Marcia McNutt

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Marcia McNutt
Marcia McNutt.jpg
Born (1952-02-19) February 19, 1952 (age 62)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Institutions United States Geological Survey;
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute;
Stanford University;
University of California, Santa Cruz;
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Alma mater Colorado College
University of California, San Diego

Marcia Kemper McNutt (born February 19, 1952) is an American geophysicist who is editor-in-chief of the journal Science.[1] McNutt holds a visiting appointment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and she is the chair of the Geoengineering Climate committee of the National Academy of Sciences.[2]

McNutt was director of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and science adviser to the United States Secretary of the Interior. Prior to working for USGS, McNutt was president and chief executive officer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, an oceanographic research center in the United States, professor of marine geophysics at the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences and professor of marine geophysics at University of California, Santa Cruz.

Family and education[edit]

McNutt's father was a small business owner and her mother was a college-educated homemaker. In an interview with the National Academy of Sciences, McNutt said that in their household, women’s education was a tradition and a norm, and that her parents encouraged McNutt and her sisters academically.[3]

She was valedictorian of her class at the Northrop Collegiate School (now The Blake School), graduating in 1970. She received a bachelor's degree in physics summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa, from Colorado College in 1973. As a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow, she then studied geophysics at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography where she earned a PhD in earth sciences in 1978.[4] Her dissertation was titled Continental and Oceanic Isostasy.[5] McNutt is a NAUI-certified scuba diver and she trained in underwater demolition and explosives handling with the U.S. Navy UDT and Seal Team.[5][6]

McNutt is one of six women scientists featured in the 1995 PBS (WGBH-TV) series, "Discovering Women."[7] How she excelled in science with a household of young daughters and the help of housekeeper Ann and her daughter is described by Jocelyn Steinke in "A portrait of a woman as a scientist: breaking down barriers created by gender-role stereotypes".[8]

McNutt has three daughters, two of whom are identical twins.[9] Her daughter, Ashley Hoffmann, was "Miss Rodeo California" in 2009.[10] McNutt is a horse enthusiast and enjoys barrel racing on her mare Lulu.[10]

McNutt's first husband died in 1988. McNutt and Ian Young, an MBARI ship's captain, were married in 1996.[11][12]

Early years[edit]

After a brief appointment at the University of Minnesota, McNutt worked for three years on earthquake prediction at the US Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. In 1982, she became assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and in 1988 was appointed Griswold Professor of Geophysics. She served as director of the Joint Program in Oceanography and Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, a cooperative effort of MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.[4]

Research[edit]

She participated in 15 major oceanographic expeditions and served as chief scientist on more than half of them.[13] She published about 100 peer-reviewed scientific articles.[13][14] Her research has included studies of ocean island volcanism in French Polynesia, continental break-up in the Western United States, and uplift of the Tibet plateau.[15]

McNutt has made notable contributions to the understanding of the rheology and strength of the lithosphere. She showed that young volcanoes could flex the lithosphere, influencing the elevation of nearby volcanoes, and used a 3-D analysis of topography and gravity data to show that the Australian plate could be strong on short time scales and weak on long scales. She also showed how subducting ocean plates could weaken and identified a large topographic feature called the South Pacific superswell.[16][17]

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute[edit]

collection of small buildings on the Pacific coast
MBARI was founded and privately funded by David Packard to be the "NASA of the oceans".[18]

McNutt was president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) from 1997 to 2009.[19][20] During that time the RV Western Flyer, MBARI's research vessel, made expeditions from Canada to Baja California and the Hawaiian Islands.[21] MBARI built the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS), the first deep-sea cabled observatory in the continental United States.[21]

U.S. Geological Survey[edit]

Appointment[edit]

waist-high portrait, seated in front of microphone, blond hair, light blue top, daughter half visible and half cut off at left
McNutt and daughter Dana at left during confirmation hearing by the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

In July 2009, McNutt was announced as President Obama's nominee to be the next director of the United States Geological Survey and science adviser to the United States Secretary of the Interior.[22] The Senate unanimously approved her nomination on October 21.[23] She is the first woman director of USGS since its establishment in 1879.[22] Secretary Ken Salazar endorsed McNutt for the position.[22] In a television interview following Obama's announcement, McNutt said:

Many other countries are far ahead of the U.S., in installing wind farms, installing solar panels, moving to alternate energies, and in preparing their populations for the decision-making necessary to cope with climate change.[24]

BP oil spill[edit]

Aerial photograph of the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana showing extent of oil spill in May 2010
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill. McNutt headed the Flow Rate Technical Group who determined the extent of the spill.

