List of major springs in Florida

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Alexander Spring in Lake County

Geologists from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection claim that the U.S. state of Florida may have the largest convergence of freshwater springs on the planet, with over 700.[1] Hydrological springs are naturally occurring places where water flows from the aquifer (underground) to the surface. There are springs located within 21 Florida State Parks.

In the 1800s, the crystal clear water attracted development; 14 Florida cities have "Spring" in their name.[2] Spring names have been duplicated in different parts of the state, such as Gator[3] and Salt; Blue Spring was so common that the county name was added to differentiate between the seven locations.[4][5]

The first comprehensive study of Florida's springs was published in 1947. The next update was released 30 years later in the Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 31, Revised, "Springs of Florida".[6] In that 1977 Rosenau survey, there were sixteen offshore (under water) springs identified. All but two were situated on the Gulf coast. Since that time, scores of additional springs have been located and are being studied.[7] The most recent compendium of spring data is contained in the 2004 publication, Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66, and identified 720 springs, of which 33 were first magnitude, 191 were second magnitude, and 151 were third magnitude.[7] Springs are identified by type: river rise (RR) is where a river emerges after flowing underground for a distance; a single spring (SS) has one underground source, but may flow through multiple rock fissures; a group spring (GS) has multiple underground sources; a sink (SK) is an opening in the Earth's surface that occurs from karst processes[8] and/or suffosion.[9]

Volume values listed are the most recent found, mostly after 2000, but water outflows have diminished significantly since the 1990s with drought conditions and increased pumping from the Floridan aquifer.[10] Water flow diminished and stopped completely at several locations, including White Springs and Worthington Springs, where tourists flocked to drink and soak in the mineral water beginning in the late 1800s.[1][11] The public water plant at Boulware Springs provided water for the city of Gainesville, Florida and the University of Florida until 1913, when reduced outflow required a new water source.[12][13]

Many of the springs listed herein are indicated as privately owned, which is a misnomer. "Private individuals cannot 'own' a spring that is along/accessible from a navigable waterway. They own the land around it above the normal high water mark."[14] Since the 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) defined the term "navigable waters", the meaning has been litigated. Following U.S. Supreme Court rulings, the Federal Register published EPA's final definition on November 26, 2008. Section (3) states: "intrastate lakes, rivers, and streams which are utilized by interstate travelers for recreational or other purposes (are navigable waters).[15] Courts have ruled that "shallow streams that are traversable only by canoe have met the test".[16]

Mag[7] Spring name Outflow body[7] Type[7] County[7] Daily flow
in millions[7]
Temp[7] Own[7] Photo
