Lleida

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This article is about the city. For province, see Province of Lleida.
Lleida
Municipality
La Seu Vella cathedral in Lleida
La Seu Vella cathedral in Lleida
Flag of Lleida
Flag
Coat of arms of Lleida
Coat of arms
Lleida is located in Catalonia
Lleida
Lleida
Location of Lleida within Catalonia
Lleida is located in Spain
Lleida
Lleida
Location of Lleida within Spain
Coordinates: 41°37′00″N 00°38′00″E / 41.61667°N 0.63333°E / 41.61667; 0.63333Coordinates: 41°37′00″N 00°38′00″E / 41.61667°N 0.63333°E / 41.61667; 0.63333
Country  Spain
Autonomous community  Catalonia
Province Lleida
Comarca Segrià
Founded 6th century BC
Government
 • Type Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Angel Ros i Domingo (PSC)
Area
 • Municipality 211.7 km2 (81.7 sq mi)
Elevation 155 m (509 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Municipality 138,416 hab.
 • Metro 250,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 25001-25007
Dialing code 34 (Spain) + 973 (Lleida)
Official language(s) Catalan, Spanish
Website Official website

Lleida (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈʎɛjðə], locally: [ˈʎejðɛ], Spanish: Lérida [ˈleɾiða]) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain, capital city of the province of Lleida.

Geographically, it is located in the Catalan Central Depression. The metro area has about 250,000 inhabitants. It is also the capital city of the Segrià comarca, as well as the largest city in the province. It had 137,387 inhabitants as of 2010, including the contiguous municipalities of Raimat and Sucs.

Lleida is one of the oldest towns in Catalonia, with recorded settlements dating back to the Bronze Age period. Until the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the area served as a settlement for an Iberian people, the Ilergetes. The town became a municipality, named Ilerda, under the reign of Augustus. It was reconquered in 1149, after being many centuries under the rule of the Moors, who had conquered the town in the 8th century. In 1297, the University of Lleida was founded, becoming the third oldest in the whole of Spain. During the following centuries, the town was damaged by several wars such as the Reapers' War in the 17th century and the Spanish Civil War in the 20th century. Since then, the city has been in a constant urban, commercial and demographic growth.

History[edit]

In ancient times the city, named Iltrida and Ilerda, was the chief city of the Ilergetes, an Iberian tribe. Indíbil, king of the Ilergetes, and Mandoni, king of the Ausetanes, defended it against the Carthaginian and Roman invasions.

Under the Romans, the city was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, and was a place of considerable importance, historically as well as geographically. It stood upon an eminence, on the right (west) bank of the river Sicoris (the modern Segre), the principal tributary of the Ebre, and some distance above its confluence with the Cinga (modern Cinca); thus commanding the country between those rivers, as well as the great road from Tarraco (modern Tarragona), the provincial capital, to the northwest of Spain, which here crossed the Sicoris.[1]

Its situation[2] induced the legates of Pompey in Spain to make it the key of their defense against Caesar, in the first year of the Civil War (49 BCE). Afranius and Marcus Petreius threw themselves into the place with five legions; and their siege by Caesar himself (Battle of Ilerda), as narrated in his own words, forms one of the most interesting passages of military history. The resources exhibited by the great general, in a contest where the formation of the district and the very elements of nature seemed in league with his enemies, have been frequently extolled; but no epitome can do justice to the campaign. It ended by the capitulation of Afranius and Petreius, who were conquered as much by Caesar's generosity as by his strategy.[3] In consequence of the battle, the Latin phrase Ilerdam videas is said to have been used by people who wanted to cast bad luck on someone else.

Under the Roman empire, Ilerda was a very flourishing city, and a municipium. It minted its own coins. It had a fine stone bridge over the Sicoris, (the bridge was so sturdy that its foundations support a bridge to this day). In the time of Ausonius the city had fallen into decay; but it rose again into importance in the Middle Ages.[4]

It was part of Visigothic and Muslim Hispania until it was conquered from the Moors by the Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona in 1149.

It used to be the seat of a major university, the oldest in the Kingdom of Aragon, until 1717, when it was moved by Philip V to the nearby town of Cervera. The University of Lleida is nowadays active again.

