|Panhard AML 60/90|
Panhard AML 90 armoured car at Saumur armour museum
|Type||Light armoured car|
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||numerous, see text|
|Wars||Portuguese Colonial War, Rhodesian Bush War, Six Day War, Mozambican War of Independence, Western Sahara War, Angolan Civil War, Falklands War, Lebanese Civil War, Border patrols during Northern Ireland Troubles.|
|Number built||over 4,000|
|Variants||AML 60, AML 90, AML 20, M3|
|AML 60: 60 mm breech loading mortar
AML 90: 90 mm GIAT F1 gun
AML 20: 20 mm G12 cannon
|2 × 7.62 mm MG|
|Engine||Panhard 1.99 l (121 cu in) Model 4 HD flat 4-cylinder air-cooled petrol
•90 hp at 4,700 rpm
•compression ratio 7.5:1
|Ground clearance||330 mm|
The Panhard AML (called the AML 245 by Panhard) 60/90 is a light armoured car with permanent 4×4 drive for mobility. It can carry either a 90 mm quick firing low pressure gun, or a 60 mm breech loading mortar as main weapons. Night vision equipment enables night time operations, and it is provided with a modern telecommunications system.
Production history 
During the 1950s, the French Army used the Daimler Ferret in large numbers but decided to build their own armoured car and Panhard started the production of the AML in 1960. Since then over 4000 vehicles have been completed and manufacture continues for the export market. The AML 60/90 have been sold to over 30 countries. In addition to the French production, 1300 AML 60/90 were built under licence by South Africa under the name of Eland 60/90.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) version was also developed, the Panhard M3. The M3 and the AML share 95% of working parts, encouraging many countries to employ both the M3 and the AML in order to reduce operational costs.
All Irish Army versions were re-engined with diesel engines.
Fitted with coil spring suspension and drum brakes, the AML lacks hydraulic assist on either brakes or steering; only front wheels steer. It also uses nitrogen-filled inner tubes (in this case Hutchinson V.P.-P.V.s), similar to the EBR, providing run-flat capability, on 16 in (41 cm)-diameter wheels; these its 11 in (280 mm)-wide Michelin tires can be deflated to reduce ground pressure to as low as 70 to 110 kPa (10 to 16 psi).
All the versions have a common configuration: the driver is seated in front with a two-seater turret on top. There is a door on each side and the power unit in the back.
- AML 60: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 7.62 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-7: 60 mm breech loading mortar and 2 × 12.7 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-12: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 12.7 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-20: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 20 mm cannon
- AML 60 S530: self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon with dual 20 mm cannons used in Venezuela
- AML 90: 90 mm gun
- AML 90 Lynx: Hispano-Suiza designed turret with a 90 mm GIAT F1 gun, night equipment of vision, and telemeters laser
- Eland 60: South African version of the AML 60 HE60-7
- Eland 90: South African version of the AML 90
- AML 20: Irish Army version which replaced the AML 60 armament with a 20mm cannon.
- Panhard M3: An armoured personnel carrier variant of the Panhard AML.
Combat history 
In the Falklands War, the Argentines deployed 12 AML-90s from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 181 (181st Armoured Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron) and an unknown additional number from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 10 near Port Stanley. During the Battle of Wireless Ridge the only armour versus armour engagement of the war was fought when these units encountered FV101 Scorpions and FV107 Scimitars of the Blues and Royals. The AML-90s were abandoned in Stanley after the conflict ended.
AML 90s where used in by El Salvadoran Army against communist insurgents during the 80s and early 90s.
AMLs of the Irish Army (under UNIFIL) were involved in actions against Lebanese militia armour at Atiri in South Lebanon in 1980. Two Irish servicemen received one of Ireland's highest military honours, the Military Medal for Gallantry, for their actions at Atiri.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
- Algeria: 55/44 AML-60
- Argentina: 48 AML-90
- Bahrain: 48, 22 AML-90 and 26 AML-60
- Benin: 22
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 12
- Burkina Faso: 15
- Burundi: 18
- Cameroon: 100
- Chad: 50
- Côte d'Ivoire: 16, 8 AML-90 and 6 AML-60
- Colombia: 40 units with the colombian national police.
- COD 40+
- Djibouti: 24
- Gabon: 24
- Ecuador: 27
- El Salvador: 10 AML-90
- Iraq: 10
- Kenya: 72
- Lebanon: 70, 60 AML-90 in service with the Lebanese Army, between 1976 and 1990.
- Lesotho: 10
- Malawi: 13
- Malaysia: 140 AML-60
- Mauritania: 60, 39 AML-90 and 20 AML-60
- Mexico 45
- Morocco: 230, 140 AML-90 and 38 AML-60
- Nigeria: 180, 120 AML-90 and 60 AML-60
- Niger: 125
- Portugal: 40, 15 AML-90 and 32 AML-60
- Rwanda: 12 AML-60
- Saudi Arabia: 300/235
- Senegal: 57, 24 AML-90 and 28 AML-60
- South Africa: 118 Eland Mk7
- Sudan: 6 AML-90
- Togo: 10
- Tunisia: 35, 20 AML-90 and 10 AML-60
- United Arab Emirates: 50, 49 AML-90
- Venezuela: 22
- Yemen: 185
- Zimbabwe: 28 Eland Mk7
Former Operators 
- Cambodia: unknown number of AML-60s and AML-90s in service between 1960-1975.
- FNLA: at least 2 unknown AML models equipped with 76mm cannons; saw service during the Angolan Civil War.
- Ethiopia 56 AML-60
- Rhodesia: 34 Eland 90s and Eland 60s in service with the Rhodesian Security Forces in 1979, passed on to successor state.
In the James Bond film The Living Daylights, two Panhard AMLs (used to portray Soviet Army vehicles) pursue Afghan Mujahadeen fighters. In fact these were Panhard AMLs belonging to the Royal Moroccan Army (FAR). The Mujahadeen were portrayed by Moroccan soldiers.
- Nachum Baruchy: The Hare'l (10th) Armoured Brigade In The Six Day War. Ariel Publishing, Jerusalem. 2010 (In Hebrew). Baruchy States that the 10th Brigade had one company (9 vehicles) of Panhard AML's.
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars (Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications).
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 52.
- Van der Bijl, Nicholas (2005) , Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Osprey Publishing, p. 23, ISBN 1-85532-227-7
- "David Thompkins Interview". GWU. 14 February 1999. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Locke & Cooke, Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia (1995), p. 100.
- Christopher F. Foss, Jane's Tank and Combat Vehicle Recognition Guide, HarperCollins Publishers, London 2002. ISBN 0-00-712759-6
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars. Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications.
- Peter Gerard Locke & Peter David Farquharson Cooke, Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia 1965-80, P&P Publishing, Wellington 1995 ISSN 0-473-02413-6
- Steven J. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2): The wars of 1973 to the present, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 2003. ISBN 962-361-613-9
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Panhard AML|