1st Alapaha Rise Limited access Alapaha River RR Hamilton 383.9 US gallons (1,453 L) 70.3 °F (21.3 °C) P FlAlapahaRise.jpg
1st Alexander Ocala National Forest St. Johns River SS Lake 60.9 US gallons (231 L) 74.5 °F (23.6 °C) F Cave diving FlAlexanderSpring.png
2nd Apopka Lake Apopka SS Lake 16.0 US gallons (61 L) 75.5 °F (24.2 °C) P Cave diving FlApopkaSpring.jpg
2nd Aucilla (Wacissa) Wacissa River GS Jefferson 189.4 US gallons (717 L) Volume is group 68.9 °F (20.5 °C) P Cave diving
2nd Baltzell Chipola River GS Jackson 31.5 US gallons (119 L) 67.7 °F (19.8 °C) S/C FlBaltzellSpring.jpg
2nd Beecher Limited access St. Johns River SS Putnam 5.8 US gallons (22 L) 73.1 °F (22.8 °C) S FlBeecherSpring.jpg
1st Big Blue (Wacissa) Wacissa River GS Jefferson 189.4 US gallons (717 L) Volume is group 68.9 °F (20.5 °C) P Cave diving FlBigBlueSpring.jpg
1st Blue Grotto (Silver) Silver River GS Marion 359.3 US gallons (1,360 L) Volume is group 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) P
2nd Blue Hole State park Chipola River SS Jackson 0.1 US gallons (0.38 L) 64.2 °F (17.9 °C) S FlBlueHoleSpring.jpg
1st Blue Hole (Ichetucknee) State park Ichetucknee River GS Columbia 130.2 US gallons (493 L) Volume is group 71.4 °F (21.9 °C) S Cave diving Ichetucknee Springs SP north springs02.jpg
4th Boulware Sweetwater Branch Creek SS Alachua 0.2 US gallons (0.76 L)[12] 72.0 °F (22.2 °C)[12] C FlBoulwareSpring.jpg
2nd Branford Suwannee River SS Suwannee 4.3 US gallons (16 L) 69.5 °F (20.8 °C) C FlBranfordSpring.jpg
2nd Buckhorn Main Limited access Alafia River GS Hillsborough 9.7 US gallons (37 L) 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) P FlBuckhornSpring.jpg
2nd Bugg Limited access Lake Denham SS Lake 5.5 US gallons (21 L) 74.2 °F (23.4 °C) P FlBuggSpring.jpg
1st Cedar Head (Ichetucknee)State park Ichetucknee River GS Columbia 130.2 US gallons (493 L) Volume is group 71.4 °F (21.9 °C) S
1st Chassahowitzka Chassahowitzka River GS Citrus 34.3 US gallons (130 L) 73.4 °F (23.0 °C) S Cave diving FlChassahowitzkaSpring.jpg
2nd Citrus Blue Withlacoochee River SS Citrus 10.5 US gallons (40 L) 72.8 °F (22.7 °C) P Cave diving FlCitrusBlueSpring.jpg
2nd Columbia Limited access Santa Fe River SS Columbia 25.5 US gallons (97 L) 72.3 °F (22.4 °C) P FlColumbiaSpring.jpg
2nd Copper Suwannee River GS Dixie 8.8 US gallons (33 L) 71.1 °F (21.7 °C) P FlCopperSpring.jpg
NA Cow Limited access Suwannee River SK Lafayette NA 71.8 °F (22.1 °C) P Cave diving FlCowSpring.jpg
2nd Crystal SpringsLimited access Hillsborough River SS Pasco 30.0 US gallons (114 L)[17] 75.5 °F (24.2 °C) P FlCrystalSprings.jpg
2nd Cypress Limited access Holmes Creek
Choctawhatchee River
SS Washington 65.3 US gallons (247 L) 67.7 °F (19.8 °C) P FlCypressSpring.jpg
2nd De Leon State park Spring Garden Creek
St. Johns River
SS Volusia 17.6 US gallons (67 L) 73.3 °F (22.9 °C) S Cave diving De Leon Springs State Park15.jpg
NA Devil’s Den None SK Levy NA 72.0 °F (22.2 °C) P Cave diving
2nd Devil’s Ear/Eye/Little Santa Fe River GS Gilchrist 17.8 US gallons (67 L) 72.6 °F (22.6 °C) P Cave diving FlDevilsEarSpring.jpg
1st Emerald (Gainer #2) Econfina Creek GS Bay 124.6 US gallons (472 L) Volume is group 70.5 °F (21.4 °C) P Cave diving FlEmeraldSpring.jpg
2nd Ellaville Suwannee River SS Suwannee 26.3 US gallons (100 L) 73.2 °F (22.9 °C) P Cave diving FlEllavilleSpring.jpg
