List of Neolithic cultures of China

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The Neolithic
Mesolithic
Fertile Crescent
Levantine corridor
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Qaraoun culture
Tahunian culture
Yarmukian Culture
Halaf culture
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
Ubaid culture
Byblos
Jericho
Pre-Pottery (A, B)
Tell Aswad
Çatalhöyük
Jarmo
Europe
Boian culture
Cernavodă culture
Coțofeni culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Dudeşti culture
Gorneşti culture
Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture
Hamangia culture
Linear Pottery culture
Malta Temples
Petreşti culture
Sesklo culture
Tisza culture
Tiszapolgár culture
Usatovo culture
Varna culture
Vinča culture
Vučedol culture
Neolithic Transylvania
Neolithic Southeastern Europe
China
Peiligang culture
Pengtoushan culture
Beixin culture
Cishan culture
Dadiwan culture
Houli culture
Xinglongwa culture
Xinle culture
Zhaobaogou culture
Hemudu culture
Daxi culture
Majiabang culture
Yangshao culture
Hongshan culture
Dawenkou culture
Liangzhu culture
Majiayao culture
Qujialing culture
Longshan culture
Baodun culture
Shijiahe culture
Erlitou culture
Tibet
South Asia
Mehrgarh

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion

Chalcolithic

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists. They are sorted in chronological order from the earliest founding to the latest and are followed by a schematic visualization of these cultures.

It would seem that the definition of Neolithic in China is undergoing changes. The discovery[year needed] of pottery circa 20,000 years BP indicates that this measure alone can no longer be used to define the period.[citation needed] It will fall to the more difficult task of determining when cereal domestication started.

The list[edit]

Dated English name Chinese name Modern-day location
8500 – 7700 BC Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 Yellow River region in southern Hebei
7500 – 6100 BC Pengtoushan culture 彭頭山文化 central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan
7000 – 5000 BC Peiligang culture 裴李崗文化 Yi-Luo river basin valley in Henan
6500 – 5500 BC Houli culture 后李文化 Shandong
6200 – 5400 BC Xinglongwa culture 興隆洼文化 Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border
6000 – 5500 BC Cishan culture 磁山文化 southern Hebei
5800 – 5400 BC Dadiwan culture 大地灣文化 Gansu and western Shaanxi
5500 – 4800 BC Xinle culture 新樂文化 lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula
5400 – 4500 BC Zhaobaogou culture 趙宝溝文化 Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei
5300 – 4100 BC Beixin culture 北辛文化 Shandong
5000 – 4500 BC Hemudu culture 河姆渡文化 Yuyao and Zhoushan, Zhejiang
5000 – 3000 BC Daxi culture 大溪文化 Three Gorges region
5000 – 3000 BC Majiabang culture 馬家浜文化 Taihu Lake area and north of Hangzhou Bay
5000 – 3000 BC Yangshao culture 仰韶文化 Henan, Shaanxi, and Shanxi
4700 – 2900 BC Hongshan culture 紅山文化 Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Hebei
4100 – 2600 BC Dawenkou culture 大汶口文化 Shandong, Anhui, Henan, and Jiangsu
3400 – 2250 BC Liangzhu culture 良渚文化 Yangtze River Delta
3100 – 2700 BC Majiayao culture 馬家窯文化 upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai
3100 – 2700 BC Qujialing culture 屈家嶺文化 middle Yangtze River region in Hubei and Hunan
3000 – 2000 BC Longshan culture 龍山文化 central and lower Yellow River
2800 – 2000 BC Baodun culture 寶墩文化 Chengdu Plain
2500 – 2000 BC Shijiahe culture 石家河文化 middle Yangtze River region in Hubei

Schematic outline[edit]

These cultures are brought together schematically for the period 8500 to 1500 BC. Neolithic cultures remain unmarked and Bronze Age cultures (from 2000 BC) are marked with *. There are many differences in opinion by dating these cultures, so the dates chosen here are tentative:

