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Richard Maltby, Jr.
|Basis||Opera by Giacomo Puccini
1989 West End
Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr. It is based on Giacomo Puccini's opera Madame Butterfly, and similarly tells the tragic tale of a doomed romance involving an Asian woman abandoned by her American lover. The setting of the plot is relocated to the 1970s Saigon during the Vietnam War, and Madame Butterfly's story of marriage between an American lieutenant and Japanese girl is replaced by a romance between an American GI and a Vietnamese bar girl.
The musical premièred at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in London on 20 September 1989, closing after over four thousand performances, on 30 October 1999. It opened on Broadway at the Broadway Theatre in 1991 and subsequently played in many other cities and embarked on tours.
The musical represented Schönberg and Boublil's second major success, following Les Misérables in 1985. As of January 2013, Miss Saigon is still the eleventh longest-running Broadway musical in musical theatre history.
The musical's inspiration was reportedly a photograph, which Schömberg found inadvertently in a magazine. The photograph showed a Vietnamese mother leaving her child at a departure gate at Tan Son Nhut Air Base to board an airplane headed for the United States where her father, an ex-GI, would be in a position to provide a much better life for the child. Schönberg considered this mother's actions for her child to be "The Ultimate Sacrifice," an idea central to the plot of Miss Saigon.
Highlights of the show include the evacuation of the last Americans in Saigon from the Embassy roof by helicopter while a crowd of abandoned Vietnamese screams in despair, the victory parade of the new communist régime and the frenzied night club scene at the time of defeat.
- West End
Miss Saigon premiered in the West End at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on 20 September 1989 and closed after 4,264 performances on 30 October 1999. The director was Nicholas Hytner with musical staging by Bob Avian and scenic design by John Napier. In December 1994 the London production became the Theatre Royal's (Drury Lane) longest running musical, eclipsing the record set by My Fair Lady.
The original Kim was played by Lea Salonga, who became famous because of this role and won the Laurence Olivier Award and Tony Award. The original Engineer was portrayed by Jonathan Pryce who won a Tony Award for the role.
The musical débuted on Broadway at the Broadway Theatre on 11 April 1991 and closed on 28 January 2001 after 4,092 performances. Directed again by Nicholas Hytner with musical staging by Bob Avian, scenic design was by John Napier, costume design was by Andreane Neofitou and Suzy Benzinger and lighting design was by David Hersey. As of January 2013, Miss Saigon is still the 11th longest-running Broadway musical in musical theatre history.
- Planned West End revival
- Other productions
Since its opening in London Miss Saigon was produced in many cities around the world including Stuttgart from 2 December 1994 till 19 December 1999 and Toronto, where new theatres were designed specifically to house the show. In the small island community of Bømlo, Norway with only around eleven thousand inhabitants, the show was set up in the outdoor amphitheatre by the local musical fellowship and ran from 5 August to 16 August 2009. The local musical fellowship brought in a Bell Helicopter for the show. According to the Miss Saigon Official Site, Miss Saigon has been performed by twenty-seven companies in twenty-five countries and 246 cities, and it has been translated into twelve different languages.
After the London production closed in 1999 and also following the closure of the Broadway production in 2001, the show in its original London staging embarked on a long tour of the six largest venues in Britain and Ireland stopping off in each city for several months. The tour opened at the Palace Theatre, Manchester and also played in the Birmingham Hippodrome, the Mayflower Theatre Southampton, the Edinburgh Playhouse, the Bristol Hippodrome and The Point Theatre in Dublin. This successful tour drew to a close in 2003 and a brand new production was developed by original producer Cameron Mackintosh on a smaller scale so that the show could be accommodated in smaller theatres. This new tour started in July 2004 and ended in June 2006.
The first US tour started in Chicago, Illinois in October 1992 and was then expected to travel to those cities that could accommodate the large production. The tour also played venues such as the Wang Center in Boston from 14 July to 12 September 1993, the Broward Center for the Performing Arts, Florida in the Spring 1994, and the Kennedy Center, Washington, DC in June 1994. Cameron Mackintosh said: "Corners haven't been cut. They've been added. There are only a dozen theaters in America where we can do this."
A second North American tour was in summer 2002 to spring 2005, playing such venues as the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark, New Jersey in November 2003, Raleigh, North Carolina in February 2005, and Gainesville, Florida in November 2003.
