Moth

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For other uses, see Moth (disambiguation).
Moth
Emperor Gum Moth.jpg
Emperor Gum Moth, Opodiphthera eucalypti
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
(unranked): Heterocera

The moths are a paraphyletic group of insects related to the butterflies and belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Most lepidopterans are moths and there are thought to be approximately 160,000 species of moth,[1] many of which are yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are also crepuscular and diurnal species.

Differences between butterflies and moths[edit]

While the butterflies form a monophyletic group, the moths, which comprise the rest of the Lepidoptera, do not. Many attempts have been made to group the superfamilies of the Lepidoptera into natural groups, most of which fail because one of the two groups is not monophyletic: Microlepidotera and Macrolepidoptera, Heterocera and Rhopalocera, Jugatae and Frenatae, Monotrysia and Ditrysia.[2]

Although the rules for distinguishing moths from butterflies are not completely hard and fast, one very good guiding principle is that butterflies have thin antennae and (with one exception) have small balls or clubs at the end of their antennae. Moth antennae can be quite varied in appearance, but in particular lack the club end. The divisions are named by this principle: "club-antennae" (Rhopalocera) or "varied-antennae" (Heterocera).

Etymology[edit]

The Modern English word "moth" comes from Old English "moððe" (cf. Northumbrian "mohðe") from Common Germanic (compare Old Norse "motti", Dutch "mot", and German "motte" all meaning "moth"). Perhaps its origins are related to the Old English "maða" meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge" which until the sixteenth century was used mostly to indicate the larva, usually in reference to devouring clothes.

The study of butterflies and moths is known as lepidoptery, and biologists who specialize in either are called lepidopterists. As a pastime, watching butterflies and moths is known as butterflying and mothing. The latter has given rise to the term "mother" for someone who engages in this activity - sometimes written with a hyphen (moth-er) to distinguish it from the more common word of the same spelling. This confusion does not arise in speech as it is pronounced differently (/ˈmɒθər/, not */ˈmʌðər/).

Caterpillar[edit]

Moth larvae, or caterpillars, make cocoons from which they emerge as fully grown moths with wings. Some moth caterpillars dig holes in the ground, where they live until they are ready to turn into adult moths.[3]

History[edit]

Moths evolved long before butterflies, fossils having been found that may be 190 million years old. Both types of lepidoptera are thought to have evolved with flowering plants, mainly because most modern species feed on flowering plants, as adults and larvae. One of the earliest species thought to be a moth-ancestor is archaeolepis mane, whose fossil fragments show scaled wings similar to caddisflies in their veining.[4]

Economics[edit]

Significance of moths[edit]

An adult male Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa). This species is a serious forest pest when in larval state. Notice the bristle springing from the underside of the hindwing (frenulum) and running forward to be held in a small catch of the forewing, whose function is to link the wings together.

Moths, and particularly their caterpillars, are a major agricultural pest in many parts of the world. Examples include corn borers and bollworms.[5] The caterpillar of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) causes severe damage to forests in the northeastern United States, where it is an invasive species. In temperate climates, the codling moth causes extensive damage, especially to fruit farms. In tropical and subtropical climates, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is perhaps the most serious pest of brassicaceous crops.

Several moths in the family Tineidae are commonly regarded as pests because their larvae eat fabric such as clothes and blankets made from natural proteinaceous fibers such as wool or silk.[6] They are less likely to eat mixed materials containing some artificial fibers. There are some reports that they may be repelled by the scent of wood from juniper and cedar, by lavender, or by other natural oils; however, many consider this unlikely to prevent infestation. Naphthalene (the chemical used in mothballs) is considered more effective, but there are concerns over its effects on human health.

Moth larvae may be killed by freezing the items which they infest for several days at a temperature below −8 °C (18 °F).[7]

Some moths are farmed. The most notable of these is the silkworm, the larva of the domesticated moth Bombyx mori. It is farmed for the silk with which it builds its cocoon. As of 2002, the silk industry produces more than 130 million kilograms of raw silk, worth about 250 million U.S. dollars, each year.[8][9][10]

Not all silk is produced by Bombyx mori. There are several species of Saturniidae that also are farmed for their silk, such as the Ailanthus moth (Samia cynthia group of species), the Chinese Oak Silkmoth (Antheraea pernyi), the Assam Silkmoth (Antheraea assamensis), and the Japanese Silk Moth (Antheraea yamamai).

