News International phone hacking scandal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rupert Murdoch, chairman and chief executive officer of News Corporation, the parent company of News International

The News International phone-hacking scandal is a controversy involving the now defunct News of the World and other British newspapers published by News International, a subsidiary of the then News Corporation. Employees of the newspaper were accused of engaging in phone hacking, police bribery, and exercising improper influence in the pursuit of stories to publish. Whilst investigations conducted from 2005 to 2007 appeared to show that the paper's phone hacking activities were limited to celebrities, politicians and members of the British Royal Family, in July 2011 it was revealed that the phones of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler, relatives of deceased British soldiers, and victims of the 7 July 2005 London bombings had also been hacked. These revelations caused a public outcry against News Corporation and it's owner Rupert Murdoch and led to several high-profile resignations, including that of Dow Jones chief executive Les Hinton, News International legal manager Tom Crone and chief executive Rebekah Brooks. The commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police Service, Sir Paul Stephenson, also resigned his post. Advertiser boycotts contributed to the closure of the News of the World on 10 July 2011, ending 168 years of publication.[1] Continued public pressure shortly forced News Corporation to cancel its proposed takeover of the British satellite broadcaster BSkyB.

British prime minister David Cameron announced on 6 July 2011 that a public inquiry, which became known as the Leveson Inquiry, would look into phone hacking and police bribery by the News of the World, and also consider the wider culture and ethics of the British newspaper industry.[2] He also said the Press Complaints Commission would be replaced "entirely".[1] A number of arrests and convictions followed, most notably that of the former News of the World managing editor Andy Coulson.

Murdoch and his son, James, were summoned to give evidence before the Leveson Inquiry. Over the course of his testimony before the Inquiry, Rupert Murdoch admitted that a cover-up had taken place within the News of the World to hide the scope of the phone hacking.[3] On 1 May 2012, a parliamentary select committee report concluded that Murdoch "exhibited wilful blindness to what was going on in his companies and publications," and stated that he was "not a fit person to exercise the stewardship of a major international company."[4] On 3 July 2013, Channel 4 News broadcast a secret tape in which Murdoch dismissively claims that investigators were "totally incompetent" and acted over "next to nothing", and excuses his papers' actions as "part of the culture of Fleet Street."[5]

The negative attention garnered by the scandal eventually reached the United States, where News Corporation is headquartered and operates multiple media outlets. The Federal Bureau of Investigation launched a probe on 14 July 2011, to determine whether News Corporation accessed voicemails of victims of the 9/11 attacks. On 15 July, US Attorney General Eric Holder announced an additional investigation by the Department of Justice, looking into whether the company had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Contents

Early investigations, 1990s-2005[edit]

By 2002, "an organised trade in confidential personal information" had developed in Britain and was widely used by the British newspaper industry.[6][7] Illegal means of gaining information used included hacking the private voicemail accounts on mobile phones, hacking into computers, making false statements to officials, entrapment, blackmail, burglaries, theft of mobile phones and making payments to officials in exchange for information.[8][9][10][11][12]

Operation Nigeria[edit]

Private investigators who were illegally providing information to the News of the World were also engaged in a variety of other illegal activities. Between 1999 and 2003, several were convicted for crimes including drug distribution, the theft of drugs, child pornography, planting evidence, corruption, and perverting the course of justice. Jonathan Rees and his partner Sid Fillery, a former police officer, were also under suspicion for the murder of a private investigator called Daniel Morgan. The Met undertook an investigation of Rees, entitled Operation Nigeria, and tapped his telephone. Substantial evidence was accumulated that Rees was purchasing information from improper sources and that, amongst others, Alex Marunchak of the News of the World was paying him as much as £150,000 a year for the use of it.[13] Jonathan Rees reportedly bought information from former and serving police officers, Customs officers, a VAT inspector, bank employees, burglars, and from blaggers who would telephone the Inland Revenue, the DVLA, banks and phone companies, deceiving them into providing confidential information.[11] Rees then sold the information to the News of the World, the Daily Mirror, the Sunday Mirror and the Sunday Times.[14]

The Operation Nigeria bugging was discontinued in September 1999 and Rees arrested when he was heard planning to plant drugs on a woman so that her husband could win custody of their child.[15][13] Rees was convicted in 2000 and served a five year prison sentence.[16][13] Others individuals associated with Rees who were taped during Operation Nigeria, including Detective Constable Austin Warnes, former detective Duncan Hanrahan, former Detective Constable Martin King and former Detective Constable Tom Kingston, were prosecuted and jailed for various offences unrelated to phone hacking.[13][17][15]

In June 2002, Fillery had reportedly used his relationship with Alex Marunchak to arrange for private investigator Glenn Mulcaire, then doing work for News of the World, to obtain confidential information about Detective Chief Superintendent David Cook, one of the police officers investigating the murder of Daniel Morgan. Mulcaire obtained Cook's home address, his internal Metropolitan police payroll number, his date of birth and figures for his mortgage payments as well as physically following him and his family. Attempts to access Cook's voicemail and that of his wife, and possibly hack his computer and intercept his post were also suspected.[18] Documents reportedly held by Scotland Yard show that "Mulcaire did this on the instructions of Greg Miskiw, assistant editor at News of the World and a close friend of Marunchak." The Metropolitan Police Service handled this apparent attempt by agents of the News of the World to interfere with a murder inquiry by having informal discussions with Rebekah Brooks, then editor for the newspaper. "Scotland Yard took no further action, apparently reflecting the desire of Dick Fedorcio, Director of Public Affairs and Internal Communication for the Met who had a close working relationship with Brooks, to avoid unnecessary friction with the newspaper."[18]

No one was charged with illegal acquisition of confidential information as a result of Operation Nigeria, even though the Met reportedly collected hundreds of thousands of incriminating documents during the investigation into Jonathan Rees and his links with corrupt officers.[16][19] Fillery was convicted for child pornography offences in 2003.[16] Upon Rees' release from prison in 2005, he immediately resumed his investigative work for the News of the World, where Andy Coulson by that time had succeeded Rebekah Brooks as editor.

Operation Motorman[edit]

In 2002, under the title Operation Motorman, the Information Commissioner's Office,[20] raided the offices of various newspaper and private investigators, looking for details of personal information kept on unregistered computer databases. The operation uncovered numerous invoices addressed to newspapers and magazines, which detailed prices for the provision of personal information. 305 journalists, working for at least 30 publications, were identified as purchasing confidential information from private investigators.[21][6] Among those raided by the ICO was a private investigator named John Boyall, whose specialty was acquiring information from confidential databases. Glenn Mulcaire had been Boyall's assistant, until the autumn of 2001 when the News of the World's assistant editor, Greg Miskiw gave him a full-time contract to do work for the newspaper.[13] When the ICO raided Boyall's premises in November 2002 they seized documents that led them to raid the premises of another private investigator, Steve Whittamore.[22][23] Documents from that raid included "more than 13,000 requests for confidential information from newspapers and magazines."[13][18] These established that confidential information was illegally acquired from telephone companies, the Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency, DVLA, and the Police National Computer. "Media, especially newspapers, insurance companies and local authorities chasing council tax arrears all appear in the sales ledger" of the agency.[22] Whittamore's network of information gatherers gave him access to confidential records at telephone companies, banks, post offices, hotels, theatres, and prisons, including BT Group, Crédit Lyonnais, Goldman Sachs, Hang Seng Bank, Glen Parva prison, and Stocken prison.[23]

Although the ICO issued two reports, "What price privacy?" in May 2006 and "What price privacy now?" in December 2006, much of the information obtained through Operation Motorman was not made public.[22][24] Although there was evidence of many people being engaged in illegal activity, relatively few were questioned. Operation Motorman's lead investigator said during a 2006 inquiry that "his team were told not to interview journalists involved. The investigator...accused authorities of being too 'frightened' to tackle journalists."[25] The newspaper with the highest number of requests was the Daily Mail with 952 transactions by 58 journalists; the News of the World came fifth in the table, with 182 transactions from 19 journalists.[21] The Daily Mail immediately issued a press release, in which it rejected the accusations within the report insisting it only used private investigators to confirm public information, such as dates of birth.[21]

Operation Glade[edit]