During her first year, four major events impacted USGS in quick succession: a magnitude 7.0 earthquake in Haiti, an 8.0 earthquake in Chile, the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and the BP oil spill.[25]

In May 2010, McNutt headed the Flow Rate Technical Group which attempted to measure the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.[26] Preliminary reports from the group said that the rate of the oil spill was at least twice and possibly up to five times as much as previously acknowledged.[27] Subsequent estimates, based on six independent methodologies,[28] were four times the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.[29] A refined estimate based on new pressure readings, data, and analysis, released by the United States Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and McNutt in August, said that 4.9 million barrels (with uncertainty of plus or minus approximately 10 percent) of oil had leaked from the well until it was capped on July 15.[30] The disaster was the largest ever accidental spill of oil into marine waters.[31]

In a two-day deposition during October 2012, McNutt was questioned by lawyers for BP, for the Justice Department, for plaintiffs, and for the Gulf states.[32][33] Subject to approval by U.S. federal courts, BP agreed to a settlement in November 2012 in which the company pleaded guilty to felony charges of misconduct or neglect concerning eleven deaths at the explosion site. The company agreed to pay US$4.5 billion including US$1.256 billion in criminal fines.[34] As of 2012, BP may still be liable for US$5.4 to US$31 billion in civil fines under the Clean Water Act and Oil Pollution Act.[35]

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility[edit]

American flag and group of four or five speakers at a podium in front of audience including a Native American in headdress
McNutt at Grand Canyon National Park with Secretary Salazar and other officials to mark an extended moratorium on uranium mining.

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) filed a lawsuit against the Department of the Interior and a complaint about a NOAA scientist in the Flow Rate Technical Group which McNutt led. The group felt that government scientists understated the flow rate of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.[36][37][38]

USGS peer review process[edit]

McNutt participated in the reversal of a 2006 USGS policy that required agency scientists to submit their work to two internal reviewers and obtain a sign-off from a higher level official before submitting their work to external journals who then applied their own peer-review process. Scientists can now have both internal and external reviews simultaneously and the internal process is reduced to one internal review plus sign-off by the USGS Office of Science Quality and Integrity.[39]

Afghan mineral wealth[edit]

In September 2011, a USGS team including Jack H. Medlin, Said Mirzad, Stephen G. Peters and Robert D. Tucker[40] published a report[41] which they presented at the Afghan embassy in Washington, DC, detailing 57 information packages about Areas of Interest (AOIs) that total at least 1,000,000 metric tons of untapped mineral deposits they have found in Afghanistan.[42] Scientific American speculated that replacing "opium and Taliban strongholds with a mining bonanza" could "change U.S. foreign policy and world stability".[40] This report, which points to resources that The New York Times said in 2010 were worth $1 trillion,[43] was put into the public domain.[40] McNutt said at the time:[44]

There is always increased risk for commercial ventures investing in new mining facilities in frontier areas such as Afghanistan, but by putting our information on the locations and estimated quantities and grades of ores in the public domain, we lower that risk, spurring progress.[44]

Map of Jupiter's moon Io[edit]

Complete geological surface map of Io, released online in 2012

In 2011 and online in 2012, USGS released a geologic surface map[45] of Jupiter's moon Io, which is the most volcanically active body in our solar system, about twenty-five times more active than earth. David Williams of Arizona State University was the project lead. The maps are made of the best images from NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 missions (acquired in 1979) as well as the spacecraft Galileo (1995–2003) named for Galileo Galilei who discovered Jupiter's moons in 1610.[46] McNutt said:[47]

More than 130 years after the USGS first began producing quality geologic maps here on Earth, it is exciting to have the reach of our science extend across 400 million miles to this volcanically active moon of Jupiter. Somehow it makes the vast expanse of space seem less forbidding to know that similar geologic processes which have shaped our planet are active elsewhere.[47]

Animal extinction and disease[edit]

The Hawaiian Islands lost another species

In 2012, USGS declared the blue-tailed skink named Emoia impar extinct because none have been observed in their home the Hawaiian Islands since the 1960s.[48] McNutt, quoted by John Platt for Scientific American, said:

No other landscape in these United States has been more impacted by extinction events and species invasions in historic times than the Hawaiian Islands, with as-yet unknown long-term cascading consequences to the ecosystem.[48]