During the Reapers' War, Lleida was occupied by the French and rebel forces. In 1644 the city was conquered by the Spanish under D. Felipe da Silva.

Lleida served as a key defense point for Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War, and fell to the Insurgents, whose air forces bombed it extensively, in 1937 and 1938. The November 2, 1937 Legion Kondor attacks against Lleida became especially infamous since they were aimed to the school known as Liceu Escolar de Lleida. 48 children and several teachers died in it that day, 300 people were killed on the November 2 bombings altogether, and the town would be bombed and sieged again in 1938, when it was conquered by Franco's forces.[5]

After some decades without any kind of population growth, it met a massive migration of Andalusians who helped the town undergo a relative demographic growth. Nowadays it is home to immigrants of 146 different nationalities.[6]

During 2007 Lleida was the year's Capital of Catalan Culture.[7]

Climate[edit]

Lleida has semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with Mediterranean like precipitation patterns.[8] Winters are mild and foggy though cooler than places on the coast while summers are hot and dry. Frosts are common during winter although snowfall can occasionally fall, averaging 1 or 2 days. Precipitation is low, with an annual average of 369 millimetres (15 in) with a peak in April and May and another peak in September and October.

Climate data for Lleida
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
13.7
(56.7)
17.5
(63.5)
19.8
(67.6)
24.0
(75.2)
28.5
(83.3)
32.2
(90)
31.6
(88.9)
27.3
(81.1)
21.2
(70.2)
14.2
(57.6)
9.8
(49.6)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
13.2
(55.8)
17.3
(63.1)
21.4
(70.5)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
20.7
(69.3)
15.3
(59.5)
9.3
(48.7)
6.0
(42.8)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
2.2
(36)
4.2
(39.6)
6.5
(43.7)
10.5
(50.9)
14.4
(57.9)
17.2
(63)
17.4
(63.3)
14.1
(57.4)
9.4
(48.9)
4.4
(39.9)
2.1
(35.8)
8.6
(47.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
14
(0.55)
27
(1.06)
37
(1.46)
49
(1.93)
34
(1.34)
12
(0.47)
21
(0.83)
39
(1.54)
39
(1.54)
28
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
369
(14.53)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4 3 4 5 6 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 46
 % humidity 81 70 61 58 58 54 51 56 63 71 79 83 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 116 167 226 248 279 313 348 313 250 200 137 96 2,685
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia[9]

Districts and neighbourhoods[edit]

Lleida is divided in the following districts by the Observatori Socioeconòmic de Lleida:

Communications and transport[edit]

Lleida-Pirineus train station
Lleida-Alguaire airport

Railway[edit]

Lleida is served by the RENFE, Spanish state railway's Madrid-Barcelona high-speed rail line, serving Barcelona, Zaragoza, Calatayud, Guadalajara, and Madrid. Lleida has a new airport opened in January 2010, and a minor airfield located in Alfès. Also, the town is the western terminus of the Eix Transversal Lleida-Girona, and a railway covering the same distance (Eix Transversal Ferroviari) is currently under planning.

Lleida's only passenger railway station is Lleida Pirineus. It is served by both Renfe and Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya train lines. In the future a Rodalies Lleida commuter network will connect the town with its adjacent area and the main towns of its province, improving the existing network with more train frequency and newly built infrastructure. A second railway station is Pla de la Vilanoveta in an industrial area, and only used by freight trains. A future railway museum will be located in its facilities.[10] Since 2008 the bulk of public transport of the Lleida's surrounding area, mainly buses operated by several companies, is managed by Autoritat Territorial de la Mobilitat de l'Àrea de Lleida.

Bus[edit]

The urban buses, coloured yellow with blue stripes and owned by Autobusos de Lleida, include the following lines:

  • L-1 Interior
  • L-2 Ronda
  • L-3 Pardinyes
  • L-4 Mariola – Parc cientific i tecnologic
  • L-5 Bordeta
  • L-6 Magraners
  • L-7 Secà
  • L-8 Balàfia-Gualda
  • L-9 Hospitals
  • L-10 Exterior
  • L-11 Llívia-Caparrella
  • L-11B Llívia-Caparrella-Butsenit
  • L-12 C.Històric-Universitat
  • L-13 Cappont
  • L-14 Agrònoms
  • L-P Polígons
  • L-17 Bordeta-Ciutat Jardí
  • L-18 Palau de Congressos- Rambla de la Mercé
  • L-19 Butsenit
  • L-N Wonder (Regular night service)
  • L-Bus Turístic (tourist bus)
  • L- Aeroport
  • L- Llotja

In addition to these, there's a tourist bus and a regular night service to nearby clubs.