Learning that Steve Whittamore was obtaining information from the police national computer, the Information Commissioner contacted the Metropolitan Police and the Met's anti-corruption unit initiated Operation Glade.[13] Whittamore's detailed records identified 27 different journalists as having commissioned his work and spent tens of thousands of pounds to acquire confidential information from him. Invoices submitted to News International "sometimes made explicit reference to obtaining a target's details from their phone number or their vehicle registration."[23] Between February 2004 and April 2005, the Crown Prosecution Service charged ten men working for private detective agencies with crimes relating to the illegal acquisition of confidential information.[26][13][27] No journalists were charged.[27] Whittamore, Boyall, and two others pleaded guilty in April 2005. According to ICO head Richard Thomas, "each pleaded guilty yet, despite the extent and the frequency of their admitted criminality, each was conditionally discharged [for two years], raising important questions for public policy."[13][22]

2005–2006: Royal phone hacking scandal[edit]

On 13 November 2005, the News of the World published an article written by royal editor Clive Goodman, claiming that Prince William was in the process of borrowing a portable editing suite from ITV royal correspondent Tom Bradby. Following the publication, the Prince and Bradby met to try to figure out how the details of their arrangement had been leaked, as only two other people were aware of it. Prince William noted that another equally improbable leak had recently taken place regarding an appointment he had made with a knee surgeon.[28] After some discussion, the Prince and Bradby concluded it was likely that their voicemails were being accessed.[29]

The Metropolitan Police set up an investigation under Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke reporting to Assistant Commissioner Andy Hayman, commander of the Specialist Operations directorate, which included royal protection.[30][31] Clarke's team eventually concluded that the compromised voice mail accounts belonged to Prince William's aides, including Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton and not the Prince himself.[32] By January 2006, they had determined that there was an "unambiguous trail" to Clive Goodman, the News of the World royal reporter, and to Glenn Mulcaire, a private investigator. The detectives put Goodman and Mulcaire under survalence and on 8 August 2006, they searched Clive Goodman's desk at the News of the World offices and raided the home of Glenn Mulcaire. Here they seized "11,000 pages of handwritten notes listing nearly 4,000 celebrities, politicians, sports stars, police officials and crime victims whose phones may have been hacked."[33][34][35] The names included eight members of the royal family and their staff.[34] There were dozens of notebooks, two computers containing 2,978 complete or partial mobile phone numbers and 91 PIN codes, plus 30 tape recordings made by Mulcaire. Significantly, there were at least three names of News of the World journalists other than Goodman.[35] Also seized was a recording of Mulcaire instructing a journalist how to hack into private voice mail.[34] All this material was taken to Scotland Yard.

In August 2006, Goodman and Mulcaire, were arrested by the Metropolitan Police, and later charged with hacking the telephones of members of the royal family by accessing voicemail messages, an offence under section 79 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000.[36] The News of the World had paid Mulcaire £104,988 for his services, on top of which Goodman had additionally paid Mulcaire £12,300 in cash between 9 November 2005, and 7 August 2006, hiding Mulcaire's identity by using the code name Alexander on his expenses sheet.[37] The court heard that Mulcaire had also hacked into the messages of supermodel Elle Macpherson, publicist Max Clifford, MP Simon Hughes, football agent Sky Andrew, and Gordon Taylor.[32] On 26 January 2007, both Goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty to the charges and were sentenced to four and six months imprisonment respectively.[38] On the same day, it was announced that Andy Coulson had resigned as editor of the News of the World, while insisting that he had no knowledge of any illegal activities. In March 2007, a senior aide to Rupert Murdoch told a parliamentary committee that a "rigorous internal investigation" found no evidence of widespread hacking at the News of the World; two months later the Press Complaints Commission exonerated the paper in a report on phone hacking.[1]

After Goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty, a breach of privacy claim was started by Gordon Taylor, chief executive of the Professional Footballers Association who was represented by his solicitor Mark Lewis. That claim settled for a payment of £700,000 including legal costs.[39] James Murdoch agreed with the settlement.[40]

PCC investigations[edit]

The Press Complaints Commission, (PCC), is the organisation charged with self-regulation of the newspaper and magazine industry in Britain. The PCC's inquiry into phone hacking in 2007 concluded that the practice should stop but that "there is a legitimate place for the use of subterfuge when there are grounds in the public interest to use it and it is not possible to obtain information through other means."[41][42] News of the World editor Colin Myler told the PCC that Goodman's hacking was "aberrational", "a rogue exception" of a single journalist. The PCC opted not to question Andy Coulson on the grounds that he had left the industry, and not to question any other journalist or executive on the paper, apart from Myler, who had no knowledge of what had been going on there before his appointment. The PCC's subsequent report failed to uncover any evidence of any phone hacking by any newspaper beyond that revealed at Goodman's trial.[43]

In 2009 the PCC held annother inquiry, to see whether they were misled by the News of the World in 2007, and whether there was any evidence that phone hacking has taken place since then. Its concluded it had not been mislead and that there was no evidence of ongoing phone hacking.[44] This report and its conclusions were withdrawn on 6 July 2011, two days after it was revealed that Milly Dowler's phone had been hacked.[45][46][47]

2009–2011: Renewed investigations[edit]

It was reported that the News of the World may have hacked the phones of relatives of 7/7 attack victims (survivors pictured aboard one of the bombed Underground trains)

After the 2006 conviction of Clive Goodman and Glenn Mulcaire, and with assurances from News International executives, the Press Complaints Commission and the Metropolitan Police Service that a thorough investigation had identified no one else as being involved in phone hacking, the public perception was that the matter was closed. Nick Davies and other journalists from The Guardian, and eventually other newspapers, however continued to examine evidence from court cases and used Freedom of Information Act 2000 requests to find evidence contradicting this position.[48][49]

The Guardian July 2009 reports[edit]

A small number of victims of phone hacking engaged solicitors and made civil claims for invasion of privacy. By March 2010, News International had spent over £2 million settling court cases with victims of phone hacking. As information about these cliams leaked out, The Guardian continued to follow the story. On 8 & 9 July 2009, the newspaper published three articles alleging that:

  • News Group Newspapers, NGN, a subidiary of News International, agreed to large settlements with hacking victims, including Gordon Taylor. The settlements included gagging provisions to prevent release of evidence that NGN journalists had used criminal methods to get stories. "News Group then persuaded the court to seal the file on Taylor's case to prevent all public access, even though it contained prima facie evidence of criminal activity."[50] That evidence included documents seized in raids by the Information Commissioner's Office as well as by the Met.[43]
  • If the suppressed evidence became public, hundreds more phone hacking victims might be able to take legal action against News International newspapers and might lead to police inquiries being re-opened.[50]
  • When Andy Coulson was editor of the News of the World, journalists there openly engaged private investigators for illegal phone hacking and raised invoices that itemised illegal acts.[43]
  • Everybody at the News of the World knew what was going on and knew that there was no public interest defense for phone hacking. The way investigations had been pursued raised serious questions about the Metropolitan Police, the Crown Prosecution Service, and the courts which, "faced with evidence of conspiracy and systemic illegal actions,...agreed to seal the evidence." rather than make it public.[51]
  • The Met held evidence that thousands of mobile phones had been hacked into by agents of the News of the World and that Members of Parliament, including cabinet ministers, were among the victims.[50]
  • "The Metropolitan Police took the decision not to inform all the individuals whose phones had been targeted and the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to take News Group executives to court."[43]
  • News International executives had misled a Parliamentary select committee, the Press Complaints Commission and the public about the extent of their newspaper's illegal activities.[50]

Scotland Yard's response[edit]

When the Guardian articles were published, Metropolitan Police Service Commissioner Sir Paul Stephenson asked Assistant Commissioner John Yates to look at the phone hacking case to see if it should be reopened. Yates reportedly took just eight hours to consult with senior detectives and Crown Prosecution lawyers to conclude there was no fresh material that could lead to further convictions.[52] His review did not include an examination of the thousands of pages of evidence seized in the 2006 Mulcaire raid.[53] In September 2009, Yates maintained his position to the Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee saying, "There remain now insufficient grounds or evidence to arrest or interview anyone else and...no additional evidence has come to light.[54] Upon review of the first inquiry, he concluded that there were "hundreds, not thousands" of potential victims."[33] Yates told the Committee, "It is very few, it is a handful" of persons that had been subject to hacking.[55] Although Yates was aware of the "Transcript for Neville" email that indicated more than a single rogue reporter was involved, he did not interview Neville Thurlbeck nor any other journalist at the News of the World, nor look into the cases of victims beyond the eight named in court in 2006.[55][56] The Committee's findings, released in February 2010, were critical of the police for not pursuing "evidence that merited a wider investigation."[35][57]