In April 1975 at "Dreamland," a sleazy Vietnamese club, shortly before the Fall of Saigon, it is Kim's first day as a bargirl. The seventeen-year-old orphan is greeted by the Engineer, a French-Vietnamese man who owns the club. Backstage, the girls ready themselves for the night's show, jeering at Kim's naïveté ("Overture"). The U.S. Marines, aware that they will be leaving Vietnam soon, party with the Vietnamese prostitutes at the club ("The Heat Is On in Saigon"). Chris Scott, a sergeant disenchanted by the club scene, is encouraged by his friend John Thomas to go with a girl. The girls compete for the title of "Miss Saigon," and the winner is raffled to a Marine. Kim's innocence strikes Chris. Gigi Van Tranh wins the crown for the evening and begs the marine who won the raffle to take her back to America, annoying him. The showgirls reflect on their dreams of a better life ("Movie In My Mind"). John buys a room from the Engineer for the virgin Kim and Chris ("The Transaction"). Kim is reluctant and shy, but dances with Chris. Chris tries to pay her to leave the nightclub. When the Engineer interferes, thinking that Chris does not like Kim, Chris allows himself to be led to her room ("The Dance").
Chris, watching Kim sleep, asks God why he met her just as he was about to leave Vietnam ("Why, God, Why?"). When Kim wakes up, Chris tries to give her money, but she refuses, saying that it is her first time sleeping with a man ("This Money's Yours"). Touched to learn that Kim is an orphan, Chris tells her that she need not sell herself at the club, because he wants her to stay with him. The two pledge their love for each other ("Sun and Moon"). Chris tells John that he is taking leave to spend time with Kim. John warns him that the Viet Cong will soon take Saigon, but then reluctantly agrees to cover for Chris ("The Telephone Song"). Chris meets with the Engineer to trade for Kim, but the Engineer tries to include an America visa in the deal. Chris forces the Engineer at gunpoint to honour the original arrangement for Kim ("The Deal").
The bargirls hold a "wedding ceremony" for Chris and Kim ("Dju Vui Vai"), with Gigi toasting Kim as the "real" Miss Saigon. Thuy, Kim's cousin, to whom she was betrothed at thirteen, arrives to take her home. He has become an officer in the North Vietnamese Army and is angered to find her with Chris ("Thuy's Arrival"). The two men confront each other, drawing their guns. Kim tells Thuy that their arranged marriage is now nullified because her parents are dead, and she no longer harbours any feelings for him because of his betrayal. Thuy curses them all and storms out ("What's This I Find"). Chris promises to take Kim with him when he leaves Vietnam. Chris and Kim dance to the same song as on their first night ("Last Night of The World").
Three years pass, and in Saigon (now renamed Ho Chi Minh City), a street parade is taking place to celebrate the third anniversary of the reunification of Vietnam and the defeat of the Americans ("Morning of The Dragon," also called "The Fall of Saigon"). Thuy, a commissar in the new government, has ordered his soldiers to find the still-corrupt Engineer. Thuy orders the Engineer to find Kim and bring her to him. Kim is still in love with Chris and has been hiding in an impoverished area believing that Chris will come back to Vietnam to rescue her. Meanwhile, Chris is in bed with his new American wife, Ellen, when he wakes from a dream shouting Kim's name. Ellen and Kim both swear their devotion to Chris from opposite ends of the world ("I Still Believe").
The Engineer finds Kim and brings Thuy to her. Kim refuses Thuy's renewed offer of marriage and introduces him to Tam, her three-year-old son fathered by Chris. Thuy calls Kim a traitor and Tam an enemy, and moves to kill Tam with a knife. Kim pulls out Chris's gun and kills Thuy ("You Will Not Touch Him"). Kim flees with Tam ("This Is the Hour") and tells the Engineer what she has done ("If You Want to Die in Bed"). The Engineer refuses to help her until he learns that Tam's father is American ("Let Me See His Western Nose") – thinking this is his passport to the United States. He tells Kim that now he is the boy's uncle, and he will lead them to Bangkok. The three set out on a ship with other refugees ("I'd Give My Life for You").
In Atlanta, Georgia, John now works for an aid organisation whose mission is to connect Bui-Doi (from Vietnamese trẻ bụi đời "street children," incorrectly understood as meaning children conceived during the war) with their American fathers ("Bui Doi"). John tells Chris that Kim is still alive, which Chris is relieved to hear after years of having nightmares of her dying. He also tells Chris about Tam and urges Chris to go to Bangkok with Ellen. Chris finally tells Ellen about Kim and Tam ("The Revelation"). In Bangkok, the Engineer is hawking a sleazy club where Kim works as a dancer ("What A Waste"). Chris, Ellen, and John arrive in search of Kim. John finds Kim dancing at the club, and tells her that Chris is also in Bangkok. He then tries to tell her that Chris is remarried, but Kim interrupts. She is thrilled about the news and tells Tam that his father has arrived, believing that they are to go to America with Chris. Seeing Kim happy, John cannot bring himself to break the news to her, but promises to bring Chris to her ("Please").
