|Type||Subsidiary of Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Industry||Computer and video games
|Founded||1985 (as Jam Software)
1989 (as Naughty Dog)
|Headquarters||Santa Monica, California, United States|
|Key people||Evan Wells (co-president)
Christophe Balestra (co-president)
Amy Hennig (creative director, Uncharted)
Neil Druckmann (creative director, The Last of Us)
Justin Richmond (game director, Uncharted)
Bruce Straley (game director, The Last of Us)
|Products||Crash Bandicoot (1996-1999)
Jak and Daxter (2001-2013)
The Last of Us (2013)
Sony Computer Entertainment (2001–)
Naughty Dog, Inc. (known as Jam Software before renaming in 1989) is an American video game developer based in Santa Monica, California. Founded by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin in 1985 as an independent developer, the studio was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment in 2001. Gavin and Rubin produced a sequence of progressively more successful games, including Rings of Power for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive and Way of the Warrior for the 3DO. The latter — a very low-budget but still plausible offering — prompted Universal Interactive Studios to sign the duo to a three-title deal and fund the expansion of the company.
Mark Cerny, who was a programmer for Sonic the Hedgehog 2 for Sega, convinced Naughty Dog to focus its new resources on creating a character-based platform game that would fully exploit the 3D capabilities of the new systems. Ultimately, this led to the release of Crash Bandicoot for the PlayStation on August 31, 1996. Naughty Dog developed three Crash Bandicoot sequels over the next several years. In January 2001, it was announced Sony would acquire Naughty Dog. After developing Crash Team Racing, the company began working on Jak and Daxter for the PlayStation 2.
In 2004, Naughty Dog's studio president and co-founder, Jason Rubin, left the company to work on a new project named Iron and the Maiden. In addition to their inhouse game team, Naughty Dog is also home to the ICE Team (Initiative for a Common Engine Team), one of SCE Worldwide Studios's central technology groups. The company's first PlayStation 3 title, Uncharted: Drake's Fortune, was released in 2007, its sequel, Uncharted 2: Among Thieves, in 2009, and Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception in November 2011. Naughty Dog was known for having a history of not only developing one game at a time, but only one franchise per console; a trend that has garnered heavy amounts of criticism from fans. This lasted until Naughty Dog announced a new intellectual property called The Last of Us at the Spike Video Game Awards on December 10, 2011 for the PlayStation 3, which was in development by a second team at the studio and was released in June 2013 to overwhelming critical acclaim.
High school students, Jason Rubin and Andy Gavin, having experimented with Lisp and C++, teamed up to create video games and founded "Jam Software" in 1985. Rubin and Gavin chose to only create software for the Apple II and decided to create a skiing game for their second title. During production of the game, Gavin accidentally copied bootleg games over the only copy of the skiing game they had. Rubin then created a new skiing game called Ski Crazed (originally titled Ski Stud) within the weekend. Because the game played slowly, Gavin reprogrammed the game to play quicker. The game was later picked up and published by Baudville, who bought the game from Jam Software for $250. Rubin and Gavin then created an Apple IIGS graphic adventure game titled Dream Zone, which was released in 1988 and ported to the Atari ST, Amiga and personal computer.
In 1989, Rubin and Gavin released another game titled Keef the Thief, which was published by Electronic Arts for the Apple IIGS, Amiga and personal computer. To make a fresh start and to dissolve their relationship with Baudville, Rubin and Gavin renamed Jam Software as Naughty Dog. In the early 90's, Naughty Dog created Rings of Power, which was published by Electronic Arts for the Mega Drive/Genesis in 1991. By that time, Rubin and Gavin were in college and Naughty Dog was bankrupt.
Rubin and Gavin (along with friends) then produced the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer title Way of the Warrior and presented it to Mark Cerny of Universal Interactive Studios (later Vivendi Games, now defunct). Cerny was pleased with Way of the Warrior and signed Naughty Dog on to Universal Interactive Studios for three additional games. Rubin and Gavin devised a plan to create a three-dimensional action-platform game. Because the player would be forced to constantly look at the character's rear, the game was jokingly codenamed "Sonic's Ass Game".
