Mixolydian mode may refer to one of three things: the name applied to one of the ancient Greek harmoniai or tonoi, based on a particular octave species or scale; one of the medieval church modes; a modern musical mode or diatonic scale, related to the medieval mode. (The Hypomixolydian mode of medieval music, by contrast, has no modern counterpart.)
The idea of a Mixolydian mode comes from the music theory of ancient Greece. The ancient Greek Mixolydian mode was invented by Sappho, the 7th century B.C. poet and musician. However, what the ancient Greeks thought of as Mixolydian was very different from the modern interpretation of the mode.
In Greek theory, the Mixolydian tonos (the term "mode" is a later Latin term) employs a scale (or "octave species") corresponding to the Greek Hypolydian mode inverted: in its diatonic genus, this is a scale descending from paramese to hypate hypaton: in the diatonic genus, a whole tone (paramese to mese) followed by two conjunct inverted Lydian tetrachords (each being two whole tones followed by a semitone descending). This diatonic genus of the scale is roughly the equivalent of playing all the "white notes" of a piano from B to B, or B | A G F E | (E) D C B, which is also known as modern Locrian mode. (In the chromatic and enharmonic genera, each tetrachord consists of a minor third plus two semitones, and a major third plus two quarter-tones, respectively).
Medieval Mixolydian and Hypomixolydian
Originally used to designate one of the traditional harmoniai of Greek theory, the name was appropriated (along with six others) by the 2nd-century theorist Ptolemy to designate his seven tonoi, or transposition keys. Four centuries later, Boethius interpreted Ptolemy in Latin, still with the meaning of transposition keys, not scales. When chant theory was first being formulated in the 9th century, these seven names plus an eighth, Hypermixolydian (later changed to Hypomixolydian), were again re-appropriated in the anonymous treatise Alia Musica. A commentary on that treatise, called the Nova expositio, first gave it a new sense as one of a set of eight diatonic species of the octave, or scales. The name Mixolydian came to be applied to one of the eight modes of medieval church music: the seventh mode. This mode does not run from B to B on white notes, as the Greek mode, but was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from G up one octave to the G above, or as a mode whose final was G and whose ambitus runs from the F below the final to the G above, with possible extensions "by licence" up to A above and even down to E below, and in which the note D (the tenor of the corresponding seventh psalm tone) had an important melodic function. This medieval theoretical construction led to the modern use of the term for the natural scale from G to G.
The seventh mode of western church music is an authentic mode based on and encompassing the natural scale from G to G, with the perfect fifth (the D in a G to G scale) as the dominant, reciting note or tenor.
The plagal eighth mode was termed Hypomixolydian (or "lower Mixolydian") and, like the Mixolydian, was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from D to the D an octave higher, divided at the mode final, G (thus D–E–F–G + G–A–B–C–D); or as a mode with a final of G and an ambitus from C below the final to E above it, in which the note C (the tenor of the corresponding eighth psalm tone) had an important melodic function.
This modern scale has the same series of tones and semitones as the major scale, except the seventh degree is a semitone lower. The Mixolydian mode is sometimes called the dominant scale, because it is the mode built on the fifth degree (the dominant) of the major scale. The flattened seventh of the scale is a tritone away from the mediant (major-third degree) of the key.
The order of tones and semitones in a Mixolydian scale is TTSTTST (T = tone; S = semitone), while the major scale is TTSTTTS. The key signature varies accordingly (it will be the same as that of the major key a fifth below).
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- The G Mixolydian mode (Related to the key of C major – on a piano it is all the white keys from one G to the next. GABCDEFG)
- The C Mixolydian mode (Related to the key of F major – CDEFGAB♭C)
- The D Mixolydian mode (Related to the key of G major – DEF♯GABCD)
- The E Mixolydian mode (Related to the key of A major – EF♯G♯ABC♯DE)
- The A Mixolydian mode (Related to the key of D major – scale used on the Great Highland Bagpipes. ABC♯DEF♯GA)
Moloch scale is the name used by Klezmer musicians for the Mixolydian scale, with which it is identical. In Klezmer, it is usually transposed to C, where the main chords used are C, F, and G7 (sometimes Gm).
Notable music in Mixolydian mode
- "Old Joe Clark"
- "She Moved Through the Fair" – A traditional Irish folk song.
- "As I Was Walking One Morning in May" is in an Irish air in C Mixolydian[not in citation given][self-published source?]
