M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
|M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)|
|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||United States|
|In service||Since March 31, 1983|
|Manufacturer||Lockheed Martin, Diehl BGT Defence|
|Weight||55,000 lb (24,950 kg)|
|Length||22 ft 6 in (6.85 m)|
|Width||9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)|
|Height||8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)|
|Rate of fire||Rockets: 12 rounds in < 40 sec
Missiles: 2 rounds in 10 sec
|M269 Launcher Loader Module|
|400 miles (640 km)|
|Speed||40 mph (64.3 km/h)|
Since the first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the United States and in Europe, along with more than 700,000 rockets. The production of the M270 ended in 2003, when a last batch was delivered to the Egyptian army.
The weapon can fire guided and unguided projectiles up to 42 km (26 mi). Firing ballistic missiles, (such as the U.S. Army Tactical Missile System—ATACMS), it can hit targets 300 km (190 mi) away; the warhead in such shots reaches an altitude of about 50 km (164,000 ft). The M270 can be used in shoot-and-scoot tactics, firing its rockets rapidly, then moving away to avoid counter-battery fire. This was where the saying "Shoot, Move, & Communicate" originated. The M270 was later upgraded and is now known as the M270A1 and is much faster to allow for faster shooting and moving out of the area to avoid counter-fire.
MLRS was developed jointly by the United Kingdom, United States, Germany, and France. It was developed from the older General Support Rocket System (GSRS). The M270 MLRS weapons system is collectively known as the M270 MLRS Self-propelled Loader/Launcher (SPLL). The SPLL is composed of 3 primary subsystems: the M269 Loader Launcher Module (LLM), which also houses the electronic Fire Control System, is mated to the M993 Carrier Vehicle. The M993 is a derivative of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle chassis.
The rockets and ATACMS missiles are contained in interchangeable pods. Each pod contains six standard rockets or one guided ATACMS missile; the two types cannot be mixed. The LLM can hold two pods at a time, which are hand-loaded using an integrated winch system. All twelve rockets or two ATACMS missiles can be fired in under a minute. One launcher firing twelve rockets can completely blanket one square kilometer with submunitions. For this reason, the MLRS is sometimes referred to as the "Grid Square Removal System" (metric maps are usually divided up into 1 km grids). The U.S. Army is currently working on developing and fielding unitary (one large warhead instead of submunitions) rocket and ATACMS variants, as well as a guided rocket.
In 2006, MLRS was upgraded to fire guided rounds. Phase I testing of a guided unitary round (XM31) was completed on an accelerated schedule in March 2006. Due to an Urgent Need Statement, the guided unitary round has already been fielded and used in action in Iraq. Lockheed Martin also received a contract to convert existing M30 DPICM GMLRS rockets to the XM31 unitary variant.
Service history 
When first deployed with the U.S. Army, the MLRS was used in a composite battalion consisting of two batteries of traditional artillery (howitzers) and one battery of MLRS SPLLs (self-propelled loader/launchers). The first operational organic or "all MLRS" unit was 4th Bn, 27th Field Artillery, which started training in the winter of 1984 at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Alpha Battery, 4/27th FA (MLRS) was deployed en masse to Peden Barracks at Wertheim, West Germany in April of that year. "Sudden Impact" as it was known by its members fired its first rounds in theater and was considered operational by June of that year. Three other firing batteries soon joined. A Btry 92nd Field Artillery (MLRS) was deployed to the Gulf War in 1990 from Ft.Hood Texas. 3/27th FA (MLRS) out of Ft. Bragg deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield in August 1990. A/21st Field Artillery (MLRS) - 1st Cavalry Division Artillery deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield in September 1990. 6/27th FA (MLRS) deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield in October 1990. In December 1990, A-40th Field Artillery(MLRS) - 3rd Armored Division Artillery (Hanau), 1/27th FA (MLRS) part of the 41st Field Artillery Brigade (Babenhausen) and 4/27th FA (MLRS) (Wertheim) deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield from their bases in Germany and 1/158th Field Artillery from Ft Sill deployed in January 1991.
C Btry 1/27th FA was the first ground unit to fire in support of Operation Desert Storm, firing a missile at approximately 00:40 (12:40am local) In early Feb 91 1/27th FA launched the biggest MLRS night fire mission in history. It has since been used in numerous military engagements including the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In March 2007, the British Ministry of Defence decided to send a troop of MLRS to support ongoing operations in Afghanistan's southern province of Helmand; they will use newly developed guided munitions.
In April 2011, the first modernized MLRS II and M31 GMLRS rocket were handed over to the German Army's Artillery School in Idar Oberstein. The German Army operates the M31 rocket up to a range of 90 km.
MLRS rockets and missiles 
The M270 system can fire MLRS Family Of Munition (MFOM) rockets and artillery missiles, which are manufactured and used by a number of platforms and countries. These include:
- M26 (United States): Rocket with 644 M77 Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM) submunitions, range of 32 km.
- M26A1 (United States): Extended Range Rocket (ERR), with range of 45 km and 518 M85 submunitions (an improved version of the M77 DPICM submunition).
- M26A2 (United States): As M26A1, but using M77 submunitions.
- M27 (United States): Completely inert training Launch Pod/Container to allow full loading cycle training.
- M28 (United States): Training rocket. M26 with three ballast containers and three smoke marking containers in place of submunition payload.
- M28A1 (United States): Reduced Range Practice Rocket (RRPR) with blunt nose. Range reduced to 9 km.