The mopane worm, the caterpillar of Gonimbrasia belina, from the family Saturniidae, is a significant food resource in southern Africa. Despite being notorious for eating clothing, most moth adults do not eat at all. Many, like the Luna, Polyphemus, Atlas, Prometheus, Cecropia, and other large moths do not have mouths. Among those with adults that do eat, they will drink nectar.[6]

Predators and parasites of moths[edit]

Tomato Hornworm parasitized by braconid wasps

Nocturnal insectivores often feed on moths; these include some bats, some species of owls and other species of birds. Moths also are eaten by some species of lizards, cats, dogs, rodents, and some bears. Moth larvae are vulnerable to being parasitized by Ichneumonidae.

Baculoviruses are parasite double-stranded DNA insect viruses that are used mostly as biological control agents. They are members of the Baculoviridae, a family that is restricted to insects. Most baculovirus isolates have been obtained from insects, in particular from Lepidoptera.

There is evidence that ultrasound in the range emitted by bats causes flying moths to make evasive maneuvers because bats eat moths. Ultrasonic frequencies trigger a reflex action in the noctuid moth that causes it to drop a few inches in its flight to evade attack.[11] Tiger moths also emit clicks which foil bats' echolocation.[12][13]

Attraction to light[edit]

Moths frequently appear to circle artificial lights, although the reason for this behavior remains unknown. One hypothesis to explain this behavior is that moths use a technique of celestial navigation called transverse orientation. By maintaining a constant angular relationship to a bright celestial light, such as the moon, they can fly in a straight line. Celestial objects are so far away, that even after travelling great distances, the change in angle between the moth and the light source is negligible; further, the moon will always be in the upper part of the visual field, or on the horizon. When a moth encounters a much closer artificial light and uses it for navigation, the angle changes noticeably after only a short distance, in addition to being often below the horizon. The moth instinctively attempts to correct by turning toward the light, causing airborne moths to come plummeting downward, and resulting in a spiral flight path that gets closer and closer to the light source.[14]

Notable moths[edit]

Moths of economic significance

Gallery[edit]

Leaf shaped moth 
Giant grey moth 
Six-Spot Burnet Moth (Zygaena filipendulae) extracting nectar from a Knautia flower 
Protective silk (or similar material) case (cocoon). 
A Caterpillar of Death's-head Hawk-moth 
Mating pair of Laothoe populi, or Poplar Hawk-moths, showing two different color variants. 
White-Lined Sphinx moth in Colorado, United States 
Marbled emperor moth Heniocha dyops in Botswana 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Moths". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  2. ^ Scoble, MJ 1995. The Lepidoptera: form, function and diversity. Oxford, UK: The Oxford University Press; 404 p.
  3. ^ Darby, Gene (1958). What is a Butterfly. Chicago: Benefic Press. p. 41. 
  4. ^ Chihuahuan Desert Nature Center
    Evolution of Moths and Butterflies
    Studying the evolution of butterflies and moths is challenging, since fossils are so rare. But the few Lepidopteran fossils that exist, captured in amber or compressed in fine-grained rocks, show an astonishing amount of detail. The earliest Lepidopteran fossils appear in rocks that are about 190 million years old. These tiny fragments of scaled wings and bodies clearly indicate that moths evolved before butterflies.
  5. ^ The First Decade of Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States. USDA.
  6. ^ a b Scott, Thomas (1995). Concise Encyclopedia Biology. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-010661-2.
  7. ^ How to Manage Pests: Pests of Homes, Structures, People, and Pets
  8. ^ "Table 74. Raw silk: production (including waste)". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2008-10-02. "Table lists worldwide raw silk production 132,400 metric tonnes in 2002" 
  9. ^ "Silk Exchanges of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh". Central Silk Board of India. Archived from the original on March 7, 2003.  gives silk prices in rupees. Exchange rate is about 50 RS to dollar.
  10. ^ "Silk Worm Farming". Vegan Society. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-02. "World Raw Silk Production in 1996 is listed as 83,670 metric tonnes" 
  11. ^ Jones, G; D A Waters (2000). "Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency". Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 267 (1453): 1627–32. doi:10.1098/rspb.2000.1188. PMC 1690724. PMID 11467425. 
  12. ^ Kaplan, Matt (July 17, 2009) Moths Jam Bat Sonar, Throw the Predators Off Course. National Geographic News
  13. ^ Some Moths Escape Bats By Jamming Sonar (video). npr.org. July 17, 2009.
  14. ^ "Why Are Moths Attracted to Flame?". npr.org. August 18, 2007. 
  15. ^ Tait, Malcolm (2006). Animal Tragic: Popular Misconceptions of Wildlife Through the Centuries. Think Books. p. 38. ISBN 1-84525-015-X. 
  16. ^ Brundage, Adrienne (March 23, 2009), Other Arthropods of Forensic Importance, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University Forensic Entomology Lecture

External links[edit]