In a press release, McNutt introduced a lecture by David Blehert, a USGS research scientist, speaking on white nose syndrome which may afflict six species of North American bats and may have "far-reaching ecological consequences":[49]

...they are in a race against time to find a way to manage this scourge before it is too late for these under-appreciated little mammals.[49]

McNutt commented on work by lead researcher Carol Meteyer and others from the USGS National Wildlife Health Center and the National Institutes of Health in November 2012:

...The potential discovery of IRIS in bats infected with white-nose syndrome is incredibly significant in terms of understanding both the reasons for bat mortality and basic immune response. This discovery could also prove significant for studies on treatment for AIDS.[50]

Federal "Big Data" initiative[edit]

McNutt spoke on a panel of leaders of US agencies (OSTP, NSF, NIH, DOE, DOD, DARPA and USGS) who rolled out the Obama administration's "Big Data Research and Development Initiative."[51] Tom Kalil of the Office of Science and Technology Policy said, "By improving our ability to extract knowledge and insights from large and complex collections of digital data, the initiative promises to help accelerate the pace of discovery in science and engineering, strengthen our national security, and transform teaching and learning."[52] USGS announced the latest awardees for grants it issues through its John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis.[53]

Energy: fossil fuels, fracking and biofuel[edit]

Reuters reported that USGS released into the public domain a new estimate of the world's oil and gas resources, the first such report since 2000.[54] Excluding the U.S. the USGS found: "565 billion barrels of conventional oil and 5,606 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in 171 priority geologic provinces of the world".[55] The report said about 75% of the resources are in four places: South America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and the North American Arctic. "In particular, this assessment underscores the importance of continuing to strengthen our energy partnerships in the Western Hemisphere with nations like Brazil..." said secretary Salazar.[56]

Bloomberg News reported that during her testimony in March 2012, McNutt told the United States House Committee on Natural Resources that "less than 1 percent of wells drilled to dispose of the water after fracking causes 'induced seismicity'. McNutt said more information would reduce the risk of induced earthquakes in a year or two. She said:[57]

It's a very solvable problem. You either have to put the holes in a different place, or pump it at a different rate.[57]

United Press International reported in March 2012 that USGS has developed a tool that can map grasslands using remote sensing data from satellites. The technique will help if and when global demand for biofuel products increases as an alternative to fossil fuels. McNutt said in a statement that the study:

takes some of the guesswork out of deciding whether it could be feasible to raise a potentially high value crop for biofuels on America's grasslands.[58]

Earthquakes: hazard reduction, drill, research[edit]

In cooperation with the Department of Veterans Affairs, USGS continued to monitor and record in detail the performance of veterans hospital buildings during earthquakes. Recently, two buildings were fitted with sensors at the Memphis VA Medical Center which is within the range of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, the most active earthquake zone in the Eastern United States. USGS works with the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) led by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) both to monitor buildings during earthquake events and to help design safer hospitals in the future.[59]

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission launch in February 2013

On October 18, 2012, McNutt, Bill Leith of USGS and Michael Mahoney of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continued earthquake practice at the ShakeOut at the Langston Hughes Middle School in Reston, Virginia. Participants learn to "drop, cover, and hold on" to protect themselves during an earthquake. Millions of people have participated since the event started in 2008.[60][61] "Going through drills makes it second nature for the students in the event of an actual emergency," McNutt said of The Great American Shake-Out event held in February 2013 in eight US states that border on the New Madrid Seismic Zone.[62]

USGS promised up to US$7 million in grants for earthquake research in 2013. The agency has funded about 90 such grants which, for example, cataloged southern California earthquakes to better prepare emergency responders, the public and the media. Projects also provided seismic hazard estimates for safer buildings and roads, and provided data on ground shaking to help minimize damage.[63]

Landsat[edit]

NASA and USGS launched Landsat 8 on February 11, 2013, to continue their 40-year record of providing images for land use and climate change (about 9 million images as of 2013). McNutt wrote that Landsat 8 enhances USGS's position as land steward for the United States.[64]

Departure[edit]

McNutt directed USGS from 2009 until 2013, when she announced her departure to USGS staff members. She said at the time that she would leave after the launch of Landsat 8 and that Suzette Kimball would serve as the acting director.[64]

Exit summary[edit]

