List of Holy Roman Empresses

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Crown of Constance of Aragon, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of the Romans

Holy Roman Empress or Empress of the Holy Roman Empire is the title given to the consort of the Holy Roman Emperor. The elective dignity of Holy Roman Emperor was restricted to males only, therefore there was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu or Maria Theresa of Austria, who controlled the power of rule, served as de facto Empresses regnant.

Holy Roman Empresses[edit]

Before 924, the title of Emperor was not always associated with the German Kingdom; rather, it was initially associated with the Carolingian dynasty, and then possessed by several other figures of the 9th and 10th centuries. Their consorts were thus Empresses, but not necessarily German Queens.

Carolingian[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ermengarde of Hesbaye
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Ingram, Count of Hesbaye
(Robertians)
c.778 794/795 Queen of Aquitaine 794/795
Queen of the Franks 28 January 814
813
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
28 January 814
husband as sole Emperor
3 October 818 Louis I
Wgt Stifterbüchlein 11v.jpg Judith of Bavaria
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Welf, Count of Altdorf
(Welfs)
805 819 20 June 840
husband's death
19/23 April 843
Ermengarde of Tours
Queen of Italy and the Middle Franks, Empress
Hugh, Count of Tours
(Etichonids)
 ? 821 Queen of Italy 17 April 818
Queen of Middle Francia August 843
821
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
20 June 840
husband as sole Emperor
851 Lothair I
Engelberga of Parma
Queen of Italy, Empress
Adelchis I, Count of Parma
(Supponids)
 ? 5 October 851 Queen of Italy 5 October 851 5 October 851
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
23 September 855
husband as sole Emperor
12 August 875
husband's death
896-901 Louis II
Richildaof Provence.gif Richilde of Provence
Queen of the West Franks, Empress
Bivin, Count of the Ardennes
(Bosonids)
845 870 Queen of the West Franks 870 29 December 875 5/6 October 877
husband's death
2 June 910 Charles the Bald
Saint Richardis (fragment of The Ordeal by Fire by Dierec Bouts the Older).jpg Richardis
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Erchanger, count of Nordgau
(Ahalolfings)
c.840 862 Various 12 February 881 As Queen: 11 November 887
husband's deposition as King
As Empress: 13 January 888
husband's death
18 September, 894-896 Charles the Fat
Ageltrude
Queen of Italy, Empress
Adelchis, Prince of Benevento  ? before 880 Queen of Italy 889 May 891 12 December 894
husband's death
27 August 923 Guy III of Spoleto
Ota Berengar I of Neustria
(Conradines)
 ? 888 22 February 896 8 December 899 30 November 903 Arnulf
Anna of Constantinople
Queen of Italy and Provence, Empress
[1]
Leo VI the Wise
(Macedonian)
885 around 900 900
in Provence (Lower Burgundy)
12 October 900
in Italy
15/22 February 901 21 July 905
in the Empire and Italy
912
in Provence
912 Louis the Blind
Bertila of Spoleto
Queen of Italy, Empress
Suppo II, Count of Parma
(Supponids)
860 c.880 Queen of Italy 26 December 887
husband's restoration
January 915 before December 915 Berengar I of Italy
Anna of Provence
Queen of Italy, Empress
Louis the Blind, Emperor, King of Provence and Italy
(Bosonids)
- by December 915 7 April 924
husband's death
after May 930
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Holy Roman Empresses/German Queens[edit]

With the elevation of Otto I of Germany in 962 to the Imperial title, the title 'Roman King/Emperor' became inaliably associated with the Kingdom of Germany - although a King of Germany might not bear the Imperial title, it would eventually become impossible to conceive of a Holy Roman Emperor not being King of Germany. The following were all Queens of Germany as well as Roman Empresses.