The Engineer tells Kim to find Chris herself, because he doubts that Chris will come ("Chris Is Here"). Kim is haunted by the ghost of Thuy, who taunts Kim, claiming that Chris will betray her as he did the night Saigon fell. Kim suffers a horrible flashback to that night ("Kim's Nightmare").
In the nightmare/flashback, Kim remembers the Viet Cong approaching Saigon. As the city becomes increasingly chaotic, Chris is called to the embassy and leaves his gun with Kim, telling her to pack. When Chris enters the embassy, the gates close, as orders arrive from Washington for an immediate evacuation of the remaining Americans. The Ambassador orders that no more Vietnamese be allowed into the Embassy. Kim reaches the gates of the Embassy, one of a mob of terrified Vietnamese trying to enter. Chris calls to Kim and is about to go into the crowd to look for her, but John is eventually forced to punch Chris in the face to stop him from leaving. Chris is put into the last helicopter leaving Saigon as Kim watches from outside, still pledging her love to him ("The Fall of Saigon").
Back in 1978 Bangkok, Kim joyfully dresses in her wedding clothes ("Sun and Moon: Reprise") and leaves the Engineer to watch Tam while she is gone. She goes to Chris's hotel room, where she finds Ellen. Kim mistakenly thinks that Ellen is John's wife, but Ellen reveals that she is Chris's wife. Kim is heartbroken and refuses to believe Ellen. Ellen asks Kim if Chris is the father of Tam, and Kim says that he is. Kim says that she does not want her son to live on the streets as a rat, but Ellen tells Kim that they will do what they can to support him. Kim pleads to Ellen that they take Tam with them to America, but Ellen refuses, saying that Tam needs his real mother, and Ellen wants her own children with Chris. Kim angrily demands that Chris tell her these things in person, and runs out of the room ("Room 317"). Ellen feels bad for Kim, but is determined to keep Chris ("Now That I've Seen Her"). Chris and John return, having failed to find Kim. Ellen tells them both that Kim arrived and that she had to tell Kim everything. Chris and John blame themselves, realising that they were gone too long. Ellen also tells them that Kim wants to see Chris at her place, and that she tried to give away her son to them. John realises that Kim wants Tam to be "an American boy." Ellen then issues an ultimatum to Chris: Kim or she. Chris reassures Ellen, and they pledge their love for each other. Chris will leave Tam and Kim in Bangkok but offer them monetary support from America. John warns that Kim will not find it acceptable to have Tam stay in Thailand ("The Confrontation"). Back at the club, Kim lies to the Engineer that they are still going to America ("Paper Dragons"). The Engineer imagines the extravagant new life that he will lead in America ("The American Dream"). Chris, John, and Ellen find the Engineer and he takes them to see Kim and Tam.
In her room, Kim tells Tam that he should be happy because he now has a father. She tells him that she cannot go with him but will be watching over him ("This Is the Hour (Reprise)"). Chris, Ellen, John, and the Engineer arrive just outside her room. The Engineer comes in to take Tam outside to introduce Tam to his father. While this is happening, Kim steps behind a curtain and shoots herself. As she falls to the floor, everyone rushes into the room at the sound of the gunshot and find Kim mortally wounded. Chris holds Kim in his arms and asks what she has done and why she did this, as she explains that the gods have guided him to his son. Chris begs her not to die, as she asks him to hold her one last time. After sharing one final kiss, Kim says her final words to Chris, echoing what he said to her from the song "Sun and Moon" ("How in one night have we come so far?") and she dies in his arms ("Finale").
On 21 October 2009, a film version of the musical was reported to be in "early stages of development". Producer Paula Wagner was reported to be teaming with the original musical producer Cameron Mackintosh to create a film version of the musical. Director Lee Daniels has mentioned directing the film version as a possible future project. Filming locations are said to be Cambodia and quite possibly Ho Chi Minh City (the former Saigon). No casting has been mentioned but speculation states that the producers will be seeking an unknown for the lead role of Kim.
- Kim – A seventeen-year-old girl, recently orphaned and forced to work at "Dreamland." She corresponds to Butterfly in the original opera.