1st Falmouth Karst fenster SS Suwannee 102.8 US gallons (389 L) 69.3 °F (20.7 °C) S FlFalmouthSpring.jpg
2nd Fanning State park Suwannee River SS Levy 33.3 US gallons (126 L) 72.9 °F (22.7 °C) P Fanning Springs Park springs01.jpg
2nd Fenney Limited access Shady Brook
Lake Panasoffkee
SS Sumter 9.0 US gallons (34 L) 73.6 °F (23.1 °C) P FlFenneySpring.jpg
2nd Fern Hammock Ocala National Forest Juniper Creek
Lake George
GS Marion 6.9 US gallons (26 L) 71.7 °F (22.1 °C) F FlFernHammockSprings.jpg
1st Gainer #3 Econfina Creek GS Bay 124.6 US gallons (472 L) Volume is group 70.9 °F (21.6 °C) P/S Cave diving FlGainerSpring3.jpg
4th Gator Limited access Hammock Creek SS Hernando 0.2 US gallons (0.76 L) 65.5 °F (18.6 °C) P Cave diving FlGatorSpring.jpg
2nd Gilchrist Blue Santa Fe River GS Gilchrist 6.9 US gallons (26 L) 72.8 °F (22.7 °C) P Cave diving FlGilchristBlueSpring.jpg
2nd Ginnie Santa Fe River GS Gilchrist 37.6 US gallons (142 L) 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) P Cave diving FlGinnieSpring.jpg
4th Glen Hogtown Creek SS Alachua 0.1 US gallons (0.38 L) 71.8 °F (22.1 °C) P FlGlenSpring.jpg
3rd Green Cove St. Johns River SS Clay 1.8 US gallons (6.8 L) 75.9 °F (24.4 °C) C FlGreenCoveSpring.jpg
2nd Guaranto Suwannee River SS Dixie 6.0 US gallons (23 L) 73.0 °F (22.8 °C) C FlGuarantoSprings.jpg
2nd Hart Suwannee River GS Gilchrist 26.7 US gallons (101 L) 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) C Cave diving FlHartSprings.jpg
2nd Hernando Salt Limited access Mud River SS Hernando 21.3 US gallons (81 L) 74.9 °F (23.8 °C) P Cave diving FlHernandoSaltSpring.jpg
Zero Holton Creek Rise Limited access Suwannee River RR Hamilton 0.0 US gallons (0 L) 71.8 °F (22.1 °C) S FlHoltonCreekRise.jpg
1st Homosassa State park Homosassa River GS Citrus 56.2 US gallons (213 L) 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) S FlHomosassaSprings.jpg
2nd Hornsby Limited access Santa Fe River SS Alachua 32.9 US gallons (125 L)[10] 72.5 °F (22.5 °C)[10] P Cave diving FlHornsbySpring.jpg
2nd Hunter (Kings Bay) Crystal River GS Citrus 630.2 US gallons (2,386 L) Volume is group 73.4 °F (23.0 °C) C/P FlHunterSpring.jpg
1st Ichetucknee State park Ichetucknee River GS Columbia 130.2 US gallons (493 L) Volume is group 71.5 °F (21.9 °C) S FlIchetuckneeSprings.jpg
2nd Jackson Blue Merritt’s Millpond
Chipola River
GS Jackson 41.1 US gallons (156 L) 69.7 °F (20.9 °C) S/C FlJacksonBlueSpring.jpg
2nd Juniper Ocala National Forest Juniper Creek
Lake George
GS Marion 5.3 US gallons (20 L) 71.6 °F (22.0 °C) F FlJuniperSprings.jpg
1st Kings Bay Crystal River GS Citrus 630.2 US gallons (2,386 L) Volume is group 73.2 °F (22.9 °C) S/P
1st Kini/Upper River Sink Karst fenster SK Wakulla 113.8 US gallons (431 L)[6] 69.8 °F (21.0 °C)[6] P FlKiniSpring.jpg
Zero Kissingen Peace River GS Polk 0.0 US gallons (0 L)[6] 72.0 °F (22.2 °C)[18] P FlKissingenSpring.jpg
2nd Lafayette Blue State park Suwannee River SS Lafayette 29.7 US gallons (112 L) 71.1 °F (21.7 °C) S Cave diving FlLafayetteBlueSpring.jpg
4th Levy Blue Limited access Waccasassa River SS Levy 1.1 US gallons (4.2 L) 69.8 °F (21.0 °C) C FlLevyBlueSpring.jpg
1st Lime Sink Run State park Suwannee River SS Suwannee 111.8 US gallons (423 L)[14] 72.2 °F (22.3 °C) S FlLimeSpringRun.jpg
2nd Lithia Major, Minor Alafia River GS Hillsborough 19.7 US gallons (75 L) 77.2 °F (25.1 °C) C FlLithiaSpringMajor.jpg