Ottonian Dynasty[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Sainte-Adélaïde - Église de Toury, vitraux par Lorin.jpg Adelaide of Italy Rudolph II of Burgundy
(Welf)
931 951 2 February 962 (Crowned on this date) 7 May 973 16 December 999 Otto I
Theophanu.jpg Theophanu of Byzantium Konstantinos Skleros 960 14 April 972 14 April 972
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
7 May 973
husband as sole Emperor
Crowned 14 April 972
7 December 983
husband's death
15 June 991 Otto II
Kunigunde.png Cunigunde of Luxembourg Siegfried, Count of Luxemburg c.975 999[2] 17 June 1002 26 April 1014 13 July 1024 3 March 1033 Henry II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Salian Dynasty[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gisela von Schwaben.JPG Gisela of Swabia Hermann II, Duke of Swabia
(Conradines)
11 November 995 1016 8 September 1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039
husband's death
14 February 1043 Conrad II
Agnes of Poitou.jpg Agnes de Poitou William V, Duke of Aquitaine
(Ramnulfids)
1025 21 November 1043 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 14 December 1077 Henry III
Bertha of Savoy, Holy Roman Empress.jpg Bertha of Savoy Otto, Count of Savoy
(Savoy)
21 September 1051 13 July 1066 21 March 1084 27 December 1087 Henry IV
Kiew-city-COA.PNG Eupraxia of Kiev Vsevolod I, Grand Prince of Kiev
(Rurikids)
1071 14 August 1089 31 December 1105
husband's deposition
20 July 1109
Empress Mathilda.png Matilda of England Henry I of England
(Normandy)
7 February 1101 7 January 1114 23 May 1125 10 September 1167 Henry V
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Supplinburg[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Richenza von Northeim (Königslutter).jpg Richenza of Northeim Henry the Fat, Margrave of Frisia c.1087/89 c.1100 30 August 1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 10 June 1141 Lothair III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 032.jpg Beatrice of Burgundy Renaud III, Count of Burgundy 1143 9 June 1156 15 November 1184 Frederick I
Constance-Sicily.jpg Constance of Sicily Roger II, King of Sicily
(Hauteville)
1154 27 January 1186 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 27 November 1198 Henry VI
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Welf[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Wgt Stifterbüchlein 39v.jpg Beatrice of Swabia Philip, King of Germany
(Hohenstaufen)
1198 1209 or 1212 1212 Otto IV
MarieBrabant1190-1260.jpg Marie of Brabant Henry I, Duke of Brabant c.1190 after 19 May 1214 5 July 1215
husband's deposition
May 1260
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
KonstancieAragonska Uhry.jpg Constance of Aragon Alfonso II, King of Aragon 1179 5 August 1209 1211-1212
husband as King in opposition/
5 July 1215
husband unopposed
22 November 1220 23 April 1220
Ceased to
be Queen:
son elected
as King
23 June 1222
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Frederick II
DeathofYolande-Isabella.jpg Yolande of Brienne John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem 1212 9 November 1225 never German Queen 9 November 1225 25 April 1228
BritLibRoyal14CVIIFol123FredIIAndIsabellaWed.jpg Isabella of England John, King of England 1214 15/20 July 1235 May 1237
Ceased to
be Queen:
husband's second
son elected as King
1 December 1241
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Picture Name House Father Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Marguerite II de Hainaut.png Margaret II, Countess of Hainault William of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut 1311 26 February 1324 January 1328 11 October 1347 23 June 1356 Louis IV
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxemburg[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
AnnaSvidnicka hlava.jpg Anna of Świdnica Henry II, Duke of Świdnica c. 1339 27 May 1353 5 April 1355
coronation with husband
11 July 1362 Charles IV
Katedrala sv Vita Praha mozaika Alzbeta.jpg Elizabeth of Pomerania Bogislav V, Duke of Pomerania 1347 21 May 1363 1 November 1368
coronation
29 November 1378
husband's death
14 February 1393
Barbara-von-Cilli.jpg Barbara of Cilli Hermann II, Count of Celje 1390 to 1395 1408 21 July 1411
husband's election
31 May 1433
husband's coronation
9 December 1437
husband's death
11 July 1451 Sigismund
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. 006.jpg Leonor of Portugal Edward of Portugal
(Aviz)
18 September 1434 16 March 1452 19 March 1452