The Committee Chairman John Whittingdale also questioned whether the Committee had been misled by several of the News International executives who had testified before it in 2007 that Goodman alone was involved in phone hacking. The Committee again heard evidence from Les Hinton, by then chief executive officer of Dow Jones & Company, and Andy Coulson, by then director of communications for the Conservative Party. Their report concluded that it was "inconceivable" that noone, other than Goodman, knew about the extent of phone hacking at the paper, and that the Committee had "repeatedly encountered an unwillingness to provide the detailed information that we sought, claims of ignorance or lack of recall and deliberate obfuscation".[57]

Assistant Commissioner Yates returned to the Committee on 24 March 2011 and defended his position that only ten to twelve victims met the criteria given to the police by the Crown Prosecution Service, CPS. The CPS denied that what they had told the Met could be reasonably used to limit the scope of the investigation.[58] Further, they claimed to have been misled by the Met during consultations on the Royal Household inquiry. Met officials reportedly "didn’t discuss certain evidence with senior prosecutors, including the notes suggesting the involvement of other reporters”[35]

The Home Affairs Select Committee also questioned Yates in 2009 about the Met's continuing refusal to reopen the investigation "following allegations that 27 other News International reporters had commissioned private investigators to carry out tasks, some of which might have been illegal." Yates responded that he had only looked into the facts of the original 2006 inquiry into Goodmans activities.[59] The Home Affairs Committee began another inquiry on 1 September 2010 and later published a report highly critical of the Met, stating, "The difficulties were offered to us as justifying a failure to investigate further, and we saw nothing that suggested there was a real will to tackle and overcome those obstacles."

The Guardian continued to be critical of Yates, who responded by hiring a firm of libel lawyers, paid for by the Met, to threaten legal action against anyone that claimed he had misled Parliament.[13][60] Eventually, as celebrities and politicians continued asking if they had been victims of hacking, Yates directed that the evidence from the Mulcaire raid, that had been stored in bin bags for three years, finally be entered into a computer database. Ten people were assigned the task. Yates himself did not look at the evidence saying later, “I’m not going to go down and look at bin bags. I am supposed to be an Assistant Commissioner."[53] He did not re-open the investigation.

Operation Weeting begins[edit]

Main article: Operation Weeting

The Metropolitan Police announced on 26 January 2011 that it would begin a new and fresh investigation into the phone hacking affair, following the receipt of "significant new information" regarding the conduct of News of the World employees.[61] Operation Weeting would take place alongside the previously announced review of phone hacking evidence by the Crown Prosecution Service.[62]

The first arrests as part of the new investigation were made on 5 April 2011. Ian Edmondson and the News of the World's chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck were arrested on suspicion of unlawfully intercepting voicemail messages.[63][64] Both men had denied participating in illegal activities. A third journalist at the newspaper, the paper's assistant news editor, James Weatherup, was taken into custody for questioning by the Metropolitan Police on 14 April 2011.[65][66][67][68][69] He had also dealt with some major fiscal issues, "managing huge budgets" and "crisis management" at the newspaper.[65][70][71]

The Guardian, referring to the Information Commissioner's report of 2006, queried why the Metropolitan Police chose to exclude a large quantity of material relating to Jonathan Rees from the scope of its Operation Weeting inquiry.[72] The News of the World was said to have made extensive use of Rees' investigative services, including phone hacking, paying him up to £150,000 a year.[73] On the basis of evidence obtained during one of several police inquiries into the murder of Daniel Morgan, Rees' partner in Southern Investigations Ltd, Rees was found guilty in December 2000 of conspiring to plant cocaine on an innocent woman to discredit her in a child custody dispute. He received a seven-year prison sentence for attempting to pervert the course of justice.[74] After he was released from prison the News of the World, under the editorship of Andy Coulson, began commissioning Rees' services again.[73]

The Guardian journalist Nick Davies described commissions from the News of the World as the "golden source" of income for Rees' "empire of corruption", which involved a network of contacts with corrupt police officers and a pattern of illegal behaviour extending far beyond phone hacking.[75] Despite detailed evidence, the Metropolitan Police failed to pursue effective in-depth investigations into Rees' corrupt relationship with the News of the World over more than a decade.[73]

On 12 July 2011, Metropolitan Police deputy assistant commissioner Sue Akers told MPs and the Home Affairs committee chairman Keith Vaz that police had contacted 170 of the 3,870 people named in Glenn Mulcaire's files to date.[76] There were 11,000 pages of the evidence[76] with 5,000 landline phone numbers and 4,000 mobile phone numbers[77] on them.[76]

April–July 2011: Admission of liability and new allegations[edit]

Apology and compensation[edit]

News International announced on 8 April 2011 that it would admit liability in some of the breach of privacy cases being brought in relation to phone hacking by the News of the World. The company offered an unreserved apology and compensation to eight claimants, but will continue to contest allegations made by other litigants.[78][79]

The eight claimants were identified in media reports as:[63][79][80][81]

At the time of News International's announcement, 24 individuals were in the process of taking legal action against the News of the World on breach of privacy grounds.[78] Comic actor Steve Coogan was reported to be one of the suspected victims of phone hacking.[63][80][81]

Hoppen lodged a further claim against the News of the World and one of its reporters, Dan Evans, for "accessing or attempting to access her voicemail messages between June 2009, and March 2010".[82] News International has not admitted liability in relation to the claim.[79][82]

On 10 April, Tessa Jowell and her former husband David Mills, Andy Gray, Sky Andrew, Nicola Phillips, Joan Hammell, and Kelly Hoppen all received the official apology and compensation, but actor Leslie Ash and John Prescott, who both had also claimed breach of privacy, did not.[82][83]

Politician George Galloway said the apology was a cynical attempt to protect Rebekah Brooks, while Scottish politician Danny Alexander predicted further arrests would be made. The shadow Welsh secretary Peter Hain called on the legal authorities to conduct a "full and proper public investigation" and then claimed the police investigation had been "tardy".[83]

The first individual to accept the News of the World's apology and compensation was actress Sienna Miller, who received £100,000 plus legal costs.[84] Sports pundit Andy Gray followed in June, accepting a payout of £20,000 plus legal costs.[85] Prior to the settlements, both individuals' litigation claims had been identified as phone hacking "test cases" to be heard in January 2012.

In April, The Observer reported claims from a former minister that Rupert Murdoch tried to persuade Prime Minister Gordon Brown early in 2010 to help in resisting attempts by Labour MPs and peers to investigate the affair, and to go easy on News of the World in the run up to the UK's general election of May 2010.[86] News International described the report as "total rubbish"; a spokesperson for Brown declined to comment.

