Luton Town F.C.
|Full name||Luton Town Football Club|
|Founded||11 April 1885|
|Owner||Luton Town Football Club 2020 Ltd|
|2012–13||Conference Premier, 7th|
Luton Town Football Club / / is an English football club based since 1905 at Kenilworth Road, Luton, Bedfordshire. Affiliated to the Bedfordshire County Football Association, it was founded in 1885, and is nicknamed "the Hatters". Its history includes major trophy wins, several financial crises, numerous promotions and relegations, and some spells of sustained success. The club was perhaps most prominent between 1982 and 1992, when it was a member of English football's top division, at that time the First Division; the team won its first major honour, the Football League Cup, in 1988. During the 2013–14 season, the team is contesting English football's fifth tier, the Conference Premier.
The club was the first in southern England to turn professional, making payments to players as early as 1890 and turning fully professional a year later. It joined The Football League before the 1897–98 season, left in 1900 because of financial problems, and rejoined in 1920. Luton reached the First Division in 1955–56, and contested a major final for the first time when playing Nottingham Forest in the 1959 FA Cup Final. The team was then relegated from the top division in 1959–60, and demoted twice more in the following five years, playing in the Fourth Division from the 1965–66 season. However, it was promoted back to the top level by 1974–75.
Luton Town's most recent successful period began in 1981–82, when the club won the Second Division, and thereby gained promotion to the First. Luton defeated Arsenal 3–2 in the 1988 Football League Cup Final, and remained in the First Division until relegation at the end of 1991–92. Between 2007 and 2009, financial difficulties caused the club to fall from the second tier of English football to the fifth in successive seasons. The last of these relegations came during the 2008–09 season, when 30 points were docked from Luton's record for various financial irregularities. This ended the club's 89-year spell as a member of the Football League; it has been in the Conference Premier since the start of the 2009–10 season.
Luton Town Football Club was formed on 11 April 1885, the product of a merger of the two leading local teams, Luton Town Wanderers and Excelsior. Initially based at Excelsior's Dallow Lane ground, the club began making payments to certain individual players in 1890. The following year, Luton became the first club in southern England to be fully professional. The club was a founder member of the Southern Football League in the 1894–95 season and finished as runners-up in its first two seasons. It then left to help form the United League and came second in that league's inaugural season before joining The Football League (then based mostly in northern and central England) for 1897–98, concurrently moving to a new ground at Dunstable Road. The club continued to enter a team to the United League for two more seasons, and won the title in 1897–98. Poor attendance, high wages, and the high travel and accommodation costs that resulted from Luton's distance from the northern heartlands of The Football League crippled the club financially, and made it too expensive to compete in that league. A return to the Southern League was therefore arranged for the 1900–01 season.
Eight years after arriving at Dunstable Road, Luton moved again, settling at their current ground, Kenilworth Road, in 1905. Captain and left winger Bob Hawkes became Luton's first international player when he was picked to play for England against Ireland on 16 February 1907. A poor 1911–12 season saw Luton relegated to the Southern League's Second Division, but the club managed to win promotion back two years later. When war broke out, the schedule was reduced to a series of friendlies, but Luton took part in The London Combination for 1915–16. A key player of the period was Ernie Simms, a forward. Simms was wounded while serving in Italy in the First World War, but returned to score 40 goals during the following season.
The Luton side first played in the white and black colours which it has retained for much of its history during the 1920–21 season, when the club rejoined The Football League; the players had previous worn an assortment of colour combinations, most permanently sky blue shirts with white shorts and navy socks. Such was the quality of Luton's team at this time that despite playing in the third tier, a fixture between Ireland and England at Windsor Park on 22 October 1921 saw three Luton players on the pitch—Louis Bookman and Allan Mathieson for Ireland, and the club's top goalscorer, Simms, for England. However, after Luton finished fourth in the division, the squad was broken up as Simms, Bookman and Mathieson joined South Shields, Port Vale and Exeter City respectively. Luton stayed in the Third Division South until 1936–37, when the team finished top and won promotion to the Second Division, at that time the second tier of English football. During the promotion season, striker Joe Payne scored 55 goals in 39 games; during the previous season he had scored 10 in one match against Bristol Rovers, which remains a Football League record today.