- "Let It Loose" by The Rolling Stones
- "Marquee Moon" by Television
- Theme From Star Trek
- "Sweet Home Alabama" by Lynyrd Skynyrd
- "Sweet Child o' Mine" (solo is in E♭ natural minor) by Guns N' Roses
- "Norwegian Wood" by The Beatles (with some verses in Dorian mode)
- The Allman Brothers Band's "Ramblin' Man" (with blues flavoring)
- "Gloria" by Them
- "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" by Gordon Lightfoot
- "Express Yourself" by Madonna
- "You and I" by Lady Gaga
- "Hey Jude" by the Beatles ("outro" section only)
- "Dark Star" by the Grateful Dead, modal in A Mixolydian
- "Morning Mr Magpie" by Radiohead
- "Royals" by Lorde
- Khamaj, the equivalent scale in Indian classical music.
- V-IV-I turnaround, a common modal chord progression when spelled as I - ♭VII - IV
- Backdoor cadence
- Arnie Berle, "The Mixolydian Mode/Dominant Seventh Scale", in Mel Bay's Encyclopedia of Scales, Modes and Melodic Patterns: A Unique Approach to Developing Ear, Mind and Finger Coordination (Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay Publications, 1997): p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7866-1791-3 OCLC 48534968
- Anne Carson (ed.), If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho (New York: Vintage Books, 2002), p. ix. ISBN 978-0-375-72451-0. Carson cites Pseudo-Plutarch, On Music 16.113c, who in turn names Aristoxenus as his authority.
- Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, 29 vols., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, 10:[page needed] (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001), 10:339. ISBN 1-56159-239-0 OCLC 44391762.
- Harold S. Powers, "Dorian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
- Harold S. Powers and Frans Wiering, "Mixolydian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, 29 vols., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell, 16:766–67 (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001), 767. ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5.
- Harold S. Powers and Frans Wiering, "Hypomixolydian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, 29 vols., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell, 12:38 (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001) ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5.
- Dan Haerle, Scales for Jazz Improvisation (Hialeah: Columbia Pictures Publications; Lebanon, Indiana: Studio P/R; Miami: Warner Bros, 1983), p. 15. ISBN 978-0-89898-705-8.
- Dick Weissman and Dan Fox, A Guide to Non-Jazz Improvisation: Guitar Edition (Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay Publications, 2009): p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7866-0751-8.
- Wendy Anthony, "Building a Traditional Tune Repertoire: Old Joe Clark (Key of A-Mixolydian)", Mandolin Sessions webzine (February 2007) |(Accessed 2 February 2010).
- Ted Eschliman, "Something Old. Something New", Mandolin Sessions webzine (November 2009) (Accessed 2 February 2010).
- Allen, Patrick (1999). Developing Singing Matters. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. pp. 22. ISBN 0-435-81018-9. OCLC 42040205.
- Petrie, George. Stanford, Charles Villiers, ed. "The Complete Collection of Irish Music (Petrie, George), Part II". imslp.org. No. 663. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "AS I WAS WALKING ONE MORNING IN MAY". www.tunearch.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- Jack Morer, Rolling Stones: "Exile on Main Street" (Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation, 1995): p. 100. ISBN 0-7935-4094-1 OCLC 49627026
- "Marquee Moon tab", Joe Hartley's generic homepage.
- Rooksby, Rikky (2001). Inside Classic Rock Tracks, p.86. ISBN 978-0-87930-654-0.
- Ed Friedlander, "The Ancient Musical Modes: What Were They?" (Accessed 6 October 2011).
- Dan Bennett, "The Mixolydian Mode", in The Total Rock Bassist (Van Nuys and Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing, 2008): p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7390-5269-3 OCLC 230193269
- Kenneth Womack and Todd F. Davis, Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006): p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7914-6715-2 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-7914-6716-9 (pbk).
- Stephenson, Ken (2002). What to Listen for in Rock: A Stylistic Analysis, p.39. ISBN 978-0-300-09239-4.
- Zak, Albin III (2000). The Velvet Underground Companion: Four Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Group. p. 333. ISBN 9780825672422.
- Whitesell, Lloyd (2008). The Music of Joni Mitchell. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0199719098.
- Germanotta, Stefani (2011). "Digital Sheet Music – Lady Gaga – You and I". Musicnotes.com (Sony/ATV Music Publishing).
- Comp, Nate. "The Fretlight Guitar Blog". The Moods of the Modes. Fretlight. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
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- "King of Off-Beat Samba Limbs". Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Hewitt, Michael. Musical Scales of the World. The Note Tree. 2013. ISBN 978-0957547001.
- "Mixolydian scale for guitar". The Guitarist's Online Survival Kit. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
- "Edmund Fitzgerald Chords by Gordon Lightfoot, www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com". www.Ultimate-Guitar.Com. Retrieved 30 November 2009.