- XM29 (United States): Rocket with Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) submunitions. Not standardized.
- M30 (United States): Guided MLRS (GMLRS). A precision guided rocket, range over 60 km, in pre-production, with a standard load of 404 M85 submunitions.
- M31 (United States): Guided Unitary MLRS. Variant of the M30 with a unitary high-explosive warhead for use in urban and mountainous terrain.
- M39 (MGM-140) (United States): Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS). A large guided missile using the M270 launcher, with a variety of warheads.
- XM135 (United States): Rocket with binary chemical warhead (VX (nerve agent)). Not standardized.
- AT2 (Germany, UK, France): SCATMIN Rocket with 28 anti-tank mines and range of 38 km.
- PARS SAGE-227 F (Turkey): Experimental Guided MLRS (GMLRS) developed by TUBITAK-SAGE to replace the M26 rockets.
Selected rocket specifications 
- Caliber: 227 mm (8.94 in)
- Length: 3.94 m (12.93 ft)
- Motor: Solid-fuel rocket
|M26||306 kg (675 lb)||32 km (20 mi)||644 M77 DPICM submunitions|
|M26A1/A2||296 kg (650 lb)||over 45 km (28 mi)||M26A1: 518 M85 DPICM submunitions
M26A2: 518 M77 DPICM submunitions
|M30/M31||60 km (37 miles)||GPS/INS||M30: 404 M85 DPICM submunitions
M31: 90 kg (200 lb) unitary HE
|AT2 SCATMIN||254 kg (561 lb)||39 km (24 mi)|
|PARS SAGE-227 F||over 300 kg/160 kg||70 km (43 mi)|
M993 Launcher specifications 
- Entered service: 1982 (U.S. Army)
- First used in action: 1991 (First Gulf War)
- Crew: 3
- Weight loaded: 24,756 kg
- Length: 22 ft 6 in
- Width: 9 ft 9 in 
- Height (stowed): 2.57 m (8 ft 5 in)
- Height (max elevation): not available
- Max road speed: 64 km/h
- Cruise range: 480 km
- Reload time: 4 min (M270) 3 min (M270A1)
- Engine: Turbo-charged V8 Cummins VTA903 diesel 500 hp ver2.
- Crossdrive turbo transmission fully electronically controlled
- Average unit cost: $2.3 million
- Bahrain: Royal Bahraini Army (9)
- Egypt: Egyptian Army (48)
- Finland: Finnish Army (21 + 1 burned, called 298 RsRakH (Raskas RaketinHeitin) 06, literally "heavy rocket launcher")
- France: French Army (44)
- Germany: German Army (called MARS Mittleres Artillerie Raketen System) (50+202)
- Greece: Hellenic Army (36)
- Israel: Israel Defense Forces (48)(called "Menatetz" מנתץ, "Smasher")
- Italy: Italian Army (22)
- Japan: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (99)
- Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Army (no longer in service; sold to Finnish Army) (22)
- Norway: Norwegian Army (12) (no longer in active service)
- South Korea: Republic of Korea Army (58)
- Turkey: Turkish Army (12)
- United Kingdom: Royal Artillery (42)
- United States: United States Army (840+151)
US military operators refer to the M270 as "the commander's personal shotgun" or as "battlefield buckshot." It is also commonly referred to as the "Gypsy Wagon", because crews store additional equipment, such as camouflage netting, cots, coolers, and personal items, on top of the vehicle as the launcher itself lacks adequate storage space for the crew. Within the British military, a common nickname is "Grid Square Removal System", a play on the initialism GSRS (from the older General Support Rocket System). With the adoption of the new M30 GPS guided rocket, it is now being referred to as the "70 kilometer sniper rifle."  During the 1991 Gulf War, the Iraqis referred to the small M77 submunitions rockets as the "Steel Rain."
See also 
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (August 2012)|
- M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System - MLRS, GlobalSecurity.org
- Federation of American Scientists M270 MLRS Self-Propelled Loader/Launcher (SPLL)
- Ben Rooney, "Tank-busting helicopters ready for action", Daily Telegraph, April 21, 1999.
- "Guided MLRS Unitary Rocket Successfully Tested", Microwave Journal, Vol. 49, No. 3 (March 2006), page 39.
- "Lockheed Gets $16.6M to Convert MLRS Rockets, Asked to Speed Up GMLRS Production (updated)", Defense Industry Daily, August 2, 2006.
- Janes.com: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann 155 mm/52 calibre Artillery Gun Module (AGM) (Germany), Self-propelled guns and howitzers (tracked)
- "USA Moves to Update Its M270 Rocket Launchers."
-  "MLRS Gridsmashers - First Combat Fire (Historic)"], YouTube video, 13 February 1991
- "Rollout MARS II und GMLRS Unitary" (in (German)). Bwb.org. 2012-07-26. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- Guided Unitary MLRS Rocket, Lockheed Martin, retrieved: 30 March 2010
- "Lockheed Martin MLRS Rockets (M26/M30/M31)". Designation-systems.net. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- Army Technology - MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System - Specifications
- 227mm Multiple Launched Rocket System (MLRS)
- M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System - MLRS / M270 Specifications GlobalSecurity.org
- [dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Multiple Launch Rocket System|
- Lockheed US MLRS at Army-Technology.com
- British MLRS
- Designation Systems
- Diehl BGT—German developer and manufacturer of GMLRS (site in English)
- Danish M270 MLRS