During the early 1950s, one of Luton's greatest sides emerged under manager Dally Duncan. The team included Gordon Turner, who went on to become Luton's all-time top goalscorer, Bob Morton, who holds the record for the most club appearances, and Syd Owen, an England international. During this period, Luton sides also featured two England international goalkeepers, Ron Baynham and Bernard Streten, as well as Irish internationals Seamus Dunne, Tom Aherne and George Cummins. This team reached the top flight for the first time in 1955–56, after finishing the season in second place behind Birmingham City on goal average. A few years of success followed, including an FA Cup Final appearance against Nottingham Forest in 1958–59; at the end of the season, Owen was voted FWA Footballer of the Year. However, the club was relegated the following season, and, by 1964–65, was playing in the fourth tier.
In yo-yo club fashion, Luton were to return. A team including Bruce Rioch, John Moore and Graham French won the Fourth Division championship in 1967–68 under the leadership of former player Allan Brown; two years later Malcolm Macdonald's goals helped them to another promotion, while comedian Eric Morecambe became a director of the club. Luton Town won promotion back to the First Division in 1973–74, but were relegated the following season by a solitary point. Former player David Pleat was made manager in 1978, and by 1982–83 the team was back in the top flight. The team which Pleat assembled at Kenilworth Road was notable at the time for the number of black players it included; during an era when many English squads were almost entirely white, Luton often fielded a mostly black team. Talented players such as Ricky Hill, Brian Stein and Emeka Nwajiobi made key contributions to the club's success during this period, causing it to accrue "a richer history of black stars than any in the country", in the words of journalist Gavin Willacy.
On the last day of the 1982–83 season, the club's first back in the top tier, it narrowly escaped relegation: playing Manchester City at Maine Road, Luton needed to win to stay up, while City could escape with a draw. A late winner by Yugoslavian substitute Raddy Antić saved the team and prompted Pleat to dance across the pitch performing a "jig of joy", an image that has become iconic. The club achieved its highest ever league position, seventh, in 1986–87, and won the Football League Cup a year later with a 3–2 win over Arsenal. With ten minutes left on the clock and Arsenal 2–1 ahead, a penalty save from stand-in goalkeeper Andy Dibble sparked a late Luton rally: Danny Wilson equalised, before Brian Stein scored the winner with the last kick of the match. The club reached the League Cup Final once more in 1988–89, but lost 3–1 to Nottingham Forest.
The club was relegated from the top division at the end of the 1991–92 season, and sank to the third tier four years later. Luton stayed in the third-tier Second Division until relegation at the end of the 2000–01 season. Under the management of Joe Kinnear, who had arrived halfway through the previous season, the team won promotion from the fourth tier at the first attempt. "Controversial" owner John Gurney unsettled the club in 2003, terminating Kinnear's contract on his arrival in May; Gurney replaced Kinnear with Mike Newell before leaving Luton as the club entered administration. Newell's team finished as champions of the third-tier Football League One in 2004–05.
While Newell's place was taken by first Kevin Blackwell and later former player Mick Harford, the team was then relegated twice in a row, starting in 2006–07, and spent the latter part of the 2007–08 season in administration, thus incurring a ten-point deduction from that season's total. The club then had a total of 30 points docked from its 2008–09 record by The Football Association and The Football League for various financial irregularities. These deductions proved to be too large an obstacle to overcome, but Luton came from behind in the final of the Football League Trophy to win the competition for the first time.
Relegation meant that 2009–10 saw Luton playing in the Conference Premier, a competition which the club had never before contested. They remain there as of the 2013–14 season, having unsuccessfully contested the promotion play-offs three times in the previous four years. In the 2012–13 FA Cup fourth round, Luton won their away tie against Premier League club Norwich City 1–0, and in doing so became the first non-League team to beat a side from England's top division since 1989.