The BBC reported on 20 May 2011 that a senior News of the World executive was implicated, according to actor Jude Law's barrister in the High Court. This report also said that the number of people whose phones may have been hacked may be much larger than previously thought. The High Court was said to have been told that "notebooks belonging to a private investigator hired by News Group Newspapers contained thousands of mobile phone numbers" and "police also found 149 individual personal identification numbers and almost 400 unique voicemail numbers which can be used to access voice mail".[87]

Milly Dowler's voicemail[edit]

It was first reported by The Guardian on 4 July 2011 that police had found evidence suggesting that the private investigator Glenn Mulcaire collected personal information about the family of the missing schoolgirl Milly Dowler, following her disappearance in March 2002 and the subsequent discovery of her body six months later.[88] According to the paper, journalists working for the News of the World had hired private investigators to hack into Dowler's voicemail inbox while she was still missing. It was alleged that they had deleted some messages, giving false hope to police and to Dowler's family who thought that she might have deleted the messages herself and therefore might still be alive, and potentially destroying valuable evidence about her abduction and murderer Levi Bellfield, who was convicted of Milly's murder and jailed for life in June 2011 – he had already been convicted of two murders and an attempted murder which all took place after Milly's disappearance and the discovery of her body. Dowler's phone had deleted the messages automatically 72 hours after being listened to.[89] The Guardian commented that the News of the World did not conceal from its readers in an article on 14 April 2002 that it had intercepted telephone messages and also informed Surrey police of this fact on 27 March 2002, six days after Milly went missing.[88]

In July 2011, it was announced that the Dowler family was preparing a claim for damages against the News of the World.[90] News Group Newspapers described the allegation as "a development of great concern".[88] Reacting to the revelation, Prime Minister David Cameron said that the alleged hacking, if true, was "truly dreadful". He added that police ought to pursue a "vigorous" investigation to ascertain what had taken place.[91][92] Leader of the opposition Ed Miliband called on Rebekah Brooks, the News of the World's editor in 2002, and then the chief executive of News International, to "consider her conscience and consider her position".[92] Brooks denied knowledge of phone hacking during her editorship.[93][94]

It was in the wake of the Dowler allegations that a significant number of people, including former deputy prime minister John Prescott and other politicians, began to seriously question whether the takeover of BSkyB by News Corporation ought to be blocked.[95] The Media Standards Trust formed the pressure group Hacked Off, to campaign for a public inquiry. Soon after launch, the campaign gained the support of suspected hacking victim, the actor Hugh Grant, who became a public spokesperson, appearing on Question Time and Newsnight.[96]

In January 2012 it was revealed that Surrey Police as well as other police forces knew soon after Dowler's death that News of the World staff had accessed her mobile phone messages, but did not take issue with this. Instead, a senior Surrey officer invited News of the World staff to a meeting to discuss the case.[97]

British soldiers' relatives[edit]

On 6 July 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported that the "phones" (more precisely, the voicemail accounts) of some relatives of British soldiers killed in action in Iraq since 2003 and Afghanistan since 2001 may have been accessed by the News of the World.[98] The personal details and phone numbers belonging to relatives of dead service personnel were found in the Glen Mulcaire's files.[99] In response to the allegations, The Royal British Legion announced that it would suspend all ties with the News of the World, dropping the newspaper as its campaigning partner.[100][101]

7/7 London attack victims[edit]

On the day before the sixth anniversary of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, it was reported that relatives of some victims may have had their telephones accessed by the News of the World in the aftermath of the attacks. A man who lost two children in the bombings told the BBC that police officers investigating the alleged hacking had warned them that their contact details were found on a target list, while a former firefighter who helped rescue injured passengers also said he had been contacted by police who were looking into the hacking allegations.[102] A number of survivors from the bombings also revealed that police had warned them their phones may have been accessed and their messages intercepted, and in some cases were advised to change security codes and PINs.[103][104][105]

Sara Payne[edit]

On 28 July, The Guardian reported that the News of the World hacked into the voicemail of media campaigner Sara Payne, whose seven-year-old daughter, Sarah Payne, was murdered in West Sussex by paedophile Roy Whiting in July 2000. This news was arguably met with even more public outrage than the Dowler revelations, given the prominent role that Rebekah Brooks and the News of the World played in spearheading the passage of Sarah's Law, which strengthened sex offender laws in the UK after the child's murder. Sara Payne has been an active campaigner in favour of such laws with News International and other media and charity organisations since the immediate aftermath of her daughter's death.

Brooks developed a long-standing friendship with Sara Payne in the years since her daughter's death; Payne wrote a column praising the News of the World's support for Sarah's Law in its final issue, writing that the paper's staff "supported me through some of the darkest, most difficult times of my life and became my trusted friends".[106] Brooks used the Sarah's Law campaign to defend the News of the World when she was questioned by the Culture, Media and Sport Committee.

Scotland Yard had reportedly found materials pertaining to Payne in Glenn Mulcaire's notes. They also discovered that Payne's voicemail was on a mobile phone given to her by Brooks, ostensibly to help her keep in touch with supporters. Brooks issued a statement denying that the News of the World was aware of Mulcaire's targeting of Payne, saying that such an idea was "unthinkable". Payne was said to be "absolutely devastated and deeply disappointed" at the disclosure, while a colleague close to her said that she was "in bits" over the affair.

Other victims[edit]

Some email messages were discovered suggesting Jonathan Rees[107] made requests for sums of around £1,000 for contact details of senior members of the Royal Family and friends.[108]

Former deputy prime minister John Prescott claimed he knew of "direct evidence" indicating The Sunday Times was involved in illegal news gathering activities.[109] Former prime minister Gordon Brown alleged his bank account was accessed by The Sunday Times in 2000, and that The Sun gained private medical records about his son, Fraser.[109] Rebekah Brooks telephoned Brown to tell him that The Sun was going to reveal that his son had been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis and tried to persuade him not to spoil the newspaper's exclusive by announcing it himself first.[110] The Guardian later ran a front page story accusing The Sun of improperly obtaining the medical records of Brown's son, but was later forced to issue an apology upon discovering that the information came from a member of the public.[111]

Other victims of hacking included former Metropolitan Police assistant commissioner John Yates, who revealed on 12 January 2011 that his phone was hacked between 2004 and 2005.[112] The phone of chat show host Paul O'Grady was also hacked by the News of the World after he suffered a heart attack in 2006.[113][114]

In May 2012 it was reported that billionaire Robert Agostinelli had been targeted by a private detective named Steve Whitamore working for Rupert Murdoch's newspaper to gain confidential information pertaining to Agostinelli's business affairs – this evidence brought to light the fact that high-profile U.S citizens were targeted by private investigators in the UK within Rupert Murdoch's empire. This was revealed once the Information Commissioner's Office raided Steve Whittamore's offices and was subsequently convicted of illegally trading personal information.[115]

In July 2011 it was reported that Mark Stephens had been one of a group of high-profile lawyers who may have been the victim of "News International phone hacking scandal".[116]

Mary Ellen Field, the former business manager of model Elle Macpherson, lost her job after Field was accused of leaking confidential information to the News of the World, which had published a story about Macpherson's split with Arpad Busson. Field realised their voicemails could have been intercepted after Glenn Mulcaire admitted in court to accessing Macpherson's phones.[117]

A cousin of Jean Charles de Menezes, the Brazilian man shot dead by police who mistook him for a fugitive suspected of involvement in the 21 July 2005 attempted bombings in London, may also have had his phone hacked by the News of the World after Menezes's death.[118][119][120][121] A spokesperson from the Justice4Jean campaign group said: "The Menezes family are deeply pained to find their phones may have been hacked at a time at which they were at their most vulnerable and bereaved."[118][119]

Carole Caplin, the former fitness adviser to Prime Minister Tony Blair, announced that the Metropolitan police had told her that her mobile phone was probably hacked, dating back to 2002 – along with the Milly Dowler case in the same year, this is one of the earliest cases so far discovered.[122]

Fallout from scandal[edit]

David Cameron[edit]

On 21 January 2011, the Prime Minister's Communication's Director Andy Coulson resigned his position citing "continued coverage of events connected to my old job at the News of the World".[123] Coulson had been editor of the News of the World but had resigned in 2007 in the aftermath of disclosures about the hacking of phones belonging to the Royal Household. Cameron had been warned by the editor of the Guardian prior to his winning the election that Coulson could become a trouble to him politically. This was because Coulson had links to a private investigator who not only had been in jail for 7 years, he was also about to be tried for murder. Cameron and his deputy Nick Clegg seemed to have ignored this warning given Coulson's later appointment to the senior Downing Street position.[124]

In March 2012 the Daily Mail published a story which it claimed was "evidence of the incestuous relationship between the Metropolitan Police and News International" and a political connection to David Cameron. In late 2010 the Mail had sought confirmation from the Prime Minister's office of a rumour theat that Cameron had been seen out riding horses with Rebekah Brooks's husband, Charlie Brooks, a horse trainer. Coulson, as Communications Director for Cameron had denied this. In March 2012, after the PM's office had denied the story again for 3 days, the Mail reported that Cameron had finally admitted that he had been out riding with Brooks back in 2010. He also admitted that the horse had been Raisa, a horse on loan to Rebekah Brooks from the Metropolitan Police.[125]

Closure of the News of the World[edit]

The closure of the News of the World after 168 years in print was the first significant effect of the scandal.