Year
(BC)
North-
east
China
(1)
North-
west
China
(2)
Middle
Yellow River
(Zhongyuan)
(3)
Lower-
Yellow
River
(4)
Lower-
Yangtze
(5)
Middle-
Yangtze
(6)
Sichuan (7) Southeast
China
(8)
South-
west
China
(9)
8500     Nanzhuangtou            
    8500-7700            
                 
8000                  
                 
                 
7500                  
                 
                 
7000           Pengtoushan      
          (including      
          Chengbeixi      
6500   Dadiwan Peiligang Houli   and Zaoshi)   Zengpiyan  
Xinglongwa Laoguantai Cishan 6500-5500   7000-5800   7000-5500  
6200-5400 = Baijia Jiahu            
6000   6500-5000 Lijiacun   Kuahuqiao        
    6500-5000   6000-5000        
                 
5500                  
      Beixin          
Xinle     5300-4500          
5000 5300-4800 Yangshao     Hemudu Daxi   Dapenkeng  
  5000-3000     5000-3400 5000-3300   Fuguodun  
        Majiabang     5000-3000  
4500 Zhaobaogou       5000-4000        
4500-4000     Dawenkou Songze        
      4300-2600 4000-3000        
4000                  
                 
                 
3500           Qujialing      
Hongshan         3500-2600 Yingpanshan    
(incl. Fuhe) Majiayao     Liangzhu   ca 3100?    
3000 3400-2300 3300-2700     3200-1800     Tanishan  
  Banshan *Henan-     Shijiahe Baodun Shixia  
  2700-2400 Longshan *Shandong-   2500-2000 2800-2000 Nianyuzhuan  
2500   Machang 2800-2000 Longshan   Qinglongquan   Qinglongquan  
  2400-2000   2600-2000   = (Hubei-   Hedang Baiyangcun
  *Qijia       Longshan)   3000-.... 2200-2100
2000 *Xiajiadian 2300-1800       2400-2000     Dalongtan
2000-300   *Erlitou *Yueshi         2100-2000
  *Siba 1900-1500 1900-1500 *Maqiao        
1500   1950-1500 Xia
Dynasty
??
  1800-1200 *Chang Jiang
(Sanxingdui)
from 1500    

For this schematic outline of its neolithic cultures China has been divided into the following nine parts:

  1. Northeast China: Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.
  2. Northwest China (Upper Yellow River): Gansu, Qinghai and western part of Shaanxi.
  3. North-central China (Middle Yellow River): Shanxi, Hebei, western part of Henan and eastern part of Shaanxi. This is called the North China Plain, until recently seen as where Chinese civilization originated from and spread out along the country.
  4. Eastern China (lower Yellow River): Shandong, Anhui, northern part of Jiangsu and eastern part Henan.
  5. East-south-eastern China (lower Yangtze): Zhejiang and biggest part of Jiangsu.
  6. South-central China (middle Yangtze): Hubei and northern part of Hunan.
  7. Sichuan and upper Yangtze.
  8. Southeast China: Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, southern part of Hunan, lower Red River in the northern part of Vietnam and the island of Taiwan.
  9. Southwest China: Yunnan and Guizhou.
Map of the Chinese Neolithic

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Chang Kwang-chih, The Archaeology of Ancient China, Yale University Press: New Haven, 1986 (Fourth Edition Revised and Enlarged), ISBN 0-300-03784-8.
  • Loewe, Michael en Edward L. Shaughnessy (ed.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China. From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-47030-7.
  • He, Zhonghu, and Alain P.A. Bonjean, Cereals in China, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 2010, ISBN 978-970-648-177-1
  • Higham, Charles, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1996, ISBN 0-521-49660-8.
  • Li Liu,The Chinese Neolithic. Trajectories to Early States, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2004, ISBN 0-521-81184-8.
  • Maisels, Charles Keith, Early Civilizations of the Old World. The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China, Routledge: Londen 1999, ISBN 0-415-10976-0.
  • Scarre, Chris (ed.), The Human Past. World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies, Thames & Hudson: Londen 2005, ISBN 0-500-28531-4.
chapter 7, Higham, Charles, 'East Asian Agriculture and Its Impact', p.234-264.
chapter 15,Higham, Charles, 'Complex Societies of East and Southeast Asia', p.552-594