The club's nickname, "the Hatters", reflects Luton's historical connection with the hat making trade, which has been prominent there since the 1600s. The nickname was originally a variant on the now rarely seen Straw-plaiters. Supporters of the club are also called Hatters.
The club is associated with two very different colour schemes. For most of its history, Luton players have worn white shirts, black shorts, and either white or black socks, permanently adopted in 1920. Before then they had mainly worn a combination of light blue and white. In 1973, Luton changed to orange and navy, a completely new colour scheme, to make Luton Town more recognisable. However, six years later Luton returned to playing in white, with the orange and navy motif reduced to trim; navy shorts were adopted in 1984. Luton kept these colours until 1999–2000, when they spent a season in orange and blue, before readopting white and black in 2000–01, with orange as a third colour. The club wore a simple white and black outfit for the first time in 34 years during the 2007–08 season. The white, navy and orange palette was then brought back in 2008 after fans voted in a club poll to return to the colours favoured during the club's most successful period, the 1980s. A year later the club changed colours yet again, this time to a predominantly orange strip with white shorts. Navy shorts were readopted in 2011. During the 2013–14 season, Luton play in orange shirts, navy shorts and white socks.
Originally, Luton Town used the town's crest as its own in a manner similar to many other teams of the time; all but two of the badges in Luton Town's history have included the town crest. The club did not adopt its own crest until 1933, when a badge depicting a straw boater first appeared on Luton shirts. The letters "LTFC" were added in 1935, and this basic design remained until 1947. The club then played without a badge until 1970, when the club began to wear the town crest. Three years later, concurrently with the club's switch to the orange kit, a new club badge was introduced featuring the new colours. The new emblem depicted a stylised orange football, bearing the letters "Lt", surrounded by the club's name in navy blue text.
In 1987, the club switched back to a derivative of the town emblem, with the shield portion of the heraldic crest becoming the team's badge; the only similarity with the previous design was the inclusion of the club name around the shield in navy blue. The "rainbow" badge, introduced in 1994, featured the town crest below an orange and blue bow which curved around to meet two footballs, positioned on either side of the shield. The design was completed by a continuation of the orange and blue lines below the shield, with the club name across them in white. This badge was used until 2005, when a replacement very similar to the 1987 version was adopted, featuring black text rather than blue and a straw boater in place of the outstretched arm depicted in the older design. The club's founding year, 1885, was added in 2008 to complete the design. The badge was altered once more during the 2009–10 pre-season.
The first sponsor to appear on a Luton Town shirt was Tricentrol, a local motor company based in Dunstable, who sponsored the club from March 1980 to 1982; the deal was worth £50,000. Subsequent sponsors have been Bedford Trucks (1982 to 1990), Vauxhall (1990 to 1991), Universal Salvage Auctions (1991 to 1999), SKF (1999 to 2003), Travel Extras (2003 to 2005), Electrolux (2005 to 2008) and Carbrini Sportswear (2008 to 2009). NICEIC and EasyJet agreed sponsorship deals before the 2009–10 season, for one and two years respectively; EasyJet renewed their sponsorship before the 2011–12 season, and then again for the 2013–14 season.
Luton Town's first ground was at Dallow Lane, the former ground of Excelsior. The ground was next to the Dunstable to Luton train line, and players regularly claimed to have trouble seeing the ball because of smoke from the trains. A damaging financial loss during 1896–97 forced Luton to sell the stadium to stay afloat, and as a result the club moved across the tracks to a stadium between the railway and Dunstable Road. The Dunstable Road ground was opened by Herbrand Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford, who also donated £50 towards the £800 building costs. When the site was sold for housing in 1905, the club was forced to move again at short notice, to its present Kenilworth Road site, in time for the start of the 1905–06 season.