The final edition of News of the World, published on 10 July 2011.

In the days leading up to 7 July 2011, Virgin Holidays, The Co-operative Group, Ford Motor Company and General Motors (owner of Vauxhall Motors) had all pulled their advertisements from the News of the World in response to the unfolding controversy.[126][127] Other major advertisers who considered doing likewise included mobile phone operators Vodafone, O2, EE (T-Mobile and Orange), Deutsche Telekom, France Telecom, EasyJet, Lloyds Banking Group, German utility company RWE (owner of Npower), electricals retailer Dixons, and Tesco.[126][127] Kesa Electricals, owner of the Comet electricals chain, and Renault said they had no advertising plans scheduled in the foreseeable future and were also considering whether they should join any future boycott.[126]

James Murdoch announced on 7 July 2011 that after 168 years in print[128] the News of the World would publish its last-ever edition on 10 July, with the loss of 200 jobs.[129][130] News Corporation said that all profits from the final edition would go to good causes. Downing Street said it had no role in the decision.[131] James Murdoch conceded the paper was "sullied by behaviour that was wrong", saying "if recent allegations are true, it was inhuman and has no place in our company."[132]

Other executives of the company said the phone hacking was more widespread than previously believed and that they are co-operating with investigations into the allegations.[133][134][135] Editor Rebekah Brooks told staff at a meeting that she recognised following an internal investigation that "other shoes would drop", a phrase indicating that further revelations of wrongdoing would follow.[136]

There was immediate speculation that News International will launch a Sunday edition of The Sun to replace its sister paper News of the World.[137] The Sun on Sunday was launched on 26 February 2012.

BSkyB takeover bid withdrawn[edit]

Rupert Murdoch announced on 13 July that News Corporation was withdrawing its proposal to take full control of the subscription television broadcaster BSkyB, due to concerns over the ongoing furore.[138][139][140] The announcement was made a few hours before the House of Commons was due to debate a motion, supported by all major parties, calling on News Corporation to withdraw its proposal.[139] In a symbolic gesture the House later passed the motion unanimously by acclamation.[141][142]

New York State contract lost by subsidiary of News Corporation[edit]

The week of 22 August 2011, Wireless Generation,[143] a subsidiary of News Corporation, lost a no-bid contract with New York State to build an information system for tracking student performance as a direct consequence of the News International phone hacking scandal. Citing, ". . . vendor responsibility issues with the parent company of Wireless Generation," state comptroller Thomas DiNapoli said that the revelations surrounding News Corporation had made the final approval of the contract "untenable".[144]

Resignations[edit]

A number of senior employees and executives resigned from News International and its parent company after the emergence of the new allegations, along with high-ranking officers of the Metropolitan Police Service.

News International's legal manager Tom Crone left the company on 13 July.[145] As part of his role at the publisher, Crone had served as the News of the World's chief lawyer and gave evidence before parliamentary committees stating that he had uncovered no evidence of phone hacking beyond the criminal offences committed by the royal editor Clive Goodman. He maintains that he did not see an internal report suggesting that phone hacking at the paper reached more widely than Goodman.[146]

Two key resignations were announced on 15 July. Rebekah Brooks, the chief executive of News International, quit following widespread criticism of her role in the controversy.[147] In a statement, Brooks said that "my desire to remain on the bridge has made me a focal point of the debate", and stated that she would "concentrate on correcting the distortions and rebutting the allegations about my record".[148] Her exit was welcomed by political leaders. Prime Minister David Cameron's office said that her departure was "the right decision", while Leader of the Opposition Ed Miliband agreed but suggested that she should have departed ten days earlier.[147] Tom Mockridge, the long-time chief executive of the Italian satellite broadcaster Sky Italia, was announced as Brooks' replacement at the head of News International.[147]

Later on the same day, Les Hinton resigned as the chief executive of the News Corporation subsidiary Dow Jones & Company.[149][150] Hinton had served as chief executive of News International between 1997 and 2005. He had previously told parliamentary committees that there was "never any evidence" of phone hacking beyond the case of Clive Goodman. In his resignation announcement, Hinton said that he was not told of "evidence that wrongdoing went further", but indicated that he nevertheless felt it "proper" to resign from his position.[150]

On 17 July, the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and Britain's most senior police officer, Sir Paul Stephenson, announced his resignation with immediate effect. He had faced criticism for hiring former News of the World executive editor Neil Wallis as an advisor and for having received free hospitality at a luxury health spa owned by a company for which Wallis also worked.[151] Stephenson's resignation was followed by that of assistant commissioner John Yates on 18 July. Yates had been criticised for failing to re-open the original 2006 investigation into phone hacking at News International despite new evidence coming to light in 2009.

Dismissals[edit]

Matt Nixson was escorted by security from the Wapping headquarters of The Sun newspaper the evening of 20 July 2011. His computer was seized by News International officials and the police were said to have been informed. Nixson was a features editor at The Sun. It was reported that Nixson's dismissal was related to the time he spent at the News of the World from 2006, when it was edited by Coulson. At the News of the World he reported to assistant editor Ian Edmondson. [152] On 20 September it was reported that the Metropolitan police had written to News International to inform them that they did not intend to question Nixson over phone hacking. Nixson was reported to be considering bringing a case for unfair dismissal against his former employers.[153]

Leaves/Suspensions[edit]

Pending the result of an Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC – see below) enquiry into his dealings with Neil Wallis (see below), a former assistant editor of the News of the World, Dick Fedorcio,[154] director of public affairs and internal communication for the Metropolitan Police, was put on extended leave 10 August 2011. [155]

Cautions[edit]

Details emerged 7 September 2011 that senior journalist Amelia Hill of The Guardian was questioned under caution, but not arrest, for several hours by officers from Operation Weeting the previous week. Hill, 37, has reported the names of individuals linked to the phone hacking scandal minutes after their arrests and it is thought her questioning is linked to the earlier arrest of a 51-year-old detective suspected of leaking information to the newspaper. [156]

Apologies[edit]

A full-page apology ad published in British newspapers by News International. The letter, signed by Rupert Murdoch, begins: "The News of the World was in the business of holding others to account. It failed when it came to itself."[157]

From 15 July, onwards, News Corp began to change its position through a series of public apologies. On 15 July, Rupert Murdoch in interview with the News Corp owned The Wall Street Journal apologised for the News of the World letting slip the group's standards of journalism.[citation needed] Murdoch also alleged that the group's legal advisers, Harbottle & Lewis, had made "a major mistake" in its part in the internal investigation into phone-hacking in 2007.[158] On 18 July, Harbottle & Lewis issued an open letter outlining its position, and appointed Luther Pendragon to handle PR issues relating to the affair.[159]

On 16 and 17 July, News International published two full-page apologies in many of Britain's national newspapers. The first apology took the form of a letter, signed by Rupert Murdoch, in which he said sorry for the "serious wrongdoing" that occurred. The second was titled "Putting right what's gone wrong", and gave more detail about the steps News International was taking to address the public's concerns.

On the afternoon before the ads were published, Rupert Murdoch also attended a private meeting in London with the family of Milly Dowler, where he apologised for the hacking of their murdered daughter's voicemail. The Dowler family's solicitor later said Murdoch appeared shaken and upset during the talks. He added that the Dowlers were surprised Murdoch's son James did not attend and called on the News International chairman to "take some responsibility" in the affair.[160]

Further arrests[edit]

Since 1999, over 100 people have been arrested in conjunction with illegal acquisition of confidential information. Over 90 of these have been arrested or rearrested since police investigations were renewed in 2011. Of these, 26 have been formally charged with crimes.

