List of apple diseases

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This article is a list of diseases of apples (Malus × domestica).

Bacterial diseases[edit]

Bacterial diseases
Blister spot Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans
Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Fire blight Erwinia amylovora
Hairy root Agrobacterium rhizogenes

Fungal diseases[edit]

Fungal diseases
Alternaria blotch

Alternaria mali
= A. alternata apple pathotype

Alternaria rot Alternaria alternata
American brown rot Monilinia fructicola
Anthracnose canker and bull's-eye rot

Pezicula malicorticus
Cryptosporiopsis curvispora [anamorph]

Apple scab

Venturia inaequalis
Spilocaea pomi [anamorph]

Apple ring rot and canker Botryosphaeria berengeriana

= Physalospora

Armillaria root rot = shoestring root rot Armillaria mellea
Bitter rot

Glomerella cingulata
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [anamorph]
Colletotrichum acutatum

Black pox Helminthosporium papulosum
Black root rot

Xylaria mali
Xylaria polymorpha

Black rot, frogeye leafspot and canker

Botryosphaeria obtusa
Sphaeropsis malorum [anamorph]

Blister canker = nailhead canker

Biscogniauxia marginata
= Nummularia discreta

Blue mold Penicillium spp.

Penicillium expansum

Brooks fruit spot

Mycosphaerella pomi
Cylindrosporium pomi [anamorph]

Brown rot blossom blight and spur infection

Monilinia laxa

Calyx-end rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Clitocybe root rot

Armillaria tabescens
= Clitocybe tabescens

Diaporthe canker*

Diaporthe tanakae
Phomopsis tanakae [anamorph]

Diplodia canker

Botryosphaeria stevensii
= Physalospora malorum
Diplodia mutila [anamorph]

European brown rot

Monilinia fructigena
Monilia fructigena [anamorph]
Monilinia laxa

Fisheye rot

Butlerelfia eustacei
= Corticium centrifugum

Flyspeck

Schizothyrium pomi
Zygophiala jamaicensis [anamorph]

Fruit blotch, leaf spot and twig canker Phyllosticta solitaria
Glomerella leaf spot

Glomerella cingulata
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [anamorph]

Gay mold rot = dry eye rot, blossom-end rot

Botrytis cinerea
Botryotinia fuckeliana [teleomorph]

Leptosphaeria canker and fruit rot

Diapleella coniothyrium
= Leptosphaeria coniothyrium
Coniothyrium fuckelii [anamorph]

Leucostoma canker and dieback

Leucostoma cinctum
Cytospora cincta [anamorph]
Valsa auerswaldii
= Leucostoma auerswaldii
Cytospora personata [anamorph]

Marssonina blotch

Diplocarpon mali
Marssonina coronaria [anamorph]

Moldy core and core rot

Alternaria spp.
Cladosporium spp.
Coniothyrium sp.
Epicoccum spp.
Pleospora herbarum
Stemphylium spp.
Ulocladium spp.

Monilia leaf blight

Monilinia mali
Monilia sp. [anamorph]

Monochaetia twig canker

Seiridium unicorne
= Monochaetia mali
Lepteutypa cupressi [teleomorph]

Mucor rot

Mucor spp.
Mucor piriformis

Nectria canker

Nectria galligena
Cylindrocarpon heteronemum [anamorph]

Nectria twig blight = coral spot

Nectria cinnabarina
Tubercularia vulgaris [anamorph]

Peniophora root canker Peniophora sacrata
Perennial canker

Neofabraea perennans
Cryptosporiopsis perennans [anamorph]

Phomopsis canker, fruit decay and rough bark

Phomopsis mali
Diaporthe perniciosa [teleomorph]

Phymatotrichum root rot = cotton root rot

Phymatotrichopsis omnivora
= Phymatotrichum omnivorum

Phytophthora crown, collar and root rot = sprinkler rot

Phytophthora spp.
Phytophthora cactorum
Phytophthora cambivora
Phytophthora cryptogea
Phytophthora megasperma
Phytophthora syringae