Production of the game began in 1994, during which Naughty Dog expanded its number of employees and invented a development tool called "Goal Oriented Object LISP", to create the characters and gameplay. Cartoonists Charles Zembillas and Joe Pearson were recruited to create the characters of the game, which resulted in the titular character Crash Bandicoot. After 14 months of development, the game was shown to Sony Computer Entertainment, who then signed on to publish the game. Crash Bandicoot was shown to the public for the first time at E3 and went on to become one of the highest-selling titles for the PlayStation console, selling over 6.8 million copies to date.
Since 2007, Naughty Dog has worked on the Uncharted series, and thus made their first official approach to realistic worlds and characters, in contrast to their Crash Bandicoot and Jak and Daxter series, which featured fantastical worlds set in a completely fictional setting. The Uncharted franchise has been universally praised for its cinematic quality and technical proficiency, and has sold nearly 17 million copies worldwide as of April 2012.
During the 2011 Spike TV Video Game Awards, Naughty Dog unveiled a new intellectual property, The Last of Us, described as a "post-apocalyptic third-person action-adventure game", following the plight of a teenage girl, Ellie, and her adult protector, Joel, in a post-apocalyptic United States overrun with humans infected with a disease reminiscent of the infection caused by Cordyceps unilateralis. The Last of Us received universal acclaim upon release.
In 2012 and 2013, Naughty Dog teamed with Mass Media Inc. to release the Jak and Daxter Collection. The collection contains high-definition ports of the original PlayStation 2 trilogy and was released for PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Vita respectively.
On November 14, 2013, during the PS4 All Access Launch Event on Spike, Naughty Dog revealed two teaser trailers. The first unveils The Last of Us's single-player DLC (a premiere for Naughty Dog), Left Behind, starring Ellie and Riley, a girl that she met during the events of the American Dreams prequel comic series. The second teaser revealed the studio's first PlayStation 4 title, the next installment of Uncharted, making the series their first IP to sprawl across two home console generations (excluding HD remakes).
as Jam Software
|Game title||Year released||Platform||Notes|
|Math Jam||1985||Apple II|
|Dream Zone||1988||Apple IIGS|
as Naughty Dog
|Game title||Year released||Platform||GameRankings||Metacritic||Notes|
|Keef the Thief||1989||Apple IIGS||First game developed by Naughty Dog|
|Rings of Power||1991||Sega Genesis||40.00%|
|Way of the Warrior||1994||3DO||Won the Best Animation Award for a 3DO game|
|Crash Bandicoot||1996||PlayStation||80.40%||Was the first non-Japanese game to receive a "Gold Prize" in Japan|
|Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back||1997||88.54%||One of the best-selling PSone video games of all time|
|Crash Bandicoot: Warped||1998||89.07%||91/100||Was the first non-Japanese title to receive a "Platinum Prize" in Japan|
|Crash Team Racing||1999||91.78%||88/100||Last Crash Bandicoot game developed by Naughty Dog|
|Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy||2001||PlayStation 2||90.22%||90/100||First game released after being acquired by Sony|
|Jak II||2003||87.90%||87/100||Won IGN Editor's Choice 2003|
|Jak 3||2004||85.42%||84/100||The game as #25 on their list of best PlayStation 2 games of all time|
|Jak X: Combat Racing||2005||76.96%||76/100||Last Jak and Daxter game developed by Naughty Dog|
|Daxter||2006||PlayStation Portable||86.35%||85/100||Collaborated development with Ready at Dawn|
|Uncharted: Drake's Fortune||2007||PlayStation 3||89.67%||88/100||Won IGN's Best Action Game and Best PS3 game|
|Uncharted 2: Among Thieves||2009||96.38%||96/100||Won multiple Game of the Year Awards|
|Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception||2011||91.78%||92/100|
|Uncharted: Golden Abyss||2011 - 2012||PlayStation Vita||81.66%||80/100||Collaborated development with Naughty Dog|
|Uncharted: Fight For Fortune||2013||67/100||Collaborated development with Naughty Dog|
|Jak and Daxter Collection||2012 - 2013||PlayStation 3
|81.56%||82/100||Collaborated development with Mass Media Inc.|
|The Last of Us||2013||PlayStation 3||95.04%||95/100|
|Upcoming 4th Uncharted entry||TBA||PlayStation 4||Announced at the PS4 All Access: Greatness Awaits launch event.|
Partnerships with other developers
Since working together in the same building on the Universal Interactive Studios backlot, Naughty Dog and Insomniac Games have had a close relationship. Producer Mark Cerny has worked extensively with both companies. They have made similar types of games. For example, in the late 1990s, Naughty Dog's Crash Bandicoot series and Insomniac's Spyro the Dragon series both competed on the PlayStation as character-heavy platforming games with imaginative environments. With the release of the PlayStation 2, the two series were left in Universal's hands, and both developers continued in friendly competition after the creation of their new flagship franchises (Jak and Daxter and Ratchet & Clank, respectively).