3rd Little Limited access Weeki Wachee River SS Hernando 3.4 US gallons (13 L) 74.6 °F (23.7 °C) P Cave diving FlLittleSpring.jpg
2nd Little River Suwannee River SS Suwannee 54.9 US gallons (208 L) 72.1 °F (22.3 °C) S Cave diving FlLittleRiverSpring.jpg
2nd Madison Blue State park Withlacoochee River SS Madison 46.1 US gallons (175 L) 70.3 °F (21.3 °C) S/C Cave diving Madison Blue Springs SP spring01.jpg
4th Magnolia Limited access Hammock Creek SS Hernando 0.3 US gallons (1.1 L) 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) P FlMagnoliaSpring.jpg
2nd Manatee State park Suwannee River SS Levy 99.5 US gallons (377 L) 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) S Cave diving Manatee Springs State Park Florida springs05.jpg
1st McCormick (Gainer #1) Econfina Creek GS Bay 124.6 US gallons (472 L) Volume is group 70.8 °F (21.6 °C) P Cave diving FlMcCormickSpring.jpg
2nd Morrison Choctawhatchee River SS Walton 40.6 US gallons (154 L) 67.8 °F (19.9 °C) S/C Cave diving FlMorrisonSpring.jpg
1st Natural Bridge State park Karst fenster St. Marks River SS Leon 98.2 US gallons (372 L) 68.1 °F (20.1 °C) P FlNaturalBridgeSpring.jpg
1st Nutall Rise Aucilla River RR Jefferson 232.7 US gallons (881 L) 70.3 °F (21.3 °C) P FlNutallRise.jpg
3rd Orange Limited access Orange Creek
Oklawaha River
GS Marion 1.9 US gallons (7.2 L) 74.0 °F (23.3 °C) P FlOrangeSpring.jpg
2nd Otter Suwannee River SS Gilchrist 3.1 US gallons (12 L) 72.7 °F (22.6 °C) P FlOtterSpring.jpg
NA Paradise[19] None SK Marion NA 73.0 °F (22.8 °C) P Cave diving
3rd Peacock State park Suwannee River GS Suwannee 5.7 US gallons (22 L) 69.5 °F (20.8 °C) S Cave diving FlPeacockSprings.jpg
2nd Pitt Econfina Creek GS Walton 3.6 US gallons (14 L)[6] 71.6 °F (22.0 °C)[6] C FlPittSpring.jpg
2nd Poe Santa Fe River SS Alachua 3.9 US gallons (15 L) 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) C FlPoeSpring.jpg
2nd Ponce de Leon State park Sandy Creek
Choctawhatchee River
GS Holmes 5.7 US gallons (22 L) 67.8 °F (19.9 °C) S Ponce De Leon SP06.jpg
2nd Rainbow State park Rainbow River
Withlacoochee River
GS Marion 409.8 US gallons (1,551 L) 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) S/P FlRainbowSpring.jpg
1st Roaring (Ichetucknee)State park Ichetucknee River GS Columbia 130.2 US gallons (493 L) Volume is group 70.0 °F (21.1 °C) S
2nd Rock Rock Springs Run Wekiwa River SS Orange 30.0 US gallons (114 L) 74.9 °F (23.8 °C) C FlRockSprings.jpg
2nd Rock Bluff Suwannee River GS Gilchrist 17.9 US gallons (68 L) 71.6 °F (22.0 °C) P Cave diving FlRockBluffSprings.jpg
1st Rossetter Withlacoochee River SS Hamilton 0.0 US gallons (0 L) 76.6 °F (24.8 °C) S FlRossetterSpring.jpg
3rd Royal Suwannee River SS Suwannee 1.6 US gallons (6.1 L)[10] 72.7 °F (22.6 °C)[10] C FlRoyalSpring.jpg
2nd Running East, West Limited access Suwannee River GS Lafayette
Suwannee
18.2 US gallons (69 L) 71.8 °F (22.1 °C) P Cave diving FlRunningSprings.jpg
2nd Salt (Marion) Ocala National Forest Lake George SS Marion 49.4 US gallons (187 L) 74.5 °F (23.6 °C) F FlSaltSprings.jpg
2nd Sanlando Limited access Wekiva River SS Seminole 8.5 US gallons (32 L) 76.4 °F (24.7 °C) P FlSanlandoSprings.jpg
2nd Santa Fe Limited access Santa Fe River SS Columbia 81.4 US gallons (308 L)[10] 73.0 °F (22.8 °C)[10] P Cave diving FlSantaFeSpring.jpg