Phytophthora fruit rot

Phytophthora cactorum
Phytophthora syringae

Pink mold rot

Trichothecium roseum
= Cephalothecium roseum

Powdery mildew Podosphaera leucotricha
Rosellinia root rot = Dematophora root rot

Rosellinia necatrix
Dematophora necatrix [anamorph]

Rusts
American hawthorne rust Gymnosporangium globosum
Cedar apple rust Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
Japanese apple rust Gymnosporangium yamadae
Pacific Coast pear rust Gymnosporangium libocedri
Quince rust Gymnosporangium clavipes
...
Side rot Phialophora malorum
Silver leaf Chondrostereum purpureum
Sooty blotch complex

Peltaster fructicola
Geastrumia polystigmatis
Leptodontidium elatius
Gloeodes pomigena

Southern blight

Sclerotium rolfsii
Athelia rolfsii [teleomorph]

Thread blight = Hypochnus leaf blight

Corticium stevensii
= Pellicularia koleroga
= Hypochnus ochroleucus

Valsa canker

Valsa ceratosperma
Cytospora sacculus [anamorph]

Violet root rot Helicobasidium mompa
White root rot

Scytinostroma galactinum
= Corticium galactinum

White rot

Botryosphaeria dothidea
Fusicoccum aesculi [anamorph]

X-spot = Nigrospora spot Nigrospora oryzae
Zonate leaf spot

Cristulariella moricola
Grovesinia pyramidalis [teleomorph]

Nematodes, parasitic[edit]

Nematodes, parasitic
Dagger nematode

Xiphinema americanum
Xiphinema rivesi
Xiphinema vuittenezi

Lesion nematode

Pratylenchus spp.
Pratylenchus penetrans

Pin nematode

Paratylenchus spp.

Ring nematode

Criconemella spp.

Root-knot nematode

Meloidogyne spp.

Viral diseases[edit]

Viral diseases
Apple chlorotic leafspot genus Trichovirus, Apple chlorotic leafspot virus (ACLSV)
Apple dwarf (Malus platycarpa) Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) (? not US/CAN)
Apple flat apple genus Nepovirus, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV)
Apple mosaic genus Ilarvirus, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV)

genus Ilarvirus, Tulare apple mosaic virus (TAMV)

Apple stem grooving = Apple decline of Virginia crab genus Capillovirus, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV)
Apple stem pitting = apple Spy 227 epinasty and decline Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV)
Apple union necrosis and decline genus Nepovirus, Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV)

Viroid diseases[edit]

Viroid diseases
Swollen apple Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd)
Apple dimple fruit Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd)
Apple fruit crinkle Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd) (Japan)
Apple scar skin = apple dapple, apple sabi-ka, apple bumpy fruit Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd)

Suspected viral- and viroid-like diseases[edit]

Suspected viral- and viroid-like diseases
Dead spur GTP, unidentified
False sting GTP, virus suspected
Green crinkle GTP, virus suspected
Rough skin GTP, virus suspected
Star crack GTP, virus suspected

Phytoplasmal diseases[edit]

Phytoplasmal diseases
Apple chat fruit Phytoplasma suspected
Apple decline Phytoplasma suspected
Apple proliferation Phytoplasma
Rubbery wood Phytoplasma suspected

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders[edit]

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Bitter pit Localized calcium deficiency
Blossom blast Boron deficiency
Burrknot Genetically predisposed rootstock
Fruit cracking Genetic
Fruit russet Frost, sprays, etc.
Green mottle Unidentified
Hollow apple High temperature
Internal bark necrosis = measles Low pH and mineral nutrient imbalance
Internal browning Boron and calcium deficiencies, etc.
Jonathan spot Reduced by controlled atmosphere storage
Narrow leaf Genetic
Necrotic leaf blotch of ‘Golden Delicious’ Rapid synthesis of gibberellins triggered by environmental factors
Storage scald Injury to fruit surfaces by naturally occurring gases produced by the fruit
Sunburn Sun injury to fruit
Sunscald Freezing of bark following high temperatures in winter
Water core Sorbitol accumulation

References[edit]

External links[edit]