Lleida-Pirineus airport[edit]

Lleida has depended long time on nearby airports and had no local air transit. Lleida-Alguaire airport opened in 2010.

Future and planned services[edit]

A tram-train system is pending approval. Using an existing but outdated passenger line, it would link Balaguer and Lleida, crossing both towns in a much-needed move towards better public transportation, both inner-city and between localities.[11][12][13]

Languages[edit]

Lleida is a traditionally Catalan-speaking town and province, with a characteristic dialect (known as Western or, more specifically, North-Western Catalan, or colloquially lleidatà). Most of the population is actively bilingual in Spanish.

Culture[edit]

Theatre and music venues[edit]

Enric Granados Auditorium is the town's concert hall and main music institution and conservatory. It is named after the composer Enric Granados, who was born there. Lleida's newest venue is La Llotja de Lleida, which opened with Verdi's Il trovatore. CaixaForum Lleida (formerly known as Centre Cultural de la Fundació La Caixa) includes a concert hall.

Teatre de l'Escorxador, located in a former slaughterhouse, is the town's main theatre. It includes a concert venue, Cafè del Teatre. Teatre Principal de Lleida is used for very different events. Antares is a jazz bar hosting regular live acts. La Boîte and Stones, two clubs, also offer concerts.

Music festivals[edit]

There are two important music festivals in Lleida; MÚSIQUES DISPERSES Folk Festival, taking place during the whole month of March[14] and the jazz festival JAZZ TARDOR in November. Concerts are also a regular fixture of the two local feasts, Sant Anastasi in May, and Sant Miquel in September.

Film[edit]

CaixaForum Lleida is the usual venue for film-related events and screenings. A Latin-American cinema festival is held yearly in the town (Mostra de Cinema Llatinoamericà de Lleida), and an animation film festival called Animac also takes place there every May.

Art and museums[edit]

The Lleida Museum opened in 2008 and displays historical artefacts and works of art from various periods. The Institut d'Estudis Ilerdencs, a historically relevant building, exhibits both ancient and contemporary art. The Centre d'Art La Panera is a recently opened contemporary art institution. The Museu d'Art Jaume Morera displays a collection of art from the 20th and 21st centuries (as well as artwork by its namesake). Lleida has a number of small municipal galleries, such as Sala Municipal d'Exposicions de Sant Joan or Sala Manel Garcia Sarramona, and several institutions dedicated to local artists, such as Sala Leandre Cristòfol (containing artwork by the renowned sculptor and painter Leandre Cristòfol (1908–1998) or Sala Coma Estadella (dedicated to the renowned sculptor and painter, Albert Coma Estadella (1933–1991). There are, of course, a number of private art galleries, such as Espai Cavallers. The private foundation CaixaForum Lleida and the Public Library of Lleida also offer regular exhibits. The now defunct Petite Galerie was an innovative and influential gallery in the 1970s.

Higher education in the arts in Lleida is to be found at the EMBA (Escola Municipal de Belles Arts, i.e. Municipal School of Fine Arts).

Traditional culture[edit]

Traditional celebrations include Festa Major (the main, annual town festivity), L’Aplec del Caragol (escargot-eating festival, the biggest in the world of this sort, held at the Camps Elisis since 1980), and Fira de Sant Miquel.

The main traditional celebrations in Lleida are chaired by the twelve emblematic "Gegants de la Paeria" (Giants of the Town Hall), the two oldest made in 1840.

Lleida was the Capital of Catalan Culture in 2007.

The Giants of Lleida in front of the Paeria

Nightlife[edit]

Lleida's most popular[citation needed] bars and clubbing area is informally known as Els Vins. Els Vins Vells, as the oldest part of the quarter is called, has experienced serious decay during the 2000s (decade) and most venues in the area are currently closed, with buildings being demolished. Els Vins Nous, on the other hand, an architecturally newer and more upscale area, has largely replaced it. Most big clubs in Lleida, are located outside the town, and are not easily accessible without a car, even though on Saturdays night, there is a bus. There are other big dancing clubs inside the city.