The 10,226 capacity all-seater stadium is in the Bury Park area of Luton, and named after the road that runs along one end of it, although the official address of the club is 1 Maple Road. Opposite the eponymous Kenilworth Stand is the Oak Road End, once favoured by Luton supporters but now for away fans only. The Main Stand is flanked by the David Preece Stand, and opposite them stands a row of executive boxes. These boxes replaced the Bobbers Stand in 1986, as the club sought to maximise income.
The original Main Stand burnt down in 1921, and was replaced by the current stand before the 1922–23 campaign. The ground underwent extensive redevelopment during the 1930s, and the capacity by the start of the Second World War was 30,000. Floodlights were installed before the 1953–54 season, but it was 20 years before any further modernisation was carried out. In 1973 the Bobbers Stand became all-seated, and in 1985 the grass pitch was replaced with an artificial playing surface; it quickly became unpopular and was derided as "the plastic pitch".
A serious incident involving hooliganism before, during, and after a match against Millwall in 1985 caused the club's then chairman, Conservative MP David Evans, to introduce a scheme effective from the start of 1986–87 banning all visiting supporters from the ground, and requiring home fans to carry identity cards when attending matches. Conversion to an all-seater ground also began in 1986. Away fans returned for 1990–91, and grass a year later. The David Preece Stand was erected in 1991, but the conversion of the Kenilworth Stand to an all-seater was not fully completed until 2005.
The club has made several attempts to relocate, and first stated its intent to do so in 1955. Even then Kenilworth Road was small compared to rival stadiums, and its location ruled out significant redevelopment. Moving to the nearby new town of Milton Keynes was unsuccessfully proposed several times, most notably in the 1980s. The club sold Kenilworth Road to Luton Council in 1989, and has since leased it. A planning application for a new ground, the Kohlerdome proposed by chairman David Kohler in 1995, was turned down by the Secretary of State in 1998, and Kohler left soon after. Most recently, in 2007, the club's owners proposed a controversial plan to relocate to a site near Junction 12 of the M1 motorway, near Harlington and Toddington. A planning application was made on the club's behalf by former chairman Cliff Bassett, but the application was withdrawn almost immediately following the club's takeover in 2008. As of 2012[update], the club is undertaking an independent feasibility study to determine a viable location to move to, although redeveloping Kenilworth Road has not been ruled out. The club entered talks to buy Kenilworth Road back from the council in October 2012. "We are assessing plans to enable us to increase our capacity, and to modernise a part, or parts, of the stadium," wrote managing director Gary Sweet in a match programme.
Supporters and rivalries
Luton Town has significantly higher support than the other clubs in its current league, with an average home attendance of 6,242 in 2010–11, compared to the second highest of 3,390.[A] Average attendances at Kenilworth Road fell with the installation of seats and the club's reduction in stature, dropping from 13,452 in 1982–83 to their 2010–11 level—a slump of 53% over 28 years. The club has two major supporters' groups—the official Luton Town Supporters Club and the breakaway Loyal Luton Supporters Club. There also exists a supporters' trust, affiliated with both clubs, called Trust in Luton, an industrial and provident society which owns shares in the club and elects a representative to the club's board.
The club produces an official match programme for home games, called Talk of the Town. There is also a free fanzine distributed by the local press called Half-time Orange, launched at the start of the 2007–08 season with 10 issues per season. The club mascot is a character known as Happy Harry, who appears on the pitch before matches.
Luton Town supporters maintain a bitter rivalry with Hertfordshire-based Watford. Watford have remained the higher ranked team at the end of every season since 1997 (and for 20 of the last 21 seasons, with only 1996–97 seeing Luton finish higher in the league than Watford). However, overall Luton still hold the superior record in the fixture between the two clubs; out of 118 competitive first-class matches there have been 53 Luton victories and 36 for Watford, with 29 draws. A survey taken in 2003 showed that there was also animosity between Luton Town fans and those of west London club Queens Park Rangers.
