Morley Baer (April 5, 1916 – November 9, 1995) was an American photographer and teacher. Born in Toledo, Ohio, Baer learned basic commercial photography in Chicago but subsequently honed his skills as a World War II Navy combat photographer. Returning to civilian life an accomplished professional, over the next few years he developed into “one of the foremost architectural photographers in the world," receiving important commissions from some of the premier architects in post-war Central California. In the early 1970s, very much influenced by a strong friendship with Edward Weston, Baer began to concentrate on his personal landscape art photography. During the last decades of the 20th century, Baer also became a sought-after instructor in various colleges and workshops teaching the art of landscape photography.
Early life and education
He was born to Clarence Theodore Baer and Blanche Evelyn Schwetzer Baer and led an active outdoor life growing up in Toledo. He attended the University of Toledo in 1934 and later transferred to the University of Michigan, from where he graduated in 1937 with a BA in English. He continued there in graduate school and earned an MA in Theater Arts in 1938. Baer soon found a well-paying but dull job in the advertising office of the Chicago department store, Marshall Field's, but soon apprenticed as a low-paid menial assistant, at a greatly reduced salary, to a Michigan Avenue commercial photography company. He shortly was photographing in the field, developing and printing photographs.
Along with two associates, Baer was sent on assignment to Colorado in 1939. Baer had seen an exhibition of Edward Weston’s photographs at the Katherine Kuh Galleries in January of that year, became enamored at the sparse elegance of Weston's black-and-white prints, resolved to meet Weston and extended his Colorado trip to California to meet him in Carmel-by-the-Sea. The two did not meet but Baer made the most of the trip by visiting San Francisco, the Monterey Peninsula, and the small village of Carmel.
Although he returned to Chicago, he already had applied for entrance into Art Center School while in San Francisco, but his plans were derailed by the onset of World War II. In 1941 he enlisted in the Navy almost immediately after Pearl Harbor and went through the Navy photo school at Pensacola, Florida, where he hated the stereotyped approach to making a photograph. Baer graduated, commissioned as an ensign, and was transferred to Norfolk to do a series of stories on the Atlantic Theater of operations.
The young photographer had varied duties including public relations, aircraft recon, editorial assignments, teaching, and combat photography from aircraft and carriers. Accompanied by a writer, Baer covered military operations in North Africa, southern France, Brazil, and the Caribbean Sea. In 1945 he was assigned to the operational Naval Aviation Photographic Unit, commanded by the eminent photographer Edward Steichen. Working under a variety of terrain, sea, and weather conditions, varying light, and new environments in physically demanding activities, and making dozens of photographs a day, Baer quickly perfected his technical and compositional photographic skills. When discharged from the Navy in 1946 he was a complete and confident professional photographer.
In 1945 Baer was discharged from the Navy in San Francisco and met Frances Manney, a young woman awaiting admission to Stanford University who had hired Baer as her photography tutor during his brief time in Norfolk. The two married, splurged their remaining funds and set up a commercial photography business in a small store-front studio in Carmel in 1946.
Baer had no difficulty discovering opportunities aplenty in the booming post-war building trades. In dire need of competent photographers to illustrate their projects, builders and architects vied to hire the Baer team. As his reputation grew he had as much work as he could handle. His published architectural photographs from that time testify to his active professional career along with the quality of his clients among the more noted Bay Area architectural firms.
Although Baer had briefly fulfilled his long-held dream of meeting Edward Weston, they had met only briefly. But through a Weston friend sometime in 1947, Baer learned of an Ansco view camera for sale. He had previously used an Ansco in Chicago and was very familiar with its capabilities. Able to buy it for the then princely sum of $90, it became the camera he most used for the rest of his life. Although he had others for some assignments, the Ansco was the instrument with which he made his most memorable photographs. It became almost an extension of his photographic seeing and visualization in his later fine art landscape work.
While Baer held Weston in considerable awe he and Frances became frequent visitors to the Weston home/studio in Carmel’s Wildcat Hill and had a close friendship until Weston’s death in 1958. Both Baers were very helpful to Weston in producing his monumental photographic Portfolios I and II. Morley worked closely with Edward’s son Brett Weston in making the prints, while Frances, as the person who did print spotting, finished Weston’s prints. Besides being helpful to Weston this association greatly benefited Baer’s career in the world of fine-art photography. Through Weston, a long-standing resident of California and the Bay Area, he met most of the prominent West Coast photographers. The more noted among them earlier had formed Group f/64 in San Francisco; its members included Weston, Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, and Henry Swift, among others.
Baer again met up with Steichen in 1950 when he and Frances made a trip to New York. Although Steichen carefully examined the photographic portfolio Baer showed him he was less than enthralled by its subject matter – their photographic sensitivities were vastly different.
Bay Area residents
Finding more work opportunities in the San Francisco area in the early fifties, the Baers sold their house on Carmelo Avenue in Carmel and re-located their photographic work to Berkeley. Shortly Baer began to make a name for himself as a leading architectural photographer with portfolio work for architects and interior designers while freelancing for housing design magazines. Ansel Adams recruited him as an instructor at the San Francisco Art Institute, then under the direction of Minor White. When White left for the East Coast in 1953, Baer became Head of the Institute's Photography Department.
In 1953 the Baers moved into a 1920s era house in Greenwood Common that previously had been renovated by architect Rudolph Schindler for its owner, who sold it in 1951 to William Wurster, who, in turn, sold it in 1953 to Baer. Baer became very active in neighborhood affairs Showing their lifetime appreciation for landscaping, the Baers hired Lawrence Halprin to design their outdoor areas.
Baer rapidly became a sought-after architectural photographer for noted architects, including Craig Edwards, the firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM), Charles Willard Moore, and William Turnbull, Jr.. Baer’s photographs of buildings by Bernard Maybeck, Greene and Greene, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Julia Morgan are considered important today in understanding American architecture and design in the first half of the 20th century.
Through the influence of Nathaniel A. Owings, SOM hired Baer to photograph US consulate buildings being constructed throughout Western Europe, so the Baers and their young son moved to Spain for two years. Baer managed to produce personal work by photographing out-of-the-way locations in Andalucia. The Baer family traveled the country in a VW bus in which they camped as necessary, freeing them to go where they pleased. These photographs led to Baer’s first one-man exhibition at San Francisco’s M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in 1959 and his first published portfolio.
After he returned to California, SOM hired Baer for a large photographic survey that lasted through the mid-1960s. During this time Baer also was the architectural photographer for the pioneering Sea Ranch, California in Gualala and contributed work for the 1965 Sierra Club publication ‘'Not Man Apart, which also included entries from artists such as Robinson Jeffers, Dorothea Lange, and Beaumont Newhall. Jeffers exerted a strong influence on Baer’s thinking and artistic sensitivities.
The earlier sojourn in Spain had whetted Baer's appetite to return. In 1960, still at Greenwood Common, he unsuccessfully applied for a Guggenheim Fellowship to photograph there again. The Baers bought a house on Carmelo Avenue in Carmel from architect Olaf Dahlstrand that they used as a vacation home while living in Greenwood Common; Baer later photographed Dahlstrand's work. Although he continued his successful architectural photography career in the Bay Area, operating out of Greenwood Common, Baer continued to develop a personal interest in fine art landscape photography and began to scour the more remote regions of central California in search of landscape subjects; most photographs in his signature book, ‘'Light Years, date from the early 1960s.
The success of ‘'Here Today'’ led to other assignments culminating in Baer's selection as the only photographer for the book ‘'Painted Ladies'’, a collection of color photographs of the more stately San Francisco Victorian houses, which was Baer's first major color photography project.
Carmel and Garrapata
In 1965, Baer moved into a new house, designed by William Wurster, on the cliffs above Garrapata Beach, between the coast highway and the sea, south of Carmel close to the Big Sur coast built as a second home and studio. Wurster designed a two-story house with river-stone exterior that commanded a striking view of Garrapata Beach and Soberanes Point with the long stretch of beach in between - an organic building blending with the rocks and cliffs of Garrapata, sometimes referred to as 'The Stone House'. Frances never felt comfortable in Garrapata, feeling it cold, damp, and isolated and continued to live in Berkeley while Morley used the Garrapata residence as his combination home and studio. The remote coastal location brought Baer into intimate contact with the primal natural elements of wind, water, light, and rock right alongside the beach. in 1966 the American Institute of Architects gave Baer their Architectural Photography Award.
With Garrapata as his base, Baer photographed throughout the West but most notably in Central California. He exhibited his landscape portfolios of classical black-and-white photographs, wrote or contributed to several books of photography, and began to instruct in photography workshops. In the early 1970s, Baer joined Adams and other prominent central California fine art photographers to found the Friends of Photography in Carmel, which organized yearly photographic student workshops at Carmel’s Sunset Center and at the Julia Morgan-designed Asilomar Conference Grounds. Those workshops inspired development of what became known as the West Coast style of landscape photography through the last decades of the 20th Century. He published two photography collections in 1973, 'Andalucia' and 'Garrapata Rock,'
Along with his increasing success as a fine art landscape photographer, Baer continued to take assignments as a commercial architectural photographer, primarily throughout the Monterey Peninsula. Among his many architect clients in this period were: Burde & Shaw, Hugh Comstock, Gordon Drake, and Tom Elston. He was the photographer for the brochure of the exhibition, ‘'California Design 1910'’  in late 1974 at the Pasadena Conference Center; one of his landscape photographs graces the cover.
In 1972, after the couple became estranged, the Baers sold the Greenwood Common house. Frances remained as an art teacher in the Bay Area; the Garrapata house was sold in 1979, and Baer briefly moved to a smaller home in Carmel. In 1980, Baer was awarded the Rome Prize in Design and a fellowship at the American Academy in Rome, where he mainly photographed the fountains of Rome. Baer had an exhibition of them, titled “The Fountains of Rome”, during May 1981 at the Bonnafont Gallery in San Francisco. Returning to his Carmel home/studio the year Rome and reunited with Frances, the couple purchased a house/studio on Carmel Valley Road in 1985 where they lived until their respective deaths.
Photographic techniques and philosophy
From the beginning of their relationship, both as husband and wife and as business partners,the Baers worked as a team. Their separate but personal photographic seeing and techniques centered around careful composition of the subject matter, complete familiarity with their equipment and materials, and dedication to the art and profession of photography. Both believed that only the view camera – Morley with an 8x10, Frances with a 5x7 - allowed them to express their feelings about a photographic subject. Although devoted partners, the Baers were intense mutual competitors and had an arrangement for ‘artistic rights’ to a potential photograph discovered while driving the countryside – it belonged to the person on whose side of the car the subject lay.
Motivated by a strong sense of simplicity in equipment and technique learned from Edward Weston, and reinforced by his readings of Robinson Jeffers' sparse poetry for which he had sincere admiration, Baer reduced his photographic equipment to a compact minimum. With time and experience, he acquired the equipment and techniques that completely suited his photographic style. Once he had settled on a particular technique he rarely changed it. Baer used the same Ansco 8x10S view camera on an apparently flimsy but really very sturdy wood tripod for virtually all his serious photography. After fifty years of usage the Ansco had become almost an extension of his mind and eye; he could adjust its settings by feel alone while under his darkcloth and concentrating on his subject in the ground glass viewer. Baer designed a special metal carrying case, with a sturdy leather-strap handle, constructed for him by a Monterey metal worker. He replaced it only once during his career. The case held his camera, several lenses, film holders and other paraphernalia he needed in the field. With his camera on one shoulder, and the carrying case in the opposite hand, he was perfectly laterally balanced as he strode towards the subject of his photographic interest.
Precise in his lens selection and use, Baer used a wide range of lens focal lengths from a 120 mm wide angle to a 19” (480 mm), what he called his ‘long lens’. As his favorite lens he claimed that “It sees how I see the material.”  Having a lens for almost every occasion was important since Baer did mostly contact prints of his 8x10 negatives where, besides being esthetically displeasing to him, cropping was not an option. Although owning a Navy surplus Saltzman 8x10 enlarger, he rarely used it since contact prints were his preferred medium of expression – it’s now a prized possession of one of his last assistants. He standardized his procedures to the extent possible, based on thorough testing for film exposure and development characteristics, changing them only when necessary.
In developing his 8x10 negatives, he did so by inspection during the development process. While the development was well underway, Baer briefly checked his highlight densities with a dim green safelight and continued development until he obtained his desired densities. He developed early Isopan and later Super XX Black & White film in his variation of ABC Pyro. For some color work, Baer used Ektachrome film developed in a commercial developer but exposed at values he worked out in extensive testing. Although reluctant to use filters, Baer did so when necessary to make his photograph most effectively express the subject—as he described in technical entries in his several books. He seldom changed from his favorite print developer Amidol modifying it as necessary as printing papers evolved.
With his varied Navy photography experience, his many years of study, and intimate knowledge of his equipment, materials and darkroom techniques, Baer was well-qualified to take on any photographic assignment that came along. That confidence also allowed him to concentrate on the photographic task at hand, “… to interpret and thus to fully realize the potential for maximum expression… “ in his photographs. In evaluating a potential photographic subject, Baer thought both in esthetic and organizational terms but also in the technical challenges he would face in actually making the photograph. His assistant watched Baer as he stared at a subject tree muttering, 'I am looking at the Pyro in the tree trunks [for the negative] and the Amidol [for the print] in the leaves'. He already was thinking of the technical problems he would have to solve in exposing the negative to get the tones he wanted in the final print.
His overall approach to making a photograph was centered on uniting technical capabilities of his camera and lens with emotional feelings at the moment of making the photograph. Baer always would apply his strongest seeing, to borrow a phrase from Edward Weston, to bring out what he saw as the dominant element in a scene. His photographs were always finely set up, some would say “tightly”. Although he eschewed use of the term ‘composition’, he applied an admonition from Weston that “composition is just the strongest way of seeing”. Indeed along with that uncompromising admonishment, Morley held to an amplifying Weston dictum that "Photography as a creative expression … must be seeing plus."
After Baer’s death, his photographic archive was divided between personal work and architectural work. Negatives that Baer felt represented his most significant work were given to the Special Collections of the University of California at Santa Cruz. His architectural archive was given to the Architecture School at Stanford University.
- Adams, Ansel (1985). Ansel Adams, an Autobiography. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-8212-1596-5.
- Adams, Ansel (1980). The Camera. Boston: New York Graphic Sockety. ISBN 0-8212-1092-0.
- Adams, Ansel (June 1, 1995). The Negative. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-8212-2186-0.
- Adams, Ansel (1985). The Print. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-8212-2187-7.
- Andersen, Timothy; Moore, Eudorah M.; Winder, Robert W. (1980). California Design 1910. Baer, Morley (photographer). Santa Barbara, CA: Peregrine Smith. ISBN 0-87905-055-1.
- Baer, Morley (June 12, 2002). California Plain: Remembering Barns. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4270-7.
- Baer, Morley (1988). Light Years: The Photographs of Morley Baer. Carmel, CA: Photography West Graphics. ISBN 0-9616515-2-0.
- Baer, Morley (1979). Room and Time Enough: The Land of Mary Austin. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Press. ISBN 0-87358-205-5.
- Baer, Morley; Wallace, David Rains (1984). The Wilder Shore. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-328-2.
- Fink, August; Baer, Morley (1980). Adobes in the Sun: Portraits of a tranquil era. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-87701-193-4.
- Jeffers, Robinson (1969). Brower, David Ross, ed. Not Man Apart: Photographs of the Big Sur. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 978-0-88486-005-1.
- Jeffers, Robinson (June 1, 2002). Stones of the Sur: Poetry by Robinson Jeffers, Photographs by Morley Baer. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3942-0.
- Lowell, Waverly B. (January 1, 2009). Living Modern: A Biography of Greenwood Common. San Francisco: William Stout Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9795508-6-7.
- Olmstead, Roger; Watkins, T. W.; Baer, Morley (1968). The Junior League of San Francisco, ed. Here Today: San Francisco's Architectural Heritage. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-87701-125-7.
- Pomada, Elizabeth; Larsen, Michael; Baer, Morley (October 27, 1978). Painted Ladies: San Francisco's Resplendent Victorians. New York: E. P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-47523-0.
- Seavey, Kent (October 17, 2007). Carmel: A History in Architecture. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-4705-3.
- Weston, Edward (March 1, 1991). Newhall, Nancy, ed. The Daybooks of Edward Weston. New York: Aperture. ISBN 978-0-89381-450-2.
- Baer, 1988
- Application for Birth Certificate copy – UCSC Archives
- NEA Grant Application, 1960 – UCSC Archives
- Letter to Lian Hurst Mann, Editor, "Architecture California", 28 Feb 1992 – UCSC Archives
- Lou Jacobs early 1950s article on Morley and Frances Baer - UCSC archives
- Jeffers, 2002
- Olmstead, 1968
- Andersen, 1980
- Baer, 2002
- Jeffers, 2002
- Adams, 1985
- Lowell, 2009
- Fink, 1980
- Guggenheim Grant Application, 1960 – UCSC Archives
- Jeffers, 1965
- Olmstead, 1968
- Seavey, 2007
- Pomada, 1978
- Amy Conger, The Monterey Photographic Tradition: The Weston Years, Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art, 1981
- Baer Archives, University of California, Santa Cruz, California
- Adams, 1980
- John Sexton Tribute; Apogee Photo Magazine, late 1995
- Adams, 1995
- Adams, 1995
- Baer, 1979
- Weston, 1991