Andy Coulson[edit]

The Guardian reported on 7 July 2011, that former News of the World editor and David Cameron's former spokesman Andy Coulson was to be arrested the following day, along with a senior journalist the paper refused to name.[161] Sky News reported on 8 July 2011, that Coulson had been formally arrested,[162] although the Metropolitan Police would only confirm that a "43-year-old man" had been arrested for "conspiring to intercept communications," he was then released without charge.[163]

However on 30 May 2012 Coulson was charged with perjury,[164] and later that year his and Rebekah Brooks trial date was set for 9 September 2013.[165]

Neil Wallis[edit]

Former News of the World executive editor Neil Wallis was arrested in west London on 14 July on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications. He joined the paper in 2003 as a deputy to Coulson and in 2007 became an executive editor before leaving in 2009. Later that year his media consultancy company began to advise Paul Stephenson and John Yates, two high-ranking Metropolitan Police officers, providing "strategic communications advice" until September 2010. During that time, Yates made the decision that the phone hacking needed no further investigation, despite The Guardian alleging that the previous investigation had been inadequate.[166] He was also paid to advise commissioner Stephenson and Yates.[121]

Rebekah Brooks[edit]

Rebekah Brooks, the former editor of the News of the World and former chief executive of News International, was arrested on 17 July 2011 on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and on suspicion of corruption. She was arrested by appointment at a London police station[167][168] by detectives working on Operation Weeting, the Metropolitan Police's phone hacking investigation, and Operation Elveden, the probe examining illicit payments to police officers.[169]

Following twelve hours in custody, Brooks was released on bail until late October.[170]

On 18 July, police reported the discovery of a rubbish bag containing a laptop, documents, a phone dumped in an underground parking garage near Brooks' home.[171] Brooks' husband had initially tried to claim the trash bag, which he said contained his property unrelated to the investigation.[172]

Ms. Brooks was arrested again in March 2012, this time on suspicion of conspiracy to pervert the course of justice.[173] Her husband, Charlie Brooks, was arrested with her. Two months later, on 15 May 2012, they were both charged along with four others with conspiracy to pervert the course of justice by allegedly removing documents and computers from News International offices to conceal them from investigating detectives.[174][175]

Stuart Kuttner, Greg Miskiw, James Desborough, Dan Evans and others[edit]

Stuart Kuttner, the former managing editor of the News of the World, was arrested on 2 August 2011 on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and on suspicion of corruption. He was arrested by appointment at a London police station by Operation Weeting and Operation Elveden detectives.[176][177] (Kuttner was re-arrested 30 August, for further questioning.[178]) On 24 July 2012, he was formally charged with conspiracy to intercept communications between 3 October 2000 to 9 August 2006 without lawful authority regarding communications of Milly Dowler and David Blunkett, MP.[179][180]

Eight days later, Greg Miskiw, a former News of the World news editor, was arrested on suspicion of unlawful interception of communications and conspiring to intercept communications. He was arrested by appointment at a London police station by detectives working on Operation Weeting, the police investigation into phone hacking.[181][182] On 24 July 2012, he was charged with conspiracy to intercept communications without lawful authority during the period from 3 October 2000 to 9 August 2006 from the phones of Milly Dowler, Sven-Göran Eriksson, Abigail Titmuss, John Leslie Andrew Gilchrist, David Blunkett MP, Delia Smith, Charles Clarke MP, Jude Law, Sadie Frost, Sienna Miller, and Wayne Rooney .[179][180]

James Desborough was arrested after arriving, by appointment, at a south London police station the morning of 18 August 2011 for questioning concerning criminal activities at the News of the World. His arrest was based on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications. Desborough was promoted to be the newspaper's Los Angeles-based US editor in 2009. Prior to that appointment, he was an award-winning show-business reporter based in London. [183]

Dan Evans, a former reporter for News of the World, was arrested and later bailed on 19 August 2011.[184] An unnamed 30-year-old man was arrested and later bailed on 2 September 2011.[185]

In an early morning raid on his North London home on 7 September 2011, deputy football editor of The Times Raoul Simons (on extended leave from his job since September 2010) was arrested and held for questioning on suspicion of conspiracy to intercept voicemail messages by police officers from Operation Weeting.[186]

A reporter working for The Sun was arrested and taken to a southwest London police station at 10.30 am on 4 November 2011. The man is the sixth person to be arrested in the UK under the News International-related legal probe, Operation Elveden.[187] The 48-year-old The Sun journalist Jamie Pyatt had been arrested by detectives on 4 November 2011 investigating illegal payments to police officers by journalists and has been released on bail.[188][189][190][191][192]

Jonathan Rees and Alex Marunchak[edit]

On 2 October 2012, two individuals associated with the earliest investigations (1999) into the phone hacking scandal were arrested. Private investigator Jonathan Rees and News of the World journalist Alex Marunchak were arrested for alleged offences under section 3 of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 and sections 1 and 2 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 by police officers working on Operation Kalmyk, part of Operation Tuleta dealing with computer hacking.[193] These arrests came thirteen years after Rees' premises were raided under Operation Nigeria, during which large amounts of evidence indicating widespread illegal trafficking in confidential information was seized by the Metropolitan Police Service.

Murdochs and Brooks summonsed to Parliament[edit]

On 14 July, the Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the House of Commons served a summons on Rupert Murdoch, James Murdoch and Rebekah Brooks, expecting them to appear before the parliamentary committee on 19 July. After an initial invitation to give evidence to the committee, Brooks stated she would attend but the Murdochs declined. Rupert Murdoch claimed to be unavailable on that date but said he would be "fully prepared" to give evidence in Leveson's inquiry, while James Murdoch offered to appear on an alternative date, the earliest of which was 10 August. The Murdochs did, however, later confirm they would attend after the committee issued them a summons to Parliament.[194]

Tom Watson and Martin Hickman report in their book Dial M For Murdoch that:

Unbeknown to members of the Culture Committee, the NOTW established a team to investigate their private lives. For several days, as chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck would later tell Tom Watson, reporters searched for any secret lovers or extra-marital affairs that could be used as leverage against the MPs.

Thurlbeck said: "All I know is that, when the DCMS [Department of Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee] was formed or rather when it got onto all the hacking stuff, there was an edict came down from the editor and it was find out every single thing you can about every single member: who was gay, who had affairs, anything we can use.

"Each reporter was given two members and there were six reporters that went on for around 10 days. I don't know who looked at you. It fell by the wayside; I think even Ian Edmondson [the news editor] realised there was something quite horrible about doing this."[195]

At their appearance before the committee, Rupert Murdoch said it had been "the most humble day of my life" and argued that since he ran a global business of 53,000 employees and that the News of the World was "just 1%" of this, he was not ultimately responsible for what went on at the tabloid; he added that he had not considered resigning. Meanwhile, his son James described the "illegal voicemail interceptions" as a "matter of great regret" but that the company was "determined to put things right and make sure they do not happen again". James Murdoch stated that News International had based its "push back" against new allegations on the combination of three pieces of evidence: that the Metropolitan Police had closed their investigation; that the Crown Prosecution Service had closed their prosecution; and that they had received the previously submitted written advice from their then legal advisors Harbottle & Lewis, that there was nothing to suggest phone hacking was not the work of one "rogue reporter" working with private investigator Glenn Mulcaire.[196] Towards the end of the Murdochs' two hours of evidence, a protestor sitting in the public gallery, identified as comedian Jonnie Marbles, threw a shaving-foam pie at Rupert Murdoch.[197][198] The incident propelled Murdoch's wife, Wendi Deng Murdoch, into the media spotlight for her athletic response in defence of her husband.[199][200] Marbles later said that he had "much respect" for Deng for fighting back.[201] Marbles, real name Jonathan May-Bowles, was sentenced to six weeks in prison for the attack.[202]

Harbottle & Lewis later commented that it could not respond to "any inaccurate statements or contentions" about the 2007 letter to News International due to client confidentiality.[196] Later on the same day, giving evidence to the Home Affairs Select Committee, former director of public prosecutions Lord MacDonald stated that it took him "three to five minutes" to decide that the same emails contained in the file passed to Harbottle & Lewis contained "blindingly obvious" evidence of corrupt payments to police officers, which had to be immediately passed to the Metropolitan Police.[61][203]

Brooks answered questions at the committee after the Murdochs and independently of them.[204][205] She began by calling the practice of phone hacking at the newspaper she edited as "pretty horrific".[206] Upon questioning, she confirmed that under her editorship she knew the News of the World hired private detectives but denied having ever met Glenn Mulcaire.[207]

The testimony of James Murdoch was questioned by two former News International executives. Murdoch had denied reading or being aware of an email, sent after he authorised an out-of-court payment to Gordon Taylor over the hacking of his phone, which suggested the practice was more widely used than just by a rogue News of the World reporter. A former editor of the newspaper, Colin Myler, and Tom Crone, the former News International legal manager, both said they "did inform" him of the email.[208]

