1928 Summer Olympics
Logo of the 1928 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Amsterdam, Netherlands|
|Athletes participating||2,883 (2,606 men, 277 women)|
|Events||109 in 15 sports|
|Opening ceremony||July 28|
|Closing ceremony||August 12|
|Officially opened by||Prince Hendrik|
|Athlete's Oath||Harry Dénis|
The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but had to give way to wartorn Antwerp, Belgium, and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris, respectively. The only other candidate city for the 1928 Games was Los Angeles, which would host the Olympics four years later.
The United States Olympic Committee measured the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games in preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million for a loss of US$18,000—much less than that of the previous Games.
- For the first time, the Olympic Flame was lit during the Olympics. The torch relay, however, would not occur until the 1936 Summer Olympics.
- For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, and ended with the host country, a tradition which continues today.
- The Games were officially opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorized him to deputise for her. This was the second time a head of state had not personally officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. The first at the games of 1904 in St. Louis, Missouri, by David R. Francis the mayor of St. Louis. In opposition he had refused offers by heads of state to do this, whereas the Queen refused as she was on holiday in Norway and did not want to disrupt her trip. The Queen was furious at the organizing committee for not consulting with her about the opening date.
- Athletics events were held on a 400-meter track, later becoming the standard for athletics tracks.
- These games were the first to feature a standard schedule of 16 days, which is still followed. Previously, competition had been stretched out over several months.
- Johnny Weissmuller, who later appeared in several Tarzan movies, won two gold medals in swimming.
- Paavo Nurmi of Finland won his ninth and final gold medal in the 10,000 m race.
- Canada's Percy Williams surprised everyone by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events.
- South American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay retained its title by defeating Argentina.
- India took its first ever gold in the sport of field hockey, beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport.
- Mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump event with a result of 15.21 meters (49 ft 11 in), becoming the first gold medalist from an Asian country.
- The first appearance of the sponsor Coca-Cola at the Olympic Games.
- These games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games".
- Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games. The German team finished second in the 1928 medal count.
- Helena Nordheim, Anna Dresden-Polak, and Jud Simons won gold medals as three of the five Jewish athletes on the Dutch women's gymnastics team. They were later killed at the Sobibor extermination camp in German-occupied Poland as part of the Holocaust, where their coach Gerrit Kleerekoper was also killed. Their team mate Estella Agsteribbe was gassed in Auschwitz.
Host city selection 
Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912, even before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established. In 1916 the Olympic Games were cancelled due to World War I. In 1919 the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favour of their support of the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921 Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam. This decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee on 2 June 1921. The decision was disputed by the Americans, but their request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was eventually selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics.
During the Summer Olympics, there were 16 sports and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per sport.
- Athletics (27)
- Boxing (8)
- Cycling (6)
- Diving (4)
- Equestrian (6)
- Fencing (7)
- Football (1)
- Gymnastics (8)
- Field hockey (1)
- Modern pentathlon (1)
- Rowing (7)
- Sailing (3)
- Swimming (11)
- Water polo (1)
- Weightlifting (5)
- Wrestling (13)
Women's athletics and gymnastics debuted at these Olympics, in spite of criticism. Halina Konopacka of Poland became the first female Olympic track and field champion. The 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being completely exhausted, so running events for women longer than 200 meters were not included in the Olympics until the 1960s.
Demonstration sports 
- Amersfoort – Modern pentathlon (riding)
- Amsterdam – Cycling (road)
- Buiten Y – Sailing
- Hilversum – Equestrian (non-jumping events), modern pentathlon (running)
- Krachtsportgebouw – Boxing, weightlifting, wrestling
- Monnikenhuize – Football
- Old Stadion – Field hockey
- Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium – Diving, modern pentathlon (swimming), swimming, water polo
- Olympic Stadium – Athletics, cycling (track), equestrian (jumping), field hockey, football, gymnastics, korfball (demonstration)
- Rotterdam Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel – Football
- Schermzaal – Fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
- Sloten – Rowing
- Zeeburg Shooting Grounds – Modern pentathlon (shooting)
- Zuiderzee – Sailing
Participating nations 
A total of 46 nations were represented at the Amsterdam Games. Malta, Panama, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) competed at the Olympic Games for the first time. Germany returned after having been banned in 1920 and 1924.
Medal count 
These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1928 Games.
|8||Netherlands (host nation)||6||9||4||19|
The official poster for the Games was designed by Jos Rovers, and 10,000 copies were made. The poster displays a running man in a white shirt, with in the background the Olympic stadium and the Olympic flag (shown above). The IOC never succeeded in getting the copyright of the image. Therefore, out of practical considerations, the IOC has used a different poster, with the German text Olympische Spiele, and an athlete partly covered in the Dutch national flag, holding a peace leaf in his hand. This poster was made for a German book about the Amsterdam Olympics.
See also 
Surviving competitors 
As of 2012, there is at least one competitor of the 1928 Summer Olympics still living; Clara Marangoni, an Italian gymnast who competed in the games and won a silver medal despite still being only 12 years old. She is now in her 97th year.
- Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs". Citius, Altius, Fortius 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- "Amsterdam 1928". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
- Steve Lipman (13 August 2004). "The Olympics and The Holocaust". Jewish Federations of North America.
- Chicago Tribune Co. "America Bids for Games: Olympics of 1928 May be Held in This Country", New York Times. 6 April 1923. Page 15.
- G. van Rossem (ed.) (1928). The Ninth Olympiad Amsterdam 1928 Official Report (PDF). Amsterdam: J. H. de Bussy. pp. 973–985. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- Guttmann, Allen (1992). The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-252-01701-3.
- Henk van Gelder: De Spiele in Amsterdam, NRC Handelsblad 30 juli 1996
- Clara Marangoni's profile at Sports Reference.com
- "Amsterdam 1928". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "All the Medallists since 1896". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- The Ninth Olympiad. Amsterdam 1928. Official Report
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1928 Summer Olympics|
- "Amsterdam 1928". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- Louis S. Nixdorff Diary, July 10-August 15, 1928
- Memorabilia of the Ninth Olympiad 1928 Amsterdam
|Summer Olympic Games
IX Olympiad (1928)