People from Lleida[edit]

The following names are sorted by fields of endeavour and alphabetically.

Artists[edit]

  • Albert Coma Estadella (1933–1991) – artist and sculptor
  • Antoni Abad (Lleida, 1956) – artist (painting, photography, video-art)
  • Neus Buira Ferrer (Lleida, 1967), artist
  • Leandre Cristòfol (Os de Balaguer, 1908 – Lleida, 1998) – artist, pioneer of Surrealist sculpture in Catalonia
  • Enric Crous Vidal (Lleida, 1908 – Noyon, France, 1987) – artist, draftsman, typographer and graphic designer, part of the avant-garde from Western Catalonia
  • Miguel Ángel Gallardo – underground comic book artist, especially known for his controversial comic series Makoki, published in the Spanish magazine El Víbora.
  • Àngel Jové (Lleida, 1940), conceptual artist
  • Jaume Morera (1854–1927) – Artist
  • Ton Sirera (Barcelona, 1911 – Lleida, 1975), photographer (avant-garde, abstract, artistic photography), based in Lleida

Architects[edit]

  • Pere de Coma (?, Lleida – 1220) – 13th-century architect who worked on the Seu Vella
  • Adolf Florensa – architect, urban planner who worked for various governments during the 20th century directing the restoration of Ciutat Vella in Barcelona.

Writers[edit]

  • Francisco Palau y Quer (Aitona, Lleida 1811 - Tarragona 1872) - Padre Carmelita.
  • Àngel Carmona Ristol (Lleida 1924– Barcelona 1997) – Catalan writer, dramatist and theatre director.
  • Pep Coll (born 1949) – Catalan writer, novelist
  • Carles Hac Mor (Lleida, 1940) – Catalan poet, writer, conceptual artist.
  • Txema Martínez Inglés (Lleida, 1972), Catalan writer, poet, literary critic, journalist, translator and philologist.
  • Dolors Miquel (Lleida, 1960) – Catalan poet
  • Rosa Maria Molló (Lleida, 1963), Catalan journalist.
  • Imma Monsó (Lleida, 1959), Catalan writer, novelist
  • Manuel del Palacio (Lleida, 1831 – Madrid, 1906), – journalist and satiric poet
  • Josep Pernau – journalist, satirist (born 1930)
  • Alexandre Plana (Lleida, 1889 – Banyuls, 1940), literary critic and poet.
  • Aleix Renyé (Lleida, 1955) – Catalan journalist, actor and writer, as well as radio host. Working in Northern Catalonia
  • Màrius Torres – Catalan Symbolist poet (1910–1942)
  • Josep Vallverdú (born 1923) – writer
  • Salvador Vázquez de Parga – essayist, comic book historian (born 1934)
  • Celia Viñas (Lleida, 1915 – Almería, 1954), Catalan and Spanish writer, poet.

Cinema, Performing Arts[edit]

Musicians[edit]

  • Enrique Granados (Lleida, 1867 – English Channel, 1916) – Romantic composer
  • Lo Parrano (Enric Pubill Parrano), famous singer and composer of "garrotins", the typical gypsy / flamenco music from Lleida
  • Lorena, singer, winner of the 5th series of Spanish Fame Academy, Operación Triunfo.
  • Ricard Vinyes (Lleida, 1875 – Barcelona, 1943) – classical pianist and composer

Scientists, Scholars[edit]

  • Josep Lladonosa – historian (1907–1990)
  • Joan Oró – biochemist whose research has been of importance in understanding the origin of life, received several international honours for his work. (1923–2004)

Politicians, Public Figures, Revolutionaries, etc[edit]

Religious Scholars, Religious Leaders[edit]

  • Francesc Claverol – 18th century religious scholar, author of De ineffabile misae sacrificio y Libellum de Adventu Anti Christi.