News Corporation's management standards committee[edit]

On 18 July, News Corporation announced that its UK management standards committee would be removed from News International. It will now be housed in a separate building,[209] under the chairmanship of Lord Grabiner, and reporting to News Corporation director Joel Klein. As a result, existing News International executives Will Lewis and Simon Greenberg will resign their existing positions with News International and become News Corporation employees, focused initially on the clean-up of News International.[209] In September 2011 it was reported that the MSC was not issuing employees of News International who had had their contracts terminated with the reasons for their dismissal in case this would compromise the ongoing police inquiry.[210]

Death of Sean Hoare[edit]

On 18 July, former News of the World journalist Sean Hoare, who was the first reporter to tell of "endemic" phone hacking at the publication for which he used to work, was found dead at his home in Watford, Hertfordshire. A police spokesperson said the death was treated as "unexplained" but not suspicious.[211][212] In November 2011, the coroner for Hertfordshire concluded that Hoare died of natural causes after suffering from liver disease.[213]

Daily Mirror allegations[edit]

On 20 July Private Eye questioned how the Sunday Mirror had in early 2003 obtained a transcript of phone calls by Angus Deayton, and in October 2003 had come into possession of every call and text message made by Rio Ferdinand one afternoon (when he claimed to have missed a drugs test due to having his mobile switched off). The latter story was co-written by James Weatherup, who moved to the News of the World the following year.[214]

On 22 July, former Daily Mirror financial journalist James Hipwell spoke to The Independent, claiming that the practice had been "endemic" at the Mirror during his time there under the editorship of Piers Morgan.[215][216]

He also alleged that phone hacking took place at some of the Mirror's sister publications. Trinity Mirror, the publisher of the Daily Mirror and Sunday Mirror, rejected Hipwell's claims. A spokesman said: "Our position is clear. . . Our journalists work within the criminal law and the Press Complaints Commission code of conduct."[216] The BBC's Newsnight programme reported other sources at the Sunday Mirror confirming use of phone hacking, with one source saying "At one point in 2004, it seemed like it was the only way people were getting scoops." It was also said that the paper made use of private investigators.[218] On 26 July Trinity Mirror announced an internal review of its editorial procedures.[219]

On 3 August Heather Mills alleged that a senior journalist working for Trinity Mirror had admitted to her in 2001 that the company had access voicemail messages which they knew to have been obtained by hacking. In response Trinity Mirror repeated the statement used in rejecting James Hipwell's claims, saying "Our position is clear. All our journalists work within the criminal law and the PCC code of conduct."[220]

Also on 3 August Piers Morgan issued a statement through CNN, his current employer, that "I have never hacked a phone, told anyone to hack a phone, nor to my knowledge published any story obtained from the hacking of a phone."[221] However, this statement omitted comment on whether he had any knowledge of phone hacking by employees or paid contractors of the Mirror during the period he was editor there.

That Morgan did have knowledge of phone hacking is suggested in his own 2006 article in the Daily Mail regarding a phone message from Paul McCartney to his then girlfriend Heather Mills in which Morgan stated, "At one stage I was played a tape of a message Paul had left for Heather on her mobile phone. It was heartbreaking. . . The couple had clearly had a tiff, Heather had fled to India, and Paul was pleading with her to come back. He sounded lonely, miserable and desperate, and even sang 'We Can Work It Out ' into the answer phone."[222] On 3 August, Heather Mills told BBC's Newsnight: "There was absolutely no honest way that Piers Morgan could have obtained that tape . . . unless they had gone into my voice messages."[223]

Harbottle and Lewis[edit]

During the internal investigation into the unfair dismissal claim against News Group Newspapers Limited by Glen Goodman, News International hired law firm Harbottle & Lewis (H&L) and passed on hundreds of internal emails to them.[224] Lawrence Abramson of Harbottle & Lewis (H&L) wrote a letter on 29 May 2007, to News International head of legal affairs Jon Chapman which said that they had

The letter from Mr Abramson to Mr Chapman makes no mention of whether the e-mails contain evidence of wrongdoing by journalists other than Mr Goodman[225]

It was reported[when?] that NI executives urged H&L to give them a clean bill of health in the strongest possible terms, that earlier draft letters by H&L were rejected by NI, and that lawyers on both sides seemed to struggle to find language that said the review had found no evidence of wrongdoing.[226] This information was provided by "two people familiar with both the contents of the e-mails and the discussions between the executives and the law firm".

This letter was subsequently used by various News International executives in their defence during a parliamentary investigation into phone hacking in 2009.[225]

In July 2011, Rupert Murdoch alleged in interview with The Wall Street Journal that H&L made "a major mistake" in its part in an internal investigation into phone-hacking at News International.[157] On 18 July 2011, the H&L issued an open letter outlining its position,[227] and appointed Luther Pendragon to handle PR issues relating to the affair.[227] On 19 July, Lord MacDonald the former Director of Public Prosecutions engaged by News Corporation to review the emails handed to Harbottle & Lewis in 2007, said in evidence to the Home Affairs Select Committee:[203]

At his appearance before the Culture, Media and Sport Committee on 19 July, James Murdoch stated that News International had based its "push back" against new allegations on the combination of three pieces of evidence, and one of these was the previously submitted written advice from their then legal advisors H&L.[157]

On 20 July, H&L issued a statement saying that they had asked News International to release them from their professional duty of confidentiality, which had been declined by News International. The company had since written to John Whittingdale MP, chairman of the Culture, Media and Sport Committee, asking to provide evidence to the committee.[228][229]

On 21 July, News International authorised H&L to answer questions from the Metropolitan Police Service and parliamentary select committees in respect of what they were asked to do.[230] Neil Rose, editor of legalfutures.co.uk, commented that the exact form of News International's waiver means H&L will not be able to declare its innocence, but only answer questions by the police or parliament.[231]

On 22 July, Tom Watson MP published a letter from the Solicitors Regulation Authority, in response to his letter expressing concerns about Harbottle and Lewis's part in the phone-hacking affair. In the letter, Anthony Townsend, chief executive of the SRA said:[232]

The Culture, Media and Sport Committee wrote to H&L on 29 July asking a series of detailed questions about the interaction between NI and H&L.[233]

H&L replied to this request on 11 August.[234][235] in what was described as "a withering attack on News International and the Murdochs".[236]

H&L said that it provided very narrow advice on whether the emails in question could be used to support Clive Goodman's allegations that his illegal activities were known about and supported by other employees at NOTW. They were not retained to provide NI with a "good conduct certificate" which they could show to parliament.

H&L state that the terms of their contract with NI explicitly stated that their advice should not be disclosed to a third party without H&L's prior written consent. They also state that if NI "had approached them (as it should have done) before presenting the letter to Parliament as evidence of its corporate innocence, H&L would not have agreed to this without further discussion".

They also state that they could not have reported NI to the police even if they had found evidence of criminal activity in the emails, because of client confidentiality.

Their fee for the work was £10,294 + VAT. The letter suggests that this amount be compared with James Murdoch's evidence where he said that he had been told that the litigation costs in the Gordon Taylor and Max Clifford cases were expected to be between £500,000 and £1m.

Criminal charges and convictions[edit]

Charges and a total of 7 convictions concerning the illegal acquisition of confidential information were made in three separate waves in 2004/2005, 2006, and 2012. Further convictions resulted from the R v Coulson, Brooks and others trial which concluded in July 2014.[237]

Between February 2004 and April 2005, the Crown Prosecution Service charged ten men working for private detective agencies with crimes relating to the illegal acquisition of confidential information.[13][238][26][27] No journalists were charged. Three private investigators and two of their sources pleaded guilty or were otherwise convicted. Steve Whittamore and John Boyall pleaded guilty to breaching the Data Protection Act.[26] Alan King and Paul Marshall pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit misconduct in a public office.[26] John Gunning was convicted of acquiring private subscriber information from British Telecom's database.[13][27] Most of the evidence obtained during these investigations remained unevaluated at Scotland Yard for ten years. Boyall's assistant was Glenn Mulcaire until the autumn of 2001, when News of the World's assistant editor, Greg Miskiw, attracted Mulcaire away by giving him a full-time contract to do work for the newspaper.[13]

In August 2006, private investigator Glenn Mulcaire and News of the World Royal editor Clive Goodman were arrested.[239][240] During their court proceedings, a small number of other victims of Mulcaire's phone hacking were mentioned, including Sky Andrew, Max Clifford, Simon Hughes, Elle Macpherson, and Gordon Taylor.[241] On 29 November 2006, Goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty to conspiracy to intercept communications without lawful authority with respect to three of the royal aides.[241][242][243] It was clear from court testimony that Mulcaire had hacked at least five other phones and that he did work for more than just Goodman.[241][35]

On 15 May 2012, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) charged six individuals with conspiring to pervert the course of justice.[174] Charged in relation to removal of documents and computers to conceal them from investigating detectives were former News International CEO Rebekah Brooks, her husband, her personal assistant, her bodyguard, her chauffeur, and the head of security at News International. These charges were made about 1 year after the Metropolitan Police Service reopened its dormant investigation into phone hacking,[244] about 3 years after the then Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Service told the Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee that "no additional evidence has come to light,"[54] 5 years after News International executives began claiming that phone hacking was the work of a single "rogue reporter,"[245] 10 years after The Guardian began reporting that the Met had evidence of widespread illegal acquisition of confidential information,[7] and 13 years after the Met began accumulating "boxloads" of that evidence but kept it unexamined in trash bags at Scotland Yard.[16]

On 24 July 2012, charges were brought against eight former employees or agents of News of the World including head editors Rebekah Brooks and Andy Coulson. Of the thirteen suspects that had been referred to the Crown Prosecution Service by the Metropolitan Police Service for review under Operation Weeting, eight were charged with a total of nineteen charges, three were not to be pursued due to insufficient evidence, and two were to continue to be investigated. Seven of the eight were "charged with conspiring to intercept communications without lawful authority from 3rd October 2000 to 9th August 2006." All eight were charged regarding illegal interception of communications relating to specific individuals[179][180]

The trial R v Coulson, Brooks and others began in October 2013. In December 2013 the trial judge announced that Ian Edmondson was unwell and that his case would be considered at a separate hearing when he recovered.[246]

On 24 June 2014 the trial jury found Coulson guilty of one charge of conspiracy to hack phones and failed to agree a verdict on two other charges in relation to the alleged purchase of confidential royal phone directories in 2005 from a police officer. Brooks and the five remaining defendants were found not guilty.[237] On 30 June 2014 the trial judge announced that Coulson and Clive Goodman, would face a retrial on the outstanding charges.[247]

Sentences were announced on 4 July 2014, with Coulson receiving 18 months imprisonment, former chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck and news editor Greg Miskiw sentences of six months each, former reporter James Weatherup a four-month suspended sentence and former private investigator Glenn Mulcaire a six-month suspended sentence. Weatherup and Mulcaire also received 200 hours of community service.[248]

Further UK investigations[edit]

The scandal has triggered multiple investigations from various governmental agencies looking at other News Corporation-owned media outlets in addition to News of the World.

With the unfolding scandal at the News of the World came allegations that another News Corporation-owned tabloid, The Sun, itself engaged in phone hacking. In February 2011, the Metropolitan Police investigated the claims of Scottish trade union leader Andy Gilchrist, who accused The Sun of hacking into his mobile phone to run negative stories about him; the stories were published shortly after Rebekah Brooks was installed as the paper's editor.[249]

On 5 July 2011, the head of the Press Complaints Commission Baroness Buscombe said in interview with Andrew Neil on the BBC programme The Daily Politics, that she had been lied to by the News of the World over phone hacking.[250] Buscombe said that she did not know the extent of the scandal when she joined the PCC in 2009, but stated that she had been "misled by the News of the World" after she had previously concluded just the opposite.[250] Buscome further admitted that her statement put out in 2009, when the PCC had reviewed the 2007 evidence, that "Having reviewed all the information available, we concluded that we were not materially misled;"[251] was now[when?] in hindsight incorrect.[250] This led to Labour leader Ed Miliband calling the PCC a "toothless poodle," and in agreement with Prime Minister David Cameron proposed the creation of a new press watchdog.[252]

On 11 July, the day after the News of the World ceased publication, The Guardian reported that Scotland Yard was investigating both The Sun and The Sunday Times for illegally gaining access to the financial, phone, and legal records of former prime minister Gordon Brown. It was also reported that The Sun improperly obtained medical information on Brown's infant son to publish stories about his diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Brown issued a statement saying that his family was "shocked by the level of criminality and the unethical means by which personal details have been obtained."[253] On 22 July, the satirical publication Private Eye reported that sometime between 2001 and 2004, a PR man for the BBC series EastEnders had suspected his voicemail was being intercepted. The Eye said that the man's suspicions were confirmed when he had a friend leave a voicemail concerning a fake story about EastEnders, and that same evening received call from a Sun reporter declaring that they had "proof" of the fake story.[254]

Leveson inquiry[edit]

Main article: Leveson Inquiry

On 6 July 2011, Prime Minister David Cameron announced to parliament that a public government inquiry would convene to further investigate the affair. On 13 July, Cameron named Lord Justice Leveson as chairman of the inquiry, with a remit to look into the specific claims about phone hacking at the News of the World, the initial police inquiry and allegations of illicit payments to police by the press, and a second inquiry to review the general culture and ethics of the British media.[2]

On 20 July 2011, Cameron announced to Parliament the final terms of reference of Leveson's inquiry, stating that it will extend beyond newspapers to include broadcasters and social media. He also announced a panel of six people who will work with the judge on the inquiry:[255]

It was subsequently reported in the media that Leveson had attended two parties in the prior 12 months at the London home of Matthew Freud, a PR executive married to Elisabeth Murdoch, the daughter of Rupert Murdoch.[256][257]

Home Affairs Select Committee[edit]

The Home Affairs Select Committee (HASC) has taken various forms of evidence and undertaking during the whole affair, and continues to investigate various aspects as part of its normal parliamentary undertakings.

On the afternoon of 19 July 2011, the HASC took evidence from both holders of the position of the Director of Public Prosecutions, for the period which covered the scandal.[61] Lord Macdonald, in charge of the Crown Prosecution Service when prosecution of Goodman and Mulcaire was undertaken, stated that he had only been alerted to the case due to the convention that the DPP is always notified of crimes involving the royal family.[61] Committee member Mark Reckless, Conservative MP for Rochester and Strood, stated that the original 2007 police investigation and the 2009 review had both been hindered by the advice from the CPS, that "phone hacking was only an offence if messages had been intercepted before they were listened to by the intended recipient;" which was in fact incorrect.[61] Current[when?] DPP Keir Starmer in evidence stated that the CPS had told the Metropolitan Police that "the RIPA legislation was untested."[61] Mark Lewis, the solicitor acting for a number of phone hacking victims including the family of Milly Dowler, stated in evidence that he was sacked from his job when fellow partners at his law firm stated they no longer wished to pursue other victims' claims. Lewis stated that he, The Guardian newspaper, and Labour MP Chris Bryant had all been threatened to be sued by solicitors Carter-Ruck acting for AC John Yates, all the costs for which after the actions were dropped were picked up by the Metropolitan Police; Lewis submitted letters from Carter Ruck in evidence to the committee. In closing, Lewis stated that the reason for the investigation having taken so long was not only due to the Metropolitan Police: "The DPP seems to have got it wrong and needs to be helped out."[61]

On 20 July 2011, the HASC published their completed report on the UK Parliament website. In that report, the Committee says:[258]

"We deplore the response of News International to the original investigation into hacking. It is almost impossible to escape the conclusion voiced by Mr Clarke that they were deliberately trying to thwart a criminal investigation."[259]

Mark Lewis[edit]

Lewis, who is not connected with the Harbotte & Lewis firm, first engaged with News of the World in 2005 when it was moving to print a story asserting marital infidelity on Gordon Taylor's part. Lewis worked for George Davies Solicitors LLP in Manchester specialising in defamation cases and was able to persuade the paper not to run the story. In 2006, in the criminal trial over the hacking of royals' voicemail accounts, it became public that the paper had also hacