List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz

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This is a list of victims and survivors of Auschwitz concentration camp. This list represents only a portion of the 1.1 million victims and some survivors of the Auschwitz death camp and is not intended to be viewed as a complete accounting.

Male
Female

Victims[edit]

Name Date of birth Date of death Age Nationality Faith Notability
Alt, HeinzHeinz Alt[1] 1922 January 6, 1945 22 or 23 years German Jewish Composer. Deported from Theresienstadt concentration camp to the camp on September 28, 1944.
Andreas Pius, Count Andreas Pius Cyrill of Zoltowski-RomanusCount Andreas Pius Cyrill of Zoltowski-Romanus Andreas Pius 1881 or 1882 September 4, 1941 59 Polish Noble
Barlicki, NorbertNorbert Barlicki June 6, 1880 September 27, 1941 61 years, 113 days Polish Lawyer, Publicist, Politician
Bernard of Łubieński, CountCount Bernard of Łubieński February 23, 1894 October 10, 1941 47 years, 229 days Polish Noble. Was a member of the Polish Ministry of Commerce and Industrial Affairs before war broke out. Belonged to the first group of people to organise the underground fight.
Blum, RenéRené Blum[2] March 13, 1878 April 30, 1943 65 years, 48 days French Jewish Choreographer, founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra; brother of Léon Blum. Transferred to the camp on September 23, 1942.
Brady, HanaHana Brady[3] May 16, 1931 October 23, 1944 13 years, 160 days Czech Jewish Arrived at the camp on October 23, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Brumlik, RudolfRudolf Brumlik May 14, 1944 Czech Businessman from Prague
Brumlik, HermioneHermione Brumlik May 14, 1944 Czech Wife of Rudolf – no records can be found of their son Otto Brumlik
Czech, BronisławBronisław Czech July 25, 1908 June 4, 1944 35 Polish Skier – 24 times Polish champion, and participant of Winter Olympics of 1928, 1932 and 1936; soldier of Armia Krajowa
Deutsch, LeaLea Deutsch[4][5] March 18, 1927 May 1943 16 Croatian Christian (Catholic) Child actress. Born Jewish, converted to Roman Catholicism with her family on June 1941 as an attempt by her father to save the family from certain death, but still considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws. Died in the cattle wagon routed to Auschwitz.
Fondane, BenjaminBenjamin Fondane[6] November 14, 1898 October 2, 1944 45 years, 323 days French-Romanian Jewish Poet, critic, existentialist philosopher and author
Fondane, LinaLina Fondane French-Romanian Jewish Sister of Benjamin Fondane.
Freiberger, Miroslav ŠalomMiroslav Šalom Freiberger[7][8] 1903 or 1904 c. May 3, 1943 39 or 40 Croatian Jewish Head Rabbi of Jewish Municipality of Zagreb, catechist, translator, writer and spiritual leader, educated in law and theology science. On last transport of Jews from Croatia. Killed at camp entrance when he protested against the inhumane procedure that was implemented against the members of his community.
Gerron, KurtKurt Gerron May 11, 1897 November 15, 1944 47 years, 188 days German Jewish Actor and film director; was either persuaded or coerced[9] by the Nazis to make a propaganda film showing how humane the conditions were at Theresienstadt concentration camp. After filming finished, he was deported on the final transport ever to Auschwitz, on November 15, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Gerson, DoraDora Gerson[10] March 23, 1899 February 14, 1943 43 years, 328 days German Jewish cabaret singer and silent-film actress.
Schwarz, MommieMommie Schwarz July 28, 1876 November 19, 1942 66 years, 114 days Dutch Jewish Painter-killed with his wife Else Berg
Gertner, AlaAla Gertner[11][12] March 12, 1912 January 5, 1945 32 years, 299 days Polish Jewish Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Robota, RozaRoza Robota[11][13] 1921 January 5, 1945 43 years Polish Jewish Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Wajcblum, EstusiaEstusia Wajcblum[11][13] January 5, 1945 Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Safirsztajn, ReginaRegina Safirsztajn[11][13] January 5, 1945 Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Haas, PavelPavel Haas[14] June 21, 1899 October 17, 1944 45 years, 118 days Czech Jewish composer. After arrival at the camp, Josef Mengele was about to send Karel Ančerl to the gas chamber, but weakened Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead.
Hirschmann, IvanaIvana Hirschmann[15][16] May 5, 1866 May 8, 1943 77 Croat Jewish Croatian first female professor of gymnastics
Krása, HansHans Krása November 30, 1899 October 17, 1944 44 years, 322 days Czech Jewish composer; helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Ullmann, ViktorViktor Ullmann January 1, 1898 October 18, 1944 46 years, 291 days Austrian Jewish Composer, conductor, pianist, teacher, music critic, active in Prague. Deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp on September 8, 1942, where he helped to organize cultural life. Transferred to Auschwitz on October 16, 1944.
Schächter, RafaelRafael Schächter May 25, 1905 January 1945 39 years Czech Jewish Composer, pianist and conductor. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp. Died on the death march.
Hillesum, EttyEtty Hillesum January 15, 1914 November 30, 1943 29 years, 319 days Dutch Jewish diarist and writer
Jahn, LilliLilli Jahn March 5, 1900 c. June 19, 1944 44 years, 106 days German Jewish doctor who gained international fame posthumously following the publication of her letters to her five children which she wrote during her imprisonment in the labor camp Breitenau
Janson, Paul-EmilePaul-Emile Janson May 30, 1872 March 3, 1944 71 years, 278 days Belgian 30th Prime Minister of Belgium in 1937–1938
Jonas, ReginaRegina Jonas August 3, 1902 December 12, 1944 42 years, 131 days German Jewish first ordained female rabbi in Germany, rabbi at Neue Synagoge in Berlin, killed two months after entering the camp.
Katzenelson, ItzhakItzhak Katzenelson July 1, 1886 May 1, 1944 57 years, 305 days Polish Jewish teacher, poet, dramatist; his son Zvi Katzenelson was on the same transport and was killed the same day as Itzhak.
Kien, PeterPeter Kien January 1, 1919 c. October 16, 1944 25 years, 289 days Czech Jewish artist, poet and librettist active in Theresienstadt concentration camp (Terezin), died from infectious disease soon after arrival to Auschwitz on October 16. Wife and parents were on same transport and were killed.
Kofman, BereckBereck Kofman October 10, 1900 1943 42 French Jewish Hasidic orthodox rabbi, deported to Auschwitz from Drancy internment camp on Convoy No. 12 on July 29, 1942. According to survivor, he was at the camp for one year before his murder by a Kapo on a Shabbat because he refused to work. He was beaten up with a pickax and buried alive. Father of French philosopher Sarah Kofman.[17]
Kolbe, Saint MaximilianSaint Maximilian Kolbe January 8, 1894 August 14, 1941 47 years, 218 days Polish Christian (Catholic) Saint. Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of Polish Army Sergeant Franciszek Gajowniczek, who was a stranger to him.
Kolmar, GertrudGertrud Kolmar December 10, 1894 March 1943 48 German Jewish Writer used the Pen name of Gertrud Kolmar {born Gertrud Käthe Chodziesner}
Laskier, RutkaRutka Laskier 1929 1943 14 Polish Jewish teenager who wrote a diary. Her writings were posthumously published. Dubbed the "Polish Anne Frank".
Lévy, HenriHenri Lévy June 7, 1883 August 13, 1942 59 years, 67 days French Jewish rabbi. He was deported on Convoy No. 8 to the camp on July 20, 1942.
Levy, RudolfRudolf Levy 1875 1944 69 French Jewish Painter and student of Henri Matisse
Mauritz of Potocki, CountCount Mauritz of Potocki 1942 Polish noble
Natan, BernardBernard Natan July 14, 1886 October 1942 56 years, 3 months Franco-Romanian Jewish film director and actor and former head of Pathé Film Studios. Arrived at the camp on September 25, 1942 and was killed several weeks later.
Némirovsky, IrèneIrène Némirovsky[18][19] February 11, 1903 August 17, 1942 39 years, 187 days French-Russian Jewish novelist. She was classified as a Jew under the Nazi racial laws, which did not take into account her conversion to Roman Catholicism.[18][19]
Epstein, MichelMichel Epstein[20] November 6, 1942 Husband of Irène Némirovsky. Arrived on November 6, 1942, and was gassed immediately.
Noji, JózefJózef Noji September 8, 1909 February 15, 1943 33 years, 160 days Polish track and field athlete and participant of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Murdered by the camp's SS guard, allegedly for trying to smuggle a letter.
Nussbaum, FelixFelix Nussbaum December 11, 1904 August 2, 1944 39 years, 235 days German Jewish painter (surrealist). Entire family was eventually killed at the camp at different times, with the exception of one brother, who died from exhaustion at Stutthof in December 1944.
Peradze, Saint GrigolSaint Grigol Peradze September 13, 1899 December 6, 1942 43 years, 84 days Georgian Christian (Orthodox) Saint. Priest, ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, professor.
Rybarski, RomanRoman Rybarski July 3, 1887 March 6, 1942 54 years, 246 days Polish Christian (Catholic) economist, historian and politician connected with the right-wing National Democracy political camp. Executed by shooting for organizing the resistance movement in the camp.[21]
Salomon, ErichErich Salomon April 28, 1886 July 7, 1944 58 years, 70 days German Jewish photographer (news).
Schalek, MalvaMalva Schalek February 18, 1882 1944 62 years Czech Jewish painter. Was transported to the camp on May 18, 1944 and was killed soon afterwards.
Selz, OttoOtto Selz February 14, 1881 August 27, 1943 62 years, 194 days German Jewish psychologist and professor, formulated the first nonassociationist theory of thinking, in 1913.[22][23][24] Was transported to the camp on August 24, 1943.[24]
Singer, LavoslavLavoslav Singer 1866 1942 76 years Croatian Jewish known Bjelovar industrialist.[25][26][27]
Stein, Saint EdithSaint Edith Stein October 12, 1891 August 9, 1942 50 years, 301 days German Christian (Catholic) Saint. Philosopher and nun. Born into a Jewish family, considered a "Catholic Jew" (of Jewish heritage, but baptized and practiced Catholicism, considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws).[28]
Rumkowski, Mordechai ChaimMordechai Chaim Rumkowski[29] February 27, 1877 August 28, 1944 67 years, 183 days Polish Jewish Nazi-appointed head of the Judenrat while he lived in the Łódź Ghetto in Poland. He was known to abuse his power, such as by molesting young Jewish women within the ghetto.[29] Family was also killed at the camp.
Ginz, PetrPetr Ginz February 1, 1928 September 28, 1944 16 years, 240 days Czech Jewish Writer. Esperantist.
Agsteribbe, EstellaEstella Agsteribbe[30] April 6, 1909 September 17, 1943 34 years, 164 days Dutch Jewish Gymnast. Member of the Gold medal winning Dutch gymnastics team at the 1928 Summer Olympics.
Taube, CarloCarlo Taube[31] July 4, 1897 October 1, 1944 47 years, 89 days Austrian Jewish Composer, conductor and pianist. From Galicia, active in Prague. Taube, his wife Erika and their child were deported from Prague to Theresienstadt concentration camp on December 10, 1941. They were deported to Auschwitz on October 1, 1944, where all three were killed immediately.[31]
Taube, ErikaErika Taube[31] October 1, 1944 Jewish Wife of Carlo Taube.
Tański, TadeuszTadeusz Tański[32] March 11, 1892 March 23, 1941 49 years, 12 days Polish Automobile engineer and the designer of the first Polish serially-built automobile, the CWS T-1. Arrested on July 3, 1940, and sent to the camp.
Kunerwalder, EgonEgon Kunerwalder[33] First husband of Stephanie Helbrun (married 1942). Deported to the camp with his wife in December 1943. Threw himself on the electric wire surrounding the camp in 1944.
Ančerl, ValyValy Ančerl c. October 15, 1944 Jewish Wife of Karel Ančerl.
Ančerl, JanJan Ančerl late 1942 or 1943 c. October 15, 1944 2 years Czech Jewish Son of Karel Ančerl and Valy Ančerl. Born while parents were in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Feiner, HerthaHertha Feiner[34][35] March 12, 1943 German Jewish Among last Jewish employees to leave Berlin. Put on train to Auschwitz on March 12, 1943; poisoned herself in transit.
Perl, MauriceMaurice Perl[36] Hungarian Jewish Father of Gisella Perl. Brought his prayer book into the gas chamber.
Dresden, BarendBarend Dresden[37] November 30, 1944 Jewish Husband of Anna Dresden-Polak and father of Eva Dresden, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 23, 1943.
Waterman-Hollander, Froukje EstherFroukje Esther Waterman-Hollander[38] October 25, 1915 February 28, 1943 27 years, 126 days Dutch Jewish Daughter of Han Hollander and Leentje Hollander-Smeer, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 9, 1943.
Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski, Prince LudwikPrince Ludwik Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski 1876 or 1877 May 3, 1941 64 years Polish Noble.
Mosdorf, JanJan Mosdorf May 30, 1904 October 11, 1943 39 years, 134 days Polish Right-wing politician, director of the nationalist organization All-Polish Youth and member of political party National Radical Camp. Killed for helping Jews in the camp.
Weisz, ÁrpádÁrpád Weisz April 16, 1896 January 31, 1944 47 years, 290 days Hungarian Jewish Football (soccer) player and manager.
Feig, SarahSarah Feig Jewish Mother of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Wiesel, TziporaTzipora Wiesel Romanian Jewish Younger sister of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Zimetbaum, MalaMala Zimetbaum[39] January 26, 1922 September 15, 1944 22 years, 233 days Belgian Jewish Deported to the camp on Transport #10 on September 15, 1942. Inmate #19880. Her proficiency in several languages allowed her to work as an interpreter in the camp. Publicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with her lover, Edward Galiński.
Galiński, EdwardEdward Galiński[40] May 10, 1923 September 15, 1944 21 years, 128 days Polish Publicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with his lover, Mala Zimetbaum.

Survivors[edit]

Name Inmate ID Date of birth Date of death Age Nationality Faith Date of Imprisonment Date of Release Notability
Alt, HeinzHeinz Alt June 22, 1916 December 31, 2009 93 years Czech Jewish May 1944 1944 Dancer who trained in Prague. Was moved to Stutthof and evacuated from there in January 1945 to go on a forced march from which she escaped, being liberated by the Russian army. Emigrated in 1947 to Belfast, where she made her name as a dance teacher and choreographer. In her later years talked about her Holocaust experiences and wrote an autobiography, A Time to Speak. Her husband Paul Hermann died at Schwarzheide in April 1945; her mother, a distinguished pianist, died at Sobibór.
Bartoszewski, WładysławWładysław Bartoszewski 4427 February 19, 1922 alive 92 years, 311 days Polish Christian (Catholic) September 22, 1940 April 8, 1941 Member of Armia Krajowa. Released from camp due to actions by Polish Red Cross. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland (twice) after 1989.
Borowski, TadeuszTadeusz Borowski November 12, 1922 July 1, 1951 28 years, 231 days Polish 1943 late 1944 writer. Transferred to Natzweiler-Struthof, then to Dachau concentration camp; committed suicide after the war.
Brady, GeorgeGeorge Brady February 9, 1928 alive 86 years, 321 days Czech Jewish October 23, 1944 January 18, 1945 Plumber. Sent on the death march; escaped when a Soviet tank blew a hole in the building he was in. His mother, father and sister Hana were gassed at the camp.
Braun, BorisBoris Braun[42][43][44] February 9, 1928 alive 94 years, 129 days Croat Jewish University professor. His mother and father were killed during the Holocaust.
Bacon, YehudaYehuda Bacon July 28, 1929 alive 85 years, 152 days Czech Jewish December 1943 January 18, 1945 Artist. Sent on the death march. His father was gassed in June 1944; his mother and his sister Hanna were deported to Stutthof concentration camp, where they died a few weeks before its liberation.
Gabbai, DarioDario Gabbai[45] Hungarian Jewish April 1944 January 27, 1945 Part of the Sonderkommando. Family was killed at the camp.
Bielecki, JerzyJerzy Bielecki[45] Polish Political prisoner. Suffered hanging torture (arms hung behind back).
Paczyński, JózefJózef Paczyński[45] Polish Political prisoner. About every 1 1/2 weeks, he was ordered to cut the hair of the camp's commanding officer, Rudolf Höss. Personally witnessed gassings from nearby.[29]
Piechowski, KazimierzKazimierz Piechowski[45] 918 October 3, 1919 alive 95 years, 85 days Polish June 20, 1940 June 20, 1942 Imprisoned because the boy scouts were labeled a criminal organization. From Rajkowy. Deported to camp on second transport from Tarnów. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate. The escape was facilitated by Piechowski's fluent command of German. As they drove toward the gate he told the guards to hurry up and open it. None of the four were recaptured.[46][47]
Jaster, Stanisław GustawStanisław Gustaw Jaster[47] 6438 1921 Polish June 20, 1942 Veteran of Invasion of Poland in rank of first lieutenant, from Warsaw. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Lempart, JózefJózef Lempart[47] 3199 1916 Polish Christian June 20, 1942 Priest, from Wadowice. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Bendera, EugeniuszEugeniusz Bendera[47] 8502 1906 Ukrainian June 20, 1942 Auto mechanic, from Chortkiv. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[46][47]
Smoleń, KazimierzKazimierz Smoleń[45] Polish Political prisoner.
Kowalczyk, AugustAugust Kowalczyk[45] Polish Political prisoner.
Stenkin, PavelPavel Stenkin[29] Soviet Prisoner of war.
Mikusz, JózefJózef Mikusz[29] Polish Political prisoner.
Veselá, SilviaSilvia Veselá[29] Slovak Jewish 1942 Deported from holding camp near Bratislava.
Votavová, EvaEva Votavová[29] Slovak Jewish July 1942
Pressburger, OttoOtto Pressburger[29] Slovak Jewish From Trnava. Forced to dig mass graves and exhume corpses. His mother and father were killed at the camp.
Breder, LibušaLibuša Breder[48] Jewish Worked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. Witnessed rapes of women by the camp's officers.
Citrónová, HelenaHelena Citrónová[48] Jewish Worked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. An SS officer, Franz Wunch, fell in love with her. As a result, Wunch would later save Helena's sister from the gas chambers, although her sister's son and daughter could not be saved.
Rybacki, TadeuszTadeusz Rybacki[48] Polish Political prisoner. Served as a waiter at the SS canteen in the camp.
Alexander, VeraVera Alexander[48] Jewish Witnessed crimes committed by Irma Grese.
Mozes Kor, EvaEva Mozes Kor[48][49] 87063 January 30, 1934 alive 80 years, 331 days Romanian Jewish 1944 January 27, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Both of her parents and two older sisters were killed at the camp; only Miriam and herself survived. Founder of CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center.
Mozes, MiriamMiriam Mozes[49] 87064 January 30, 1934 June 6, 1993 59 years, 127 days Romanian Jewish 1944 January 27, 1945 Eva's twin sister. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Mengele injected Miriam with a chemical that stopped the growth of her kidneys; later, Eva donated one of her kidneys.
Laks, JonaJona Laks[49] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Kriegel, VeraVera Kriegel[49] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Pufeles, PearlPearl Pufeles[49] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Helen Rappaport[49] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Reichenberg, EphraimEphraim Reichenberg[49] Hungarian One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Frankfurter, GyuriGyuri Frankfurter[50] Hungarian One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "George".
Frankfurter, LaciLaci Frankfurter[50] Hungarian One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "Leslie".
Greenfeld, PeterPeter Greenfeld[51] A-2459 1940 Czech Jewish 1944 January 27, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Known at the camp as "Josef "Peipchek" Klineman". Born in Prague.
Klineman, MarthaMartha Klineman[51] A-4931 1940 Czech Jewish 1944 January 27, 1945 Peter's twin. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Prague.
Salomon, LipotLipot Salomon[52] A-5723 1923 or 1924 April 19, 1965 40 years Romanian May 28, 1944 January 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Salomon, DezoDezo Salomon[52] A-5724 1923 or 1924 April 22, 1996 71 years Romanian May 28, 1944 January 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Somogyi, PeterPeter Somogyi[53] A-17454 April 14, 1933 Hungarian Jewish July 9, 1944 January 27, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs. Their mother and older sister (14 years) were gassed at Auschwitz at arrival.
Somogyi, ThomasThomas Somogyi[53] A-17455 April 14, 1933 Hungarian Jewish July 9, 1944 January 27, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs.
Helbrun, StephanieStephanie Helbrun[33] February 4, 1924 Czech Jewish December 1943 January 18, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march. Their parents and sister were killed in various camps.
Helbrun, AnnettaAnnetta Helbrun[33] February 4, 1924 Czech Jewish December 1943 January 18, 1945 One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march.
Able, GeorgeGeorge Able[33] Met Annetta Helbrun when both were assigned to a commando loading corpses. Later married Annetta in 1948.
Spiegel, Zvi ErnstZvi Ernst Spiegel[53] 1913 or 1914 January 27, 1945 Assigned to supervise twins used in the medical experiments of Josef Mengele. Saved children from the gas chamber on several occasions. After the camp's liberation, he took 157 Mengele twins and homeless children to safety in Hungary. 29 years old in 1944.
Nyiszli, MiklósMiklós Nyiszli[48] June 17, 1901 May 5, 1956 54 years, 323 days Hungarian Jewish June 1944 January 18, 1945 Prisoner, and doctor (pathologist) who served Josef Mengele. Sent on the death march.
Dacko, RyszardRyszard Dacko[48] Polish Political prisoner.
Hantz, StanislawStanislaw Hantz[54] Polish Political prisoner.
Einsenschmidt, EliezerEliezer Einsenschmidt[54] Jewish
Cahana, Alice LokAlice Lok Cahana[54] 1929 alive 81 or 82 Hungarian Jewish 1944 Deported from Sárvár.
Venezia, MorrisMorris Venezia[54] Greek-Italian Jewish April 1944 Part of the Sonderkommando.
Rosenbach, FranzFranz Rosenbach[54] Gypsy Survived because he was transferred to another camp. His mother was killed at the camp.
Szmyt, WładysławWładysław Szmyt[54] Polish Political prisoner.
Mandelbaum, HenrykHenryk Mandelbaum[54] 181970 December 15, 1922 June 17, 2008 85 years, 185 days Polish Jewish April 22, 1944 January 18, 1945 Part of Sonderkommando. Fled on a death march.
Mann, IbiIbi Mann[54] Jewish
Eichengreen, LucilleLucille Eichengreen[29] February 1, 1925 alive 89 years, 329 days German Jewish August 1944 October 1944 From Hamburg. Deported to Łódź Ghetto on October 26, 1941, where she was molested by Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski and remained for four years until deported to Auschwitz. Transferred to Neuengamme concentration camp.
Pilecki, WitoldWitold Pilecki 4859 May 13, 1901 May 25, 1948 47 years, 12 days Polish Christian (Catholic) September 22, 1940 April 26, 1943 Soldier and secret agent ("Tomasz Serafiński"). He volunteered to be imprisoned at Auschwitz (the only person known to do so) for a Polish resistance operation in order to gather intelligence and escape. As the author of the Witold's report, the first intelligence report on Auschwitz, his operation enabled the Polish government-in-exile to convince the Allies that the Holocaust was taking place. Later executed by Polish communists.
Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel[54] A-7713 September 30, 1928 alive 86 years, 88 days Romanian Jewish May 17, 1944 January 1945 Writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner (1986). His mother and younger sister are gassed immediately. Transferred to Buchenwald concentration camp, where Wiesel's father, Shlomo, was beaten[55] and killed.[56] Two older sisters, Hilda and Beatrice, survive.
Firestone, RenéeRenée Firestone[57] Hungarian Jewish Her sister was killed at the camp during medical experiments.
Pisar, SamuelSamuel Pisar[58][59] March 18, 1929 alive 85 years, 284 days Polish Jewish Lawyer, writer. His parents and younger sister Frieda were killed during the war. Transferred to Dachau concentration camp. Escaped during a death march.[58]
Ančerl, KarelKarel Ančerl[60] April 11, 1908 July 3, 1973 65 years, 83 days Czech Jewish October 15, 1944 Conductor. Josef Mengele was about to send Ančerl to the gas chamber, but a weakened Pavel Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Perl, GisellaGisella Perl[36][61] 1907 1988 80 or 81 years Hungarian Jewish 1944 Gynecologist. Forced to be an inmate doctor. Saved the lives of hundreds of pregnant women by aborting their pregnancies (pregnant women were often killed for experiments by Josef Mengele).
Vrba, RudolfRudolf Vrba[62] 44070 September 11, 1924 March 27, 2006 81 years, 197 days Slovak Jewish January 15, 1943 April 7, 1944 Scientist. Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews. Testified against Adolf Eichmann at Eichmann's trial.
Wetzler, AlfrédAlfréd Wetzler[62] 29162 May 10, 1918 February 8, 1988 69 years, 274 days Slovak Jewish 1942 April 7, 1944 Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews.
Dekel, AlexAlex Dekel[63] Served under Josef Mengele as his subject, witnessing many of Mengele's human medical experiments.
Kielar, WieslawWieslaw Kielar Author of autobiographical novel 5 Years in Auschwitz

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jascha Nemtsov, Silvio Daus, Beate Schroder-Nauenburg: "Musik im Inferno des Nazi-Terrors: Judische Komponisten im "Dritten Reich", en: Acta Musicologica, Vol. 70, Fasc. 1 (enero-junio de 1998), pp. 22–44
  2. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-415-28145-4. 
  3. ^ Stagg Peterson, Shelley; Swartz, Larry (2008). Good Books Matter. Pembroke Publishers Limited. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-55138-232-6. 
  4. ^ Snješka Knežević (2011, p. 110)
  5. ^ Nina Ožegović (11 September 2006). "Film o tragičnom usudu dječje zvijezde" [A film about tragic fate of a child star] (in Croatian). Nacional. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Daniel, Paul. "Destinul unui poet" and "Tabla ilustraţiilor". p.638
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  8. ^ Slavko Goldstein. "Moj otac". Kolo (in Croatian) (Matica hrvatska). 
  9. ^ Film review of "The Führer Gives a City to the Jews at The Bootleg Files Archived September 30, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Dorothea Sluizer-Gerson". Joods Monument. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
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  12. ^ Yahil, Leni (1987). The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945, p. 486. Oxford University Press.
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  15. ^ Snješka Knežević (2011, p. 31)
  16. ^ (Croatian) Milka Babović: Učiteljica tjelovježbe Ivana Hirschmann; Zagreb, moj grad; November 2007, No. 8; pp. 23–25.
  17. ^ Kofman, 1996, p. 9-10.
  18. ^ a b "Early glimpses of Némirovsky's talent". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Cohen, P. (2010) Assessing Jewish Identity of Author Killed by Nazis, The New York Times, April 25.
  20. ^ Suite Française (Vintage Books, New York, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4000-9627-5) Appendix II, translator's note.
  21. ^ Wapiński 1980, 259.
  22. ^ Otto Selz, German psychologist February 14 in History at www.brainyhistory.com
  23. ^ Otto Selz, German psychologist (In Auschwitz), dies August 27 in History at www.brainyhistory.com
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  25. ^ Miodrag Savkovitch (1926, p. 168)
  26. ^ (Croatian) Mira Kolar-Dimitrijević: Pretvaranje Bjelovara iz vojničkoga u privredno središte od 1871. do 1910. godine.: stranica 44: Bjelovar: 16 svibanj 2007.
  27. ^ "Lavoslav Singer". Pages of testimony by Yaakov Harel (relative) (Yad Vashem). 
  28. ^ Friedländer, Saul. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007). Page 411.
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  30. ^ Schaffer, Kay; Smith, Sidonie (2000). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Rutgers University Press. pp. 60–62. ISBN 978-0-8135-2820-5. 
  31. ^ a b c Karas, Joža (1990). Music in Terezín, 1941–1945. Pendragon Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-918728-34-0. 
  32. ^ Lucyna Smolińska, Mieczysław Sroka "Wielcy znani i nieznani" Wydawnictwa Radia i Telewizji, Warsaw 1988.
  33. ^ a b c d "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  34. ^ Friedländer, Saul. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007). Page 426.
  35. ^ Feiner, Hertha. Before Deportation: Letters from a Mother to Her Daughters, January 1939 – December 1942, ed. Karl Heinz Jahnke (Evanston, IL 1999), pp. 27–28.
  36. ^ a b Brozan, Nadine. Out of Death, a Zest for Life. New York Times, November 15, 1982
  37. ^ Yogi Mayer, Paul (2004). Jews and the Olympic Games. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-85303-451-3. 
  38. ^ "Froukje Esther Waterman-Hollander". Joods Monument. March 28, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Malka Zimetbaum". Findagrave.com. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Edward Galinski". Findagrave.com. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  41. ^ David Winner (2002). Brilliant orange: the neurotic genius of Dutch soccer. Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-258-0. Retrieved December 24, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Preživio sam Auschwitz, majka i otac nisu". Goran Prokopec (in Croatian) (Deutsche Welle). 
  43. ^ "Sjećanje na holokaust: Prof. Boris Braun - električar bodljikave žice". Bojana Mrvoš Pavić (in Croatian) (Novi list). 
  44. ^ "Razgovor s Borisom Braunom" (in Croatian). Autonomni Kulturni Centar »Medika«. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 1, Surprising Beginnings.
  46. ^ a b c d Auschwitz chronicle 1939–1945 By Danuta Czech Publisher: I B Tauris & Co Ltd (November 1990) ISBN 978-1-85043-291-3 ISBN 978-1-85043-291-3
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  48. ^ a b c d e f g BBC History of World War II. Auschwitz; Inside the Nazi State. Part 4, Corruption.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g Forgiving Dr. Mengele (2006).
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  51. ^ a b "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  53. ^ a b c "Survivors". CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
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  55. ^ Donadio, Rachel (January 20, 2008). "The Story of ‘Night'". The New York Times. 
  56. ^ see the film "Elie Wiesel Goes Home" by Judit Elek, narrated by William Hurt ISBN 978-1-930545-63-2
  57. ^ The Last Days (1998).
  58. ^ a b Hitron, Haggai. "Wrestling with God". Haaretz. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  59. ^ Forgiving Dr. Mengele
  60. ^ Matějková, J (2005). Hugo Haas. Život je pes Prague: Nakladatelství XYZ. p. 137. ISBN 978-80-86864-18-1
  61. ^ [[Out of the Ashes (2003 film)|]] (2003).
  62. ^ a b Secrets of the Dead: Escape from Auschwitz (PBS, 2008).
  63. ^ "Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor - The Crime Library on truTV.com". Crimelibrary.com. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

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