Isabella of England

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For the daughter of Edward III of England, see Isabella de Coucy.
Isabella of England
BritLibRoyal14CVIIFol123FredIIAndIsabellaWed.jpg
The wedding of Isabella and Emperor Frederick II
Holy Roman Empress; German Queen; Queen consort of Sicily
Tenure 15 July 1235 – 1 December 1241
Spouse Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue Margaret, Landgravine of Thuringia
House House of Plantagenet (by birth)
House of Hohenstaufen (by marriage)
Father John, King of England
Mother Isabella of Angoulême
Born 1214
Gloucester, England
Died 1 December 1241(1241-12-01) (aged 26–27)
Foggia, Puglia, Italy
Burial Andria Cathedral, Italy

Isabella of England, also called Elizabeth (1214 – 1 December 1241) was an English princess and, by marriage, Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, and Queen consort of Sicily.

Biography[edit]

She was the fourth child but second daughter of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.

At a friendly meeting at Rieti, Pope Gregory IX suggested to emperor Frederick II that he marry princess Isabella, a sister of Henry III of England. At first Frederick II was concerned to lose his French allies; but when he realised that an English marriage might end the ongoing Anglo-French feud and constitute an important step towards the restoration of peace in Western Christendom, thus smoothing the way for a successful crusade, he agreed. The betrothal was formalized in London in February 1235.

The beautiful Isabella was about twenty-one years old when she set out to marry the twice-widowed Emperor Frederick II, who was forty. On her way through Cologne, she delighted the local women when she removed the traditionally worn veil so that they could see her face.

The marriage between Isabella and Frederick took place in Worms Cathedral on 15 or 20 July 1235; in the ceremony, she was also crowned Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany and Sicily. Her dowry was 30,000 marks of silver (a considerable sum at the time) and she was granted the castle of Monte Sant'Angelo by her husband upon her marriage.

However, as soon as she was married she was introduced to the secluded harem life attended by black eunuchs. Their marriage had been a political match, and she was allowed to keep only two of her English women-attendants, Margaret Biset, who probably had been her nurse, and her maid Kathrein; the others were sent home.

Isabella lived in retirement at Noventa Padovana where her husband regularly visited her. When her brother, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, returned from the crusades, he was allowed to visit her, although Isabella was not allowed to be present at the official reception. While the imperial court resided at Foggia, Isabella gave birth to her last child and died. She is buried beside Frederick's previous wife, Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem, in Andria Cathedral, near Bari.

Issue[edit]

Primary sources are at variance concerning Isabella's issue, including the number of children she had, their names, and their birth order. What is known for sure is that Isabella had at least four children: a son who died shortly after his birth in 1236 or 1241, a daughter who - like her older brother - died shortly after her birth in 1237, Margaret, and Heinrich. Margaret is believed by some to have been the first child, and by others to be the child whose birth caused Isabella's death. The most common belief is that Margaret was the last child. The short-lived son of Isabella has been given the name of Frederick, Jordanus/Jordan, and Carl Otto by various sources. Some historians believe Isabella actually had five children, two short-lived sons instead of one, and that they were named Jordanus/Carl Otto and Frederick, the two being born in spring 1236 and summer 1240.

  • Frederick/Jordan/Charles Otto (Spring 1236–1236)[1]
  • Agnes (born & died 1237)
  • Henry (18 January 1238 – May 1254)
  • Margaret, landgravine of Thuringia (1 December 1241 – 8 August 1270)

Ancestors[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas Curtis Van Cleve's The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: Immutator Mundi (Oxford, 1972). Page 381:"Certainly there is some evidence that a son, Jordanus, was born in the year 1236, and died shortly afterwards, but the only son of Frederick II and Isabella of England whose birth can be firmly established was a second Henry, born in 1238, and named after his uncle, Henry III, the King of England." Ref supplied by Peter Stewart via soc.gen.med 20 Jan 2008

References[edit]

German royalty
Preceded by
Margaret,
Duchess of Austria
Queen consort of Germany
1235–1237
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Bavaria
Preceded by
Isabella II of Jerusalem
Queen consort of Sicily
1235–1241
Empress consort of
the Holy Roman Empire

1235–1241
Succeeded by
Margaret II,
Countess of Hainault