McNutt's announcement included a 21-point summary of her tenure which she prepared for Secretary Salazar.[64] Among achievements listed were realignment of USGS management, eight "DOI Climate Science Centers", the "first national water census on water use and availability", a California prototype of Earthquake Early Warning, publication of the "first two of the biological carbon sequestration reports", and various means of "advancing US energy independence".[64]

Science tenure[edit]

Open access: Science Advances[edit]

As editor in chief, McNutt led the editorial team at Science in their decision to enter the world of open access publishing. Beginning in 2015, they expect to publish several thousand articles per year in the online only, open access journal Science Advances (compared to Science which can publish less than one thousand per year, accepting about 6% of submissions). McNutt told Library Journal that they were searching for a solution to licensing, perhaps one license acceptable to all authors or perhaps offering a menu of licenses so each community can choose.[65]

Keystone XL[edit]

Truck hauling 36-Inch pipe to build Keystone-Cushing Pipeline (Phase 2) south-east of Peabody, Kansas, 2010

McNutt initially sided with environmentalists who opposed approval of the Keystone Pipeline. In an interview for NPR's Morning Edition in 2014, she explained why she changed her mind and published an editorial in favor.[66] First, the oil is already being transported for example by truck and train, using more fossil fuels than the pipeline would use. Second, she thinks concessions can be made in exchange for approving the pipeline, for example requiring a limit on carbon emissions when converting the tar sands to liquid for transport in the pipeline, and demanding that the pipeline be the safest ever built. Finally, because the pipeline is the very least expensive mode of transport, she found a potential revenue stream in the money saved by the pipeline which she thinks should be used to fund renewable energy in the U.S.[67][68]

Climate engineering[edit]

California in 2014

Several U.S. agencies including the Central Intelligence Agency requested that the U.S. government study climate engineering and so the committee that McNutt chairs was born of the National Academy of Sciences.[69] Ken Caldeira, who also sits on the committee, and David Keith are eager to try out ideas, in part spurred by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funded by Bill Gates who is an enthusiast of climate engineering research. McNutt cautioned that government-sponsored field tests "may not happen".[69]

Li and McNutt met at Ziguangge (the hall of purple lights) in Zhongnanhai in 2014

"Whether we wind up using these technologies, or someone else does and we suddenly find ourselves in a geo-engineered world, we have to better understand the impacts and the consequences."[69]

Meeting with Li Keqiang in China[edit]

Premier of the People's Republic of China, Li Keqiang requested a meeting with McNutt, as editor in chief of Science, to discuss science as part of her trip to China in January 2014. The meeting was scheduled for 30 minutes and the rules specified no US reporters present and the topics of "science and the economy, not politics".[70] They talked on 13 January at Ziguangge, Zhongnanhai in Beijing. Li answered questions from McNutt about space exploration, China's scientific cooperation with other developing countries, climate change, education, and environmental protection. Science published a transcript of the 70 minute meeting.[71]

Statistical review[edit]

With a goal to improve the reproducibility of its published research, McNutt announced in 2014 that Science had added statistical checks to its peer-review process.[72] Based on collaboration with the American Statistical Association, the journal appointed seven experts to a Statistics Board of Reviewing who are responsible for securing outside statisticians to review potential Science articles.[73]

Awards and honors[edit]

Photo on a light pole of a woman smiling in front of Visitor Information booth, lots of trees
A photo of McNutt (shown at the school's Gilman Entrance) was part of the University of California, San Diego celebration of 50 Years 50 Leaders.

McNutt is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is a fellow for the American Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the International Association of Geodesy. She chaired the President’s Panel on Ocean Exploration under President Bill Clinton. She serves on evaluation and advisory boards for institutions including the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Stanford University, Harvard University and Science magazine.[13] In 1988, McNutt won the Macelwane Medal from the American Geophysical Union, presented for outstanding research by a young scientist, and in 2007 she won the AGU's Maurice Ewing Medal for her contributions to deep-sea exploration and her leadership role in the ocean sciences.[4][16]

She is a past president of the American Geophysical Union (2000–2002).[4] In 2002, Discover magazine named McNutt one of the top fifty women in science.[74] In 2003 she was named Scientist of the Year by the ARCS Foundation.[4] She holds honorary doctorates from the University of Minnesota and Colorado College and was recognized as Outstanding Alumni in 2004 by the University of California, San Diego.[4] McNutt chaired the board of governors of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions which merged to become Consortium for Ocean Leadership for which she was trustee.[15]