Records and statistics
The record for the most appearances for Luton is held by Bob Morton, who turned out for Luton 562 times in all competitions. Morton also holds the record for the most Football League appearances for the club, with 495. Fred Hawkes holds the record for the most league appearances for Luton, having played in 509 league matches. Six players, Gordon Turner, Andy Rennie, Brian Stein, Ernie Simms, Herbert Moody and Steve Howard, have scored more than 100 goals for Luton.
The first player to be capped while playing for Luton was left winger Robert Hawkes, who took to the field for England against Ireland at Goodison Park on 16 February 1907. The most capped player is Mal Donaghy, who earned 58 Northern Ireland caps while at the club. The first player to score in an international match was Joe Payne, who scored twice in his only game for England against Finland on 20 May 1937. Payne also holds the Football League record for the most goals in a game—he hit 10 past Bristol Rovers on 13 April 1936.
The club's largest wins have been a 15–0 victory over Great Yarmouth Town on 21 November 1914 in the FA Cup and a 12–0 win over Bristol Rovers in the League on 13 April 1936. Luton's heaviest loss was a 9–0 defeat against Small Heath in the Second Division on 12 November 1898.
The highest transfer fee received for a Luton Town player is the £3 million West Bromwich Albion paid for Curtis Davies on 31 August 2005. The most expensive player Luton Town have ever bought was Lars Elstrup, who cost £850,000 from Odense Boldklub on 21 August 1989.
- As of 4 December 2013.
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|01 !1||Goalkeeper||Tyler, MarkMark Tyler||England|
|03 !3||Defender||Fitzsimons, DannyDanny Fitzsimons||Ireland|
|04 !4||Midfielder||Smith, JonathanJonathan Smith||England|
|05 !5||Defender||McNulty, SteveSteve McNulty||England|
|06 !6||Defender||Charles, AnthonyAnthony Charles||England|
|07 !7||Midfielder||Lawless, AlexAlex Lawless||Wales|
|08 !8||Midfielder||Taiwo, SolomonSolomon Taiwo||Nigeria|
|09 !9||Forward||Shaw, JonJon Shaw||England|
|10 !10||Forward||Wall, AlexAlex Wall||England|
|11 !11||Midfielder||Howells, JakeJake Howells||Wales|
|12 !12||Defender||Griffiths, ScottScott Griffiths||England|
|13 !13||Forward||Cullen, MarkMark Cullen||England|
|14 !14||Midfielder||Parry, AndrewAndrew Parry||England|
|15 !15||Defender||Ruddock, PellyPelly Ruddock (on loan from West Ham United until 4 January 2014)||England|
|16 !16||Goalkeeper||Justham, ElliotElliot Justham||England|
|19 !19||Defender||Davis, JoeJoe Davis (on loan from Port Vale until 4 January 2014)||England|
|20 !20||Midfielder||Viana, DavidDavid Viana||Portugal|
|21 !21||Midfielder||Guttridge, LukeLuke Guttridge||England|
|22 !22||Midfielder||Whalley, ShaunShaun Whalley||England|
|23 !23||Midfielder||Robinson, MattMatt Robinson||England|
|24 !24||Defender||Mawson, AlfieAlfie Mawson (on loan from Brentford until 4 January 2014)||England|
|25 !25||Defender||Henry, RonnieRonnie Henry (captain)||England|
|26 !26||Forward||Benson, PaulPaul Benson (on loan from Swindon Town until May 2014)||England|
|27 !27||Forward||Gray, AndreAndre Gray||England|
|29 !29||Midfielder||Mendy, ArnaudArnaud Mendy||Guinea-Bissau|
|30 !30||Defender||Lacey, AlexAlex Lacey||England|
|34 !34||Forward||Banton, ZaneZane Banton||England|
|36 !36||Midfielder||Smith, CharlieCharlie Smith||England|
|39 !39||Midfielder||Rees, IanIan Rees||England|
|41 !41||Defender||Chabata, TinasheTinashe Chabata||England|
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|17 !17||Midfielder||O'Donnell, JJJJ O'Donnell (at Hyde until 4 January 2014)||England|
|18 !18||Midfielder||Martin, DaveDave Martin (at Dartford until 20 December 2013)||England|
|28 !28||Midfielder||Stevenson, JimJim Stevenson (at Dartford until 4 January 2014)||England|
|31 !31||Forward||Woolley, JakeJake Woolley (at St Neots Town until 15 December 2013)||England|
|32 !32||Defender||Longden, BrettBrett Longden (at St Neots Town until 9 December 2013)||England|
|33 !33||Defender||Jibodu, JeromeJerome Jibodu (at Boreham Wood until 9 December 2013)||England|
|— !—||Forward||Rendell, ScottScott Rendell (at Woking until 21 December 2013)||England|
|— !—||Defender||Rowe-Turner, LathanielLathaniel Rowe-Turner (at Alfreton Town until 2 January 2014)||England|
Notable former players
- As of 30 July 2013.