- Christopher Scott – An American G.I. sergeant about to leave Saigon to return to America. He corresponds to Pinkerton.
- The Engineer, a.k.a. Tran Van Dinh – The slightly sleazy but likable owner of "Dreamland." He is half-Vietnamese and half-French. He corresponds to Goro.
- Ellen – Chris's American wife. She corresponds to Kate.
- John Thomas – Chris's friend, also a G.I. He corresponds to Sharpless.
- Thuy – Kim's cousin and betrothed, to whom Kim’s parents promised her when the two were thirteen. Has since become an officer in the Communist Vietnamese government. He is a composite character, corresponding in part to both The Bonze and Prince Yamadori.
- Gigi Van Tranh – A hardened Saigon stripper; initially voted as "Miss Saigon".
- Tam – Kim and Chris's three-year old son. He corresponds to Dolore, or "Sorrow".
|Character||Original West End actor||Original Broadway actor|
|The Engineer||Jonathan Pryce|
|Chris||Simon Bowman||Willy Falk|
|John||Peter Polycarpou||Hinton Battle|
|Ellen||Claire Moore||Liz Callaway|
|Thuy||Keith Burns||Barry K. Bernal|
|Gigi||Isay Alvarez||Marina Chapa|
|Brian R. Baldomero
Philip Lyle Kong
|Alternate Kim||Monique Wilson||Kam Cheng|
Original international casts
Miss Saigon has received criticism for what some have perceived as a racist or sexist overtone, including protests regarding its portrayal of Asians and women in general. Originally, Pryce and Burns, white actors playing Eurasian/Asian characters, wore eye prostheses and bronzing cream to make themselves look more Asian, which outraged some who drew comparisons to a "minstrel show".
Hubert van Es, a Dutch photojournalist who recorded the most famous image of the fall of Saigon in 1975 (a group of people scaling a ladder to a CIA helicopter on a rooftop), considered legal action when his photograph was used in Miss Saigon.
In the London production of Miss Saigon, Lea Salonga originally starred as Kim, with Jonathan Pryce as the Engineer. When the production transferred from London to New York City, the Actors' Equity Association (AEA) refused to allow Pryce, a white actor, to recreate the role of the Eurasian pimp in America. As Alan Eisenberg, executive secretary of Actors' Equity explained, "The casting of a Caucasian actor made up to appear Asian is an affront to the Asian community. The casting choice is especially disturbing when the casting of an Asian actor, in the role, would be an important and significant opportunity to break the usual pattern of casting Asians in minor roles." This ruling led to criticism from many including British Equity, citing violations of the principles of artistic integrity and freedom. Producer Cameron Mackintosh threatened to cancel the show, despite massive advance ticket sales.
Though there had been a large, well-publicised international search among Asian actresses to play Kim, there had been no equivalent search for Asian actors to play the major Asian male roles—specifically, Engineer (Pryce) and Thuy (Keith Burns). However, others pointed out that since the Engineer's character was Eurasian (French-Vietnamese), they argued that Pryce was being discriminated against on the basis that he was Caucasian. Also, Pryce was considered by many in Britain to have "star status," a clause that allows a well-known foreign actor to recreate a role on Broadway without an American casting call. After pressure from Mackintosh, the general public, and many of its own members, Actors' Equity was forced to reverse its decision. Pryce starred alongside Salonga and Willy Falk (as Chris) when the show opened on Broadway.
During the production transfer from West End to Broadway, a lesser controversy erupted over Lea Salonga's citizenship, as she was neither British nor American. Salonga is Filipino, and the AEA wanted to give priority to its own members and so initially prevented her from reprising her role. However, Mackintosh was unable to find a satisfactory replacement for Salonga despite the extensive auditions that he conducted in several American and Canadian cities. An arbitrator reversed the AEA ruling a month later to allow Salonga to star.
The 1989 Original Cast Recording
- Kim – Lea Salonga
- Chris – Simon Bowman
- Gigi – Isay Alvarez
- Ellen – Claire Moore
- Engineer – Jonathan Pryce
- Thuy – Keith Burns
- John – Peter Polycarpou
Miss Saigon: Complete Symphonic Recording
- Kim – Joanna Ampil
- Chris – Peter Cousens
- Engineer – Kevin Gray
- Thuy – Charles Azulay
- John – Hinton Battle
- Ellen – Ruthie Henshall
- Gigi – Sonia Swaby
Upon its Broadway opening in 1991 the musical was massively hyped as the best musical of the year, both critically and commercially. It broke several Broadway records, including a record advance-ticket sales at $24 million, highest priced ticket at $100, and repaying investors in fewer than 39 weeks.