McNutt is a member of the USA Science & Engineering Festival's Nifty Fifty, a collection of the most influential scientists and engineers in the United States that are dedicated to reinvigorating the interest of young people in science and engineering.[75]

Selected publications[edit]

  • — (1998). "Superswells". Reviews of Geophysics 36 (2): 211. Bibcode:1998RvGeo..36..211M. doi:10.1029/98RG00255. 
  • —; Camilli, R.; Crone, T. J.; Guthrie, G. D.; Hsieh, P. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Savas, O.; Shaffer, F. (2011). "Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (50): 20260–20267. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10920260M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1112139108. 
  • —; Chu, S.; Lubchenco, J.; Hunter, T.; Dreyfus, G.; Murawski, S. A.; Kennedy, D. M. (2012). "Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (50): 20222–20228. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10920222M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1214389109. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gramling, Carolyn (April 2, 2013). "Marcia McNutt Bringing Her 'Intellectual Energy' to Science". Science Insider (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Retrieved April 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Committee membership: Geoengineering Climate". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved March 11, 2014. 
  3. ^ "InterViews: Marcia McNutt". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved October 19, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Marcia McNutt". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute via Internet Archive. July 9, 2009. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-30, September 5, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Marcia McNutt: Curriculum Vitae". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2009-07-30, September 5, 2010. 
  6. ^ Perlman, David and Fimrite, Peter (July 11, 2009). "Obama taps Californians for parks, geology jobs". San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications). Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  7. ^ Ball, Charles H. (March 22, 1995). "Faculty member, alumna among WGBH's 'Discovering Women'". MIT Tech Talk via MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  8. ^ Steinke, Jocelyn (1997). "A portrait of a woman as a scientist: breaking down barriers created by gender-role stereotypes" (PDF). Public Understanding of Science (Institute of Physics, jointly with the Science Museum, London) 6. ISSN 0963-6625. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
  9. ^ Lubick, Naomi (July 2005). "Marcia McNutt: Oceangoing geophysicist". Geotimes. American Geological Institute. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  10. ^ a b Winter, Allison (June 16, 2010). "USGS Director Quietly Wages 'Fearless' War on Oil Spill". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Marcia Kemper McNutt Receives 2007 Maurice Ewing Medal". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  12. ^ Brinkerhoff, Noel and Wallechinsky, David. "United States Geological Survey: Who is Marcia McNutt?". AllGov.com. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts" (Press release). The White House. July 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  14. ^ "Marcia McNutt: Publications". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Retrieved 2009-07-30. [dead link]
  15. ^ a b "Salazar Applauds President Obama’s Intent to Nominate Dr. Marcia McNutt as Director of the U.S. Geological Survey" (Press release). United States Department of the Interior. July 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  16. ^ a b Watts, Anthony B. "2007 Maurice Ewing Medal Winner: Marcia Kemper McNutt". Medals, Awards & Prizes. American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  17. ^ McNutt, Marcia K. and Fischer, Karen M. (1987). "The South Pacific Superswell in Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls". In Keating, Barbara H. Geophysical Monograph (American Geophysical Union) 43: 25. Bibcode:1987GMS....43...25M. doi:10.1029/gm043p0025. ISBN 978-0-87590-068-1. Retrieved October 31, 2011. 
  18. ^ NASA earth science : hearing before the Committee on Science, House of Representatives. U.S. Government Printing Office via Google Books. April 28, 2005. p. 51. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  19. ^ "MBARI President and CEO Marcia McNutt to be nominated as Director of U.S. Geological Survey". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. July 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  20. ^ "MBARI Announces New President". KSBW (Internet Broadcasting Systems). November 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  21. ^ a b "Secretary Salazar Applauds Senate’s Confirmation of Dr. Marcia McNutt as Director of the U.S. Geological Survey" (Press release). U.S. Department of the Interior. October 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  22. ^ a b c Stephens, Tim (July 15, 2009). "MBARI president Marcia McNutt to be nominated as director of U.S. Geological Survey". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  23. ^ Straub, Noelle (October 22, 2009). "Senate Confirms Nominees for Interior, DOE". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  24. ^ Marcia McNutt speaking to Karina Rusk (July 10, 2009). Marcia McNutt to head USGS. KGO-TV (ABC). Event occurs at 1:14. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  25. ^ McNutt, Marcia (December 18, 2010). "A year on the job, she takes pride in disaster response". Science News (Society for Science & the Public). Retrieved January 1, 2011. 
  26. ^ Tapper, Jake (May 24, 2010). "Today’s Qs for O’s WH - 5/24/10". ABC News. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  27. ^ Robertson, Campbell (May 27, 2010). "Estimates Suggest Spill Is Biggest in U.S. History". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Admiral Allen, Dr. McNutt Provide Updates on Progress of Scientific Teams Analyzing Flow Rates from BP’s Well" (Press release). U.S. Department of the Interior. June 10, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2010. 
  29. ^ Boxall, Bettina (June 10, 2010). "Gulf oil spill: Oil spill rate could be double previous estimate, government says". The Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved June 10, 2010. 
  30. ^ "U.S. Scientific Teams Refine Estimates of Oil Flow from BP’s Well Prior to Capping" (Press release). U.S. Department of the Interior. August 2, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 
  31. ^ Robertson, Campbell and Krauss, Clifford (August 2, 2010). "Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 
  32. ^ Weber, Harry R. (October 22, 2012). "USGS head to be questioned in oil spill deposition". Fuel Fix (Hearst). Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  33. ^ Weber, Harry R. (November 14, 2012). "After BP spill, information trickled as oil gushed". Houston Chronicle (Hearst). Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  34. ^ Fowler, Tom (November 15, 2012). "BP to Plead Guilty to Felonies, Pay $4.5 Billion in Spill". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones). Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  35. ^ Krauss, Clifford, and Schwartz, John (November 15, 2012). "BP Will Plead Guilty and Pay Over $4 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Lawsuit to Unravel Varying BP Spill Estimates" (Press release). Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility. September 16, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Interior Dept.to be Sued Over Oil Spill Emails". CBS News. September 15, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  38. ^ Sheppard, Kate (January 23, 2012). "Report: White House Pressured Scientists to Underestimate BP Spill Size". Mother Jones (Mother Jones and the Foundation for National Progress). Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  39. ^ Tollefson, Jeff (July 26, 2011). "US federal agency loosens peer-review rules". Nature News (Macmillan). Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b c Simpson, Sarah (September 22, 2011). "Afghanistan's Buried Riches". Scientific American. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  41. ^ "USGS Projects in Afghanistan: About the Mineral Resource Information Packages". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  42. ^ Quinones, Manuel (September 20, 2011). "RARE EARTHS: USGS Details Afghanistan Find". Greenwire (Meridian Institute). Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  43. ^ Risen, James (June 13, 2010). "U.S. Identifies Vast Mineral Riches in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  44. ^ a b The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, USGS, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Mines and Afghanistan’s Geological Survey. Jha, Lalit K (September 26, 2011). "Mineral resources seen as a boost to Afghan economy". e-Ariana (Ariana Media). Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  45. ^ Williams, D.A., Keszthelyi, L.P., Crown, D.A., Yff, J.A., Jaeger, W.L., Schenk, P.M., Geissler, P.E., and Becker, T.L. (2011). "Geologic map of Io: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3168 (scale 1:15,000,000, 25 p.)". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  46. ^ Wilson, Dave (March 22, 2012). "Researchers map Jupiter’s moon". Vision Systems Design (PennWell). Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  47. ^ a b "New Map of Jupiter's Volcanic Moon Io is Best One Ever". Space.com (TechMediaNetwork). March 20, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  48. ^ a b Platt, John R. (March 21, 2012). "Blue-Tailed Skink Declared Extinct in Hawaii". Extinction Countdown. Nature America. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  49. ^ a b U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (March 6, 2012). "What Is Killing America’s Bats?". USGS Newsroom. U.S. Department of the Interior: U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  50. ^ U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (November 19, 2012). "White-Nose Syndrome Bat Recovery May Present Challenges Similar to Those in Some Recovering AIDS Patients". USGS Newsroom. U.S. Department of the Interior: U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  51. ^ "Challenges and Opportunities in Big Data". National Science Foundation. March 29, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  52. ^ Kalil, Tom (March 29, 2012). "Big Data is a Big Deal". The White House. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  53. ^ Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President (March 29, 2012). "Obama Administration Unveils "Big Data" Initiative: Announces $200 Million in New R&D Investments" (PDF) (Press release). The White House. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  54. ^ Rascoe, Ayesha (April 18, 2012). "US lifts world natgas resource estimate, cuts oil". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
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External links[edit]

Videos

Preceded by
Mark Myers
Director of the United States Geological Survey
2009–2013
Succeeded by
Suzette Kimball, Acting Director