Sportswomen, Sportsmen[edit]

  • Marc Marquez, Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and current MotoGP world champion.
  • Dani Andrada, One of the world's strongest climbers
  • Joan Capdevila – (born 1978) football player.
  • Albert Costa (Lleida, 1975) – tennis player, olympic contestant in 2000, winner of the 2002 French Open
  • Saúl Craviotto Rivero (Lleida, 1984) – canoeist, gold medallist at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Sergi Escobar (Lleida, 1974) – cyclist, World Champion Individual Pursuit in Melbourne (2004), two bronze medals at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.
  • Kílian Jornet Burgada (born 1987), ski mountaineer, long-distance runner, mountain biker and duathlete
  • Bojan Krkic – (born 1990) football player.
  • Carles Puyol – (born 1978) football player.
  • Araceli Segarra (Lleida, 1970) – mountaineer, mountain climber (as well as illustrator of children's books, occasional model, speleologist, etc.), has climbed Everest several times, among other peaks, received Royal Order of Sports Merit bronze medal granted in 1997, co-stars in the IMAX documentaries / expeditions "Everest" (1996) and "Everest: Conquering Thin Air" (2007, to be aired in 2016), among other films and documentaries.

Businesspeople[edit]

Other[edit]

Main sights[edit]

River Segre in Lleida
Príncep de Viana Bridge, by the Navarran engineer and bridge designer, Javier Manterola Armisén (Pamplona, 1936)

Sports[edit]

Lleida has been always a city with great sport tradition. Probably the most famous sport at the present time is basketball, because the club of basketball of the city a few years ago ascended to the ACB, being the revelation team in the league, this caused a lot of boys and girls to become fond of this little well-known sport.

Sister cities[edit]

University of Lleida

Lleida has sister relationships with many places worldwide: [16] [17]

References in culture[edit]

The city is the subject of the Catalan folk song La Presó de Lleida, "The prison of Lleida", which was already attested in the 17th century and may be even older. It is a very popular tune, covered by many artists such as Joan Manuel Serrat.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Antonine Itinerary pp. 391, 452.
  2. ^ To quote Julius Caesar, "propter ipsius loci opportunitatem", Commentarii de Bello Civili i. 38.
  3. ^ Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Civili i. 38, et seq.; Florus iv. 12; Appian, B.C. ii. 42; Velleius Paterculus ii. 42; Suetonius Caes. 34; Lucan, Pharsal. iv. 11, 144.
  4. ^ Strabo iii. p. 161; Horat. Epist. i. 20. 13; coins, ap. Florez, Med. ii. pp. 451, 646, iii. p. 73; Théodore Edme Mionnet, vol. i. p. 44, Suppl. vol. i. p. 89; Sestini, pp. 161, 166; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 51.
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "Noves sl. primavera-estiu 2005. El repte dels plans pilots per a l'impuls del coneixement i l'us de la llengua catalana: del coneixement a l'ús social, per Dolors Solà". .gencat.net. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  7. ^ e-barcelona.org. "Lleida se estrena como capital de la cultura catalana durante 2007 :: e-barcelona.org :: Fòrum de Cultura, democratitzem la democràcia". e-barcelona.org. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  8. ^ Climate Summary for Lleida
  9. ^ "Valores climatológicos normales: Lleida (Periodo: 1971-2000)" (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  10. ^ "El Museu del Ferrocarril de Lleida s'ubicarĂ a l'estaciĂł de la Vilanoveta". Bondia.cat. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  11. ^ http://www.transportpublic.org/images/pdf/20100118-balaguer1.pdf
  12. ^ "CCOO de les Terres de Lleida. – El tren-tram, transport de futur per a l'àrea de Lleida – www.ccoo.cat/lleida". Ccoo.cat. 2010-01-19. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  13. ^ "Responsables de Ferrocarrils de Cataluña visitan el TRAM para llevar el modelo a Lleida y Manresa". elperiodic.com. 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  14. ^ musiquesdisperses.com
  15. ^ javiergalitocava.com
  16. ^ "Viles agermanades – Lleida – Perpignan la Catalane". mairie-perpignan.fr (in French). Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  17. ^ "INFO POINT EUROPA. Ajuntament de Lleida.La UE i Lleida". infopoint.paeria.es (in Catalan). Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  18. ^ "SegriЯ. "La presз de Lleida", romanу". Xtec.cat. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 

External links[edit]