Miss Saigon and The Will Rogers Follies led the 1991 Tony Award nominations with eleven nominations. According to The New York Times, "'Will Rogers' and 'Miss Saigon' had both earned 11 nominations and were considered the front-runners for the Tony as best musical. But many theater people predicted that Miss Saigon, an import from London, would be the victim of a backlash. There is lingering bitterness against both the huge amount of publicity Miss Saigon has received and the battle by its producer, Cameron Macintosh, to permit its two foreign stars, Mr. Pryce... and the Filipina actress Lea Salonga, to re-create on Broadway their award-winning roles."
Awards and nominations
Original London production
|1989||Laurence Olivier Award||Best New Musical||Nominated|
|Best Actor in a Musical||Jonathan Pryce||Won|
|Best Actress in a Musical||Lea Salonga||Won|
|Best Director||Nicholas Hytner||Nominated|
Original Broadway production
|1991||Tony Award||Best Musical||Nominated|
|Best Book of a Musical||Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil||Nominated|
|Best Original Score||Claude-Michel Schönberg, Alain Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr.||Nominated|
|Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical||Jonathan Pryce||Won|
|Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical||Lea Salonga||Won|
|Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical||Hinton Battle||Won|
|Best Choreography||Bob Avian||Nominated|
|Best Direction of a Musical||Nicholas Hytner||Nominated|
|Best Scenic Design||John Napier||Nominated|
|Best Lighting Design||David Hersey||Nominated|
|Drama Desk Award||Outstanding Actor in a Musical||Jonathan Pryce||Won|
|Outstanding Actress in a Musical||Lea Salonga||Won|
|Outstanding Orchestrations||William David Brohn||Won|
|Outstanding Lighting Design||David Hersey||Won|
|Theatre World Award||Lea Salonga||Won|
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- (no author)."ROAD GROSSES:B.0. even at $ 12.3 mil", Variety, June 27, 1994 - July 3, 1994. p. 92
- Stearns, David Patrick. "'Saigon' retools for the road", USA Today, November 11, 1992 p.4D
- McDowell, Robert W."REVIEW: Broadway Series South: Miss Saigon Superbly Dramatizes the Fall of Saigon and Its Horrific Aftermath" Classical Voice of North Carolina, February 17, 2005
- Rendell, Bob."Miss Saigon Lands at NJPAC" talkinbroadway.com, Nov 6, 2003
- "Miss Saigon tour, 2002-2005 listing", bigleague.org, retrieved February 2, 2010
- Hetrick, Adam.""The Movie in My Mind": Miss Saigon on Track for Film Treatment", playbill.com, October 21, 2009
- Cameron Mackintosh's Plans for Miss Saigon Movie Hinge on the 'Success' of Les Miz
- Cameron Mackintosh Says MISS SAIGON is Next Musical to Hit Big Screen
- Behind and beyond Miss Saigon, Bangkok Post, September 26, 2012., retrieved October 8, 2012
- Steinberg, Avi. "Group targets Asian stereotypes in hit musical," Boston Globe, January 2005. Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- Behr, Edward, and Mark Steyn. The Story of Miss Saigon. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1991.
- Mervyn Rothstein, "Union Bars White in Asian Role; Broadway May Lose 'Miss Saigon'," New York Times, 8 August 1990, A1.
- "Photographer who took famous Vietnam war image dies". The Guardian. 15 May 2009.
- TIME - Will Broadway Miss Saigon? Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- Yellowworld Forums - Yellowface Top Ten Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- Bright Lights Film Journal - Hollywood Yellowface Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- Sternfeld, Jessica (2008). "The Megamusical in the 1990s". The Megamusical. Indiana University Press.
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- Laurence Olivier Awards: Past winners - Musical Retrieved on 2007-December 15.
- Rothstein, Mervyn. "'Yonker' and 'Will Rogers' Top Tony Awards", The New York Times, June 3, 1991, p. A1
- Miss Saigon at the Internet Broadway Database
- Official UK website
- Musical Cyberspace: Miss Saigon
- On the Scene: Miss Saigon Celebrates 4,000 Performances
- Time review, noting changes from West End to Broadway
- Plot summary and character descriptions
- MTI Shows characters, plot and other production information
- New Zealand Premiere Photos
- New Zealand Premiere Cast
- "Miss Saigon(RUS)".