- Chairman: Nick Owen
- Managing Director: Gary Sweet
- Directors: Paul Ballantyne, David Blakeman, Bob Curson, David Wilkinson
- Associate Directors: Stephen Browne, Lil Fuccillo, Mike Herrick, Mick Pattinson
- Technical Director: Lil Fuccillo
- Finance Director: Roger Bannister
- Club Secretary: Kevan Platt
- Manager: John Still
- Assistant manager: Terry Harris
- First team coach: Hakan Hayrettin
- Fitness coach: Dave Richardson
- Goalkeeping coach: Jeff Wood
- Youth team coach: Paul Driver
- Head of Youth Football: Wayne Turner
- Youth Operations Manager: Matt Stannard
- Youth Coaching Manager: Lee Cowley
- Kit Manager and Masseur: Darren Cook
- Video Analyst: Andy Parslow
- As of 8 April 2012. Only managers in charge for a minimum of 50 competitive matches are counted.
- Key: M = matches; W = matches won; D = matches drawn; L = matches lost
|McCartney, JohnJohn McCartney||Scotland||14 September 1927||21 December 1929||151||57||38||56||37.7|
|Kay, GeorgeGeorge Kay||England||23 December 1929||13 May 1931||71||29||16||26||40.8|
|Wightman, HaroldHarold Wightman||England||1 June 1931||9 October 1935||198||85||49||64||42.9|
|Liddell, NedNed Liddell||England||13 August 1936||26 February 1938||79||42||11||26||53.2|
|Duncan, DallyDally Duncan||Scotland||13 June 1947||16 October 1958||503||192||133||178||38.1|
|Bartram, SamSam Bartram||England||18 July 1960||14 June 1962||95||35||18||42||36.8|
|Harvey, BillBill Harvey||England||24 July 1962||21 November 1964||121||37||26||58||30.6|
|Martin, GeorgeGeorge Martin||Scotland||16 February 1965||3 November 1966||82||34||16||32||41.5|
|Brown, AllanAllan Brown||Scotland||4 November 1966||17 December 1968||111||56||24||31||50.5|
|Stock, AlecAlec Stock||England||20 December 1968||27 April 1972||172||71||56||45||41.3|
|Haslam, HarryHarry Haslam||England||4 May 1972||23 January 1978||275||110||69||96||40.0|
|Pleat, DavidDavid Pleat||England||24 January 1978||16 May 1986||393||158||108||127||40.2|
|Harford, RayRay Harford||England||16 June 1987||3 January 1990||133||51||34||48||38.3|
|Ryan, JimJim Ryan||Scotland||11 January 1990||13 May 1991||63||18||16||29||28.6|
|Pleat, DavidDavid Pleat||England||7 June 1991||11 June 1995||207||55||70||82||26.5|
|Lawrence, LennieLennie Lawrence||England||21 December 1995||4 July 2000||250||90||66||94||36.0|
|Kinnear, JoeJoe Kinnear||Ireland||8 February 2001||23 May 2003||122||56||28||38||45.9|
|Newell, MikeMike Newell||England||23 June 2003||15 March 2007||200||83||49||68||41.5|
|Harford, MickMick Harford||England||16 January 2008||1 October 2009||91||25||29||37||27.5|
|Money, RichardRichard Money||England||30 October 2009||28 March 2011||83||45||21||17||54.2|
|Brabin, GaryGary Brabin||England||28 March 2011||31 March 2012||62||29||22||11||46.8|
- Luton Town's major honours are detailed below; non-League achievements are omitted. For a list of all club honours, including those won outside The Football League, see List of Luton Town F.C. records and statistics : Honours and achievements.
