samurai class and the Emperor, and it was for this purpose that he had joined the central government. "Edicts like the interdiction against carrying swords and wearing the traditional topknot seemed like a series of gratuitous provocations; and, though Saigō realized that Japan needed an effective standing army to resist pressure from the West, he could not countenance the social implications of the military reforms. For this reason Saigō, although participating in the Ōkubo government, continued to exercise a powerful appeal among disgruntled ex-samurai in Satsuma and elsewhere." Saigō fought for a moral revolution, not a material one, and he described his revolt as a check on the declining morality of a new, Westernizing materialism.
- William Adams
- Foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan
- Ōmura Masujirō
- French Military Mission to Japan (1867)
- Mark Rappaport (creature effects artist)
- Satsuma Rebellion
- Jules Brunet
- White savior narrative in film
- The Last Samurai (2003). Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- The Last Samurai: Original Motion Picture Score (CD liner notes). Hans Zimmer. Warner Sunset Records. 2003.
- "The Last Samurai – Original Motion Picture Soundtrack". Allmusic.com. Rovi Corp. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "The Last Samurai (2003) – News". CountingDown.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Sampling Japanese comment". Asia Arts. UCLA.edu. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Rich, Motoko (January 4, 2004). "Land Of the Rising Cliché". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (December 5, 2003). "The Last Samurai". Chicago Sun-Times. RogerEbert.com. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- "The Last Samurai". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixter. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "The Last Samurai". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "The 76th Academy Awards (2004) Nominees and Winners". Oscars.org. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- "Awards for The Last Samurai (2003)". IMDb. Amazon.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- McCarthy, Todd (November 30, 2003). "The Last Samurai". Variety. Reed Elsevier Inc. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Schultz, Cathy. "The Last Samurai offers a Japanese History Lesson". History in the Movies. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Ivan Morris (1975), The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the History of Japan, chapter 9, Saigō Takamori. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 10-ISBN 003010811X/13-ISBN 978-0030108112.
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- Official website
- The Last Samurai at the Internet Movie Database
- The Last Samurai at AllMovie
- The Last Samurai at the TCM Movie Database
- The Last Samurai at the American Film Institute Catalog
- The Last Samurai at Box Office Mojo
- Does The Last Samurai have the saddest movie death? at AMCTV.com