Outline of philosophy

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For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation).

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:

Philosophy – study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[1][2] It is distinguished from other ways of addressing fundamental questions (such as mysticism, myth, or the arts) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.[3] The word "Philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia (φιλοσοφία), which literally means "love of wisdom".[4][5][6]

Core areas of philosophy[edit]

The core areas of philosophy are:

Major fields of philosophy[edit]

Other than the core areas, there are several fields of study formally within philosophy. They are:

History of philosophy[edit]

Main article: History of philosophy

Ancient philosophy[edit]

Main article: Ancient philosophy

Western philosophy[edit]

Main article: Western philosophy

Eastern philosophy[edit]

Main article: Eastern philosophy

Contemporary philosophy[edit]

Philosophical theories[edit]

Major traditions in philosophy[who?][edit]

Philosophical movements[edit]

Philosophies by branch[edit]

Aesthetics[edit]

Further information: List of art movements

Epistemology[edit]

Ethics[edit]

Logic[edit]

Metaphysics[edit]

Social and political philosophy[edit]

Philosophy of language[edit]

Philosophy of law[edit]

Philosophy of mind[edit]

Philosophy of religion[edit]

Metatheory of science[edit]

Philosophical concepts[edit]

Philosophical literature[edit]

Philosophers[edit]

Main article: Lists of philosophers

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jenny Teichmann and Katherine C. Evans, Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide (Blackwell Publishing, 1999), p. 1: "Philosophy is a study of problems which are ultimate, abstract and very general. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose."
  2. ^ A.C. Grayling, Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 1: "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."
  3. ^ Anthony Quinton, in T. Honderich (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 666: "Philosophy is rationally critical thinking, of a more or less systematic kind about the general nature of the world (metaphysics or theory of existence), the justification of belief (epistemology or theory of knowledge), and the conduct of life (ethics or theory of value). Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature. Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole. Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing. Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved."
  4. ^ Philosophia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  5. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  6. ^ The definition of philosophy is: "1.orig., love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge 2.theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe". Webster's New World Dictionary (Second College ed.). 

External links[edit]