|Honour||Years as winners||Years as runners-up|
|cup1 !FA Cup||
|cup2 !League Cup||1987–88||1988–89|
|league2 !Football League Second Division||1981–82||1954–55, 1973–74|
|league3 !Football League Third Division / Football League One[B]||1936–37 (South), 2004–05||1935–36 (South), 1969–70|
|league4 !Football League Fourth Division / Football League Third Division[B][C]||1967–68||2001–02|
|trophy1 !Full Members Cup||
|trophy2 !Football League Trophy||2008–09||
- A. ^ Calculated by adding together all the home league attendances for the 2010–11 season to calculate the total attendance (143,562) and then dividing by the number of home league matches (23) to reach an average of 6,241.8, rounded up to 6,242. Attendances taken from BBC report for match that day and Soccerbase statistics.
- B. ^ Before the start of the 2004–05 season, Football League re-branding saw the First Division become the Football League Championship. The Second and Third Divisions became Leagues One and Two, respectively.
- C. ^ On its formation for the 1992–93 season, the FA Premier League became the top tier of English football; the First, Second and Third Divisions then became the second, third and fourth tiers, respectively.
- "Luton Town's Official Matchday Programme". lutontown (Luton Town F.C.). 14 April 2007.
- "Company details". Luton Town F.C. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 1–2.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 55.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 3–4.
- Rundle, Richard. "Football Club History Database – Luton Town". Football Club History Database. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 43.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 11–13.
- "England 1 – Ireland 0". England Stats. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 156.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 22–26.
- Bailey (1997). The Definitive Luton Town F.C. p. 8.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 26–27.
- Moor, Dave. "Luton Town". Historical Football Kits. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Courtney, Barrie (21 March 2004). "England – International Results 1920–1929 – Details". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. p. 27.
- Bailey (1997). The Definitive Luton Town F.C. pp. 92–97.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 46–50.
- "The Football League Goal Records". The Football League. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 74–75.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 41.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. pp. 176–177.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. pp. 114–115.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 130.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. pp. 10–11.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 168.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. pp. 41–42.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. pp. 1–2.
- Hayes (2002). Completely Top Hatters!. p. 31.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 70–74.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 78–82.
- "England Player Honours – Football Writers' Association Footballers of the Year". England Football Online. 19 June 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 95–98.
- Collings (1985). The Luton Town Story 1885–1985. pp. 108–111.
- "Luton Town 1974–1975 : Home". Statto. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- The Listener, Volume 114 (London: BBC). 1985. p. 9. "... Luton has an attractive team led by some of the finest black players in the country, such as Brian Stein, Ricky Hill and the exciting Nigerian Nwajobi. Sometimes half the Luton team has been black."
- Willacy, Gavin (October 2008). "Opportunity knocked". When Saturday Comes (London). Retrieved 2012-03-08. "It is perhaps most alarming that Ramsey's bitterest experience of what he considered racism came at Luton Town, a club who have had probably more black players and a richer history of black stars than any in the country, but who maintain an almost exclusively white fan base."
- Bevan, Chris (3 May 2003). "Classic matches at Maine Road". BBC. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
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