2nd Santa Fe Rise State park Santa Fe River RR Alachua 48.5 US gallons (184 L) 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) S Cave diving FlSantaFeRise.jpg
2nd Shangri La Limited access Merritt’s Millpond
Chipola River
SS Jackson 2.5 US gallons (9.5 L)[3] 69.7 °F (20.9 °C) P Cave diving FlShangriLaSprings.jpg
1st Silver Silver River
Oklawaha River
GS Marion 359.3 US gallons (1,360 L) Volume is group 73.8 °F (23.2 °C) S/P FlSilverSprings.jpg
2nd Silver Glen Ocala National Forest St. Johns River GS Marion 70.5 US gallons (267 L) 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) F FlSilverGlenSprings.jpg
1st Siphon Creek Rise Limited access Santa Fe River RR Gilchrist 77.6 US gallons (294 L) 72.4 °F (22.4 °C) S FlSiphonCreekRise.jpg
1st Spring Creek Apalachee Bay SS Wakulla 198.4 US gallons (751 L) 70.9 °F (21.6 °C) S/P FlSpringCreekSprings.jpg
2nd St. Marks Rise Limited access St. Marks River RR Leon 292.1 US gallons (1,106 L) 68.8 °F (20.4 °C) P FlStMarksRise.jpg
2nd Starbuck Limited access Wekiva River SS Seminole 9.4 US gallons (36 L) 76.1 °F (24.5 °C) P FlStarbuckSpring.jpg
1st Steinhatchee Rise Steinhatchee River RR Taylor
Dixie
226.2 US gallons (856 L) 70.0 °F (21.1 °C) S FlSteinhatcheeRise.jpg
2nd Sun Suwannee River SS Gilchrist 4.5 US gallons (17 L) 72.7 °F (22.6 °C) P FlSunSprings.jpg
2nd Suwanacoochee Withlacoochee River SS Suwannee 0.3 US gallons (1.1 L) 69.9 °F (21.1 °C) S Cave diving FlSuwanacoocheeSpring.jpg
2nd Suwannee Blue Limited access Suwannee River SS Suwannee 8.6 US gallons (33 L) 70.9 °F (21.6 °C) P FlSuwanneeBlueSprings.jpg
2nd Suwannee Suwannee River GS Suwannee 9.1 US gallons (34 L) 72.5 °F (22.5 °C) S FlSuwanneeSprings.jpg
1st Tarpon Hole (Kings Bay) Crystal River GS Citrus 630.2 US gallons (2,386 L) Volume is group 73.2 °F (22.9 °C) C/P FlTarponHoleSpring.jpg
2nd Telford Suwannee River SS Suwannee 20.1 US gallons (76 L) 70.2 °F (21.2 °C) P FlTelfordSpring.jpg
2nd Three Sisters (Kings Bay) Crystal River GS Citrus 630.2 US gallons (2,386 L) Volume is group 73.3 °F (22.9 °C) P FlThreeSistersSprings.jpg
1st Treehouse Limited access Santa Fe River SS Alachua 25.8 US gallons (98 L) 71.4 °F (21.9 °C) P FlTreehouseSpring.jpg
2nd Troy State park Suwannee River SS Lafayette 68.5 US gallons (259 L) 71.0 °F (21.7 °C) S Cave diving FlTroySpring.jpg
2nd Volusia Blue State park St. Johns River SS Volusia 56.2 US gallons (213 L) 73.6 °F (23.1 °C) S Cave diving FlVolusiaBlueSpring.jpg
2nd Vortex Blue/Sandy Creek
Choctawhatchee River
SS Holmes 4.5 US gallons (17 L) 71.6 °F (22.0 °C)[6] P Cave diving FlVortexSpring.jpg
2nd Wacissa Group Wacissa River GS Jefferson 189.4 US gallons (717 L) Volume is group 68.90 °F (20.50 °C) S/P FlWacissaSprings.jpg
1st Wakulla State park Wakulla River SS Wakulla 252.02 US gallons (954.0 L) 70.2 °F (21.2 °C) S FlWakullaSprings.jpg
3rd Waldo Limited access Fenholloway River SS Taylor 0.7 US gallons (2.6 L) 74.5 °F (23.6 °C) P FlWaldoSpring.jpg
3rd Warm Mineral Myakka River GS Sarasota 5.5 US gallons (21 L) 86.4 °F (30.2 °C) P FlWarmMineralSpring.jpg
1st Weeki Wachee Weeki Wachee River SS Hernando 104.0 US gallons (394 L) 74.7 °F (23.7 °C) S/P Cave diving FlWeekiWacheeSprings.jpg
2nd Wekiwa State park Wekiva River SS Orange
Seminole
43.0 US gallons (163 L) 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) S FlWekiwaSprings.jpg
3rd[20] Welaka St. Johns River SS Putnam 5.1 US gallons (19 L) 74.7 °F (23.7 °C) P FlWelakaSpring.jpg
2nd White Suwannee River SS Hamilton 26.1 US gallons (99 L) 68.0 °F (20.0 °C)[6] S WhiteSpringsBathHouse.png
2nd Williford Limited access Econfina Creek GS Washington
Bay
16.5 US gallons (62 L) 70.0 °F (21.1 °C) S FlWillifordSpring.jpg
3rd Worthington Santa Fe River SS Union 0.2 US gallons (0.76 L)[6] 68.0 °F (20.0 °C)[6] C FlWorthingtonSprings.jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Florida Springs". State of Florida, Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Marth, Del & Marty (1990). The Rivers of Florida. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press. pp. 100–102. ISBN 0-910923-70-1. 
  3. ^ a b "Jackson Blue Spring Water Assessment". November 2001. North West Florida Water Management District. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Stamm, Doug; Tim Whitney (1994). The Springs of Florida. Pineapple Press. pp. 112 pages. ISBN 1561640484. 
  5. ^ Stamm, Doug (2008). The Springs of Florida. Pineapple Press. pp. 114 pages. ISBN 1561644188. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rosenau, Jack C.; Glen L. Faulkner; Charles W. Hendry; Robert W. Hull (1977). "Springs of Florida". Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31: 464 pages. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schmidt, Walter; DEP (October 12, 2004). "Springs of Florida". Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66: 677 pages. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Lard, L., Paull, C., & Hobson, B. (1995). "Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial exposure". Geology 23 (10): 949–951. Bibcode:1995Geo....23..949L. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0949:GOASSW>2.3.CO;2. 
  9. ^ "Caves and karst – dolines and sinkholes". British Geological Survey. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Hydrography-Springs and Seeps". Suwannee River Water Management District. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  11. ^ Ritchie, Bruce (2012-10-29). "White Springs mayor leads support for water legislation that seeks to protect springs". Florida Current. Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c "Water bodies, watersheds and storm water: Boulware Spring". St. Johns River Water Management District. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "Boulware Springs". Alachua County Library District. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c "List of First-Magnitude Springs in Florida". Apalachee Hills Landscape. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  15. ^ "Revisions to the Regulatory Definition of "Navigable Waters"". November 26, 2008. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  16. ^ "Navigable Waters". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  17. ^ "Crystal Springs Preserve". Crystal Springs Preserve. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  18. ^ Cook, Charles. "Remembering Kissengen Spring". University of South Florida. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  19. ^ Cundiff, Danny. "Paradise Springs Dive Plan". Dayo Scuba. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "Welaka Springs". St. Johns River Water Management District. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 

External links[edit]