With the release of the PlayStation 3, both developers changed focus, with Naughty Dog's action-adventure series Uncharted and Insomniac's science fiction first-person shooter series Resistance, although Insomniac continued to work on the Ratchet and Clank series. Also, they are personal journeys against zombie-like creatures and armed humans/aliens. Both Naughty Dog and Insomniac have stated that they don't have plans for making a game together, even though, with Activision Blizzard holding the publishing rights to both the Crash Bandicoot and Spyro the Dragon characters, there have been a pair of crossover games released between the two, while Sony released PlayStation Move Heroes and PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale, both PlayStation 3 games which featured characters created by both Naughty Dog and Insomniac in the same game as well as characters created by Sucker Punch Productions.
Nate Wells, who formerly served as lead art director on Irrational Games' BioShock Infinite, announced in August 13, 2012 that he, along with several other Irrational members, was leaving the company due to internal conflicts; Nate revealed that he would begin working on the studio's survival horror title The Last of Us.
Sucker Punch Productions
Naughty Dog keeps some sort of relationship with Sucker Punch Productions due to Sucker Punch being owned by Sony. Sucker Punch is known for its Sly Cooper franchise and now for the PlayStation exclusive series Infamous.
Ready at Dawn
Didier Malenfant, a former developer of Naughty Dog, left the company in 2003 to form a new development company, Ready at Dawn, with former members of Naughty Dog and Blizzard Entertainment. Also, Ready at Dawn developed Daxter which was produced by Naughty Dog; this is a midquel to Naughty Dog's own Jak and Daxter series.
High Impact Games
Naughty Dog shared its library of assets to High Impact Games in order to develop Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier. The company is also made up of former members of Naughty Dog as well as former members of Insomniac Games.
- "Time Line." Naughty Dog. June 4, 2004. Retrieved on May 5, 2010.
- Jason Rubin set to exit Naughty Dog
- Mark Cerny's "Road to the PS4" @ Gamelab 2013 on YouTube
- Leack, Jonathan. "Crash Bandicoot, Jak & Daxter to Be Left Behind Says Naughty Dog". Playstation LifeStyle. Retrieved 08/04/2011.
- "From Rags to Riches: Way of the Warrior to Crash 3". Game Informer 66 (October 1998): 18–19. 1998.
- Goldfarb, Andrew. "Sony Has Sold 13 Million Copies of Uncharted Series". IGN.
- "Rings of Power Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Bandicoot Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Bandicoot 3: Warped Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Team Racing Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Crash Team Racing Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak II Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak II Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak 3 Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak 3 Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak X: Combat Racing Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak X: Combat Racing Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted: Drake's Fortune Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted 2: Among Thieves Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted 2: Among Thieves Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak and Daxter Collection Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted: Golden Abyss Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Uncharted: Fight For Fortune Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak and Daxter Collection Reviews". GameRankings. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Jak and Daxter Collection Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "The Last of Us for PlayStation 3". GameRankings. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
- "The Last of Us for PlayStation 3 Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 2013-06-05.