husband's coronation
3 September 1467 Frederick III
Ambrogio de Predis 002.jpg Bianca Maria of Milan Galeazzo Maria, Duke of Milan
(Sforza)
5 April 1472 16 March 1494 4 February 1508
husband declared "emperor-elect"
31 December 1510 Maximilian I
Isabella of Portugal by Titian.jpg Isabella of Portugal Manuel I of Portugal
(Aviz)
23 October 1503 10 March 1526 24 February 1530
husband's coronation
1 May 1539 Charles V
Maria of Spain 1557.jpg Maria of Spain Emperor Charles V
(Habsburg)
21 June 1528 13 September 1548 November 1562
husband's election
25 July 1564
husband's ascension
12 October 1576
husband's death
26 February 1603 Maximilian II
Frans Pourbus d. J. 002.jpg Anna of Austria Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
4 October 1585 4 December 1611 13 June 1612
husband's election
14 December 1618 Matthias
Justus Sustermans 001.jpg Eleonore of Mantua Vincenzo I, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
23 September (23 February?) 1598 4 February 1622 15 February 1637
husband's death
27 June 1655 Ferdinand II
Mariana of Austria (1606-1646) as Holy Roman Empress by Franz Luycx.jpg Maria Anna of Spain Philip III of Spain
(Habsburg)
18 August 1606 20 February 1631 22 December 1636
husband's election
15 February 1637
husband's ascension
13 May 1646 Ferdinand III
Maria Leopoldina d'Austria.jpg Maria Leopoldine of Austria Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
6 April 1632 2 July 1648 7 August 1649
Eleonora Gonzaga by Frans Luyckx.jpg Eleanor of Mantua Charles II, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
18 November 1630 30 April 1651 2 April 1657
husband's death
6 December 1686
Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez - Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Blue Dress - Google Art Project.jpg Margarita Teresa of Spain Philip IV of Spain
(Habsburg)
12 July 1651 12 December 1666 12 March 1673 Leopold I
Carlo Dolci 003.jpg Claudia Felicitas of Austria Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria
(Habsburg)
30 May 1653 15 October 1673 8 April 1676
Eleonore of Pfalz Neuburg.jpg Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg Philip William, Elector Palatine
(Wittelsbach)
6 January 1655 14 December 1676 5 May 1705
husband's death
19 January 1720
Wilhelmine Amalie de Brunswick-Lunebourg (1673-1742).jpg Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick John Frederick, Duke of Calenburg
(Welf)
21 April 1673 24 February 1699 5 May 1705
husband's ascension
17 April 1711
husband's death
10 April 1742 Joseph I
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1691-1750) by Martin van Meytens.jpg Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
(Welf)
28 August (28 September?) 1691 1 August 1708 December 1711
husband's election
20 October 1740
husband's death
21 December 1750 Charles VI
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Maria Amalia of Austria.jpg Maria Amalia of Austria Emperor Joseph I
(Habsburg)
22 October 1701 5 October 1722 24 January 1742
husband's election
20 January 1745
husband's death
11 December 1756 Charles VII
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg Maria Theresa of Austria Emperor Charles VI
(Habsburg)
13 May 1717 12 February 1736 13 September 1745
husband's election
18 August 1765
husband's death
29 November 1780 Francis I
Maria Josepha von Bayern.jpg Maria Josepha of Bavaria Emperor Charles VII
(Wittelsbach)
30 March 1739 23 January 1765 18 August 1765
husband's ascension
28 May 1767 Joseph II
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Maria Luisa di Borbone Spagna, granduchessa di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Maria Louisa of Spain Charles III of Spain
(Bourbon)
24 November 1745 5 August 1765 30 September 1790
husband's election
1 March 1792
husband's death
15 May 1792 Leopold II
Maria Teresa di Borbone-Napoli.jpg Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(Bourbon)
6 June 1772 15 August 1790 5 July 1792
husband's election
6 August 1806
husband's abdication
13 April 1807 Francis II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Some historians believed that Anna never married Louis the Blind. Although there are proves that they were betrothed to one another, Anna was buried in Constantinople showing that she never left her father's court. The main reason some believe that she was his wife was because of Louis' son, Charles-Constantine's second name.
  2. ^ "Saint Kunigunde", New Catholic Dictionary, Saints.SQPN.com, 7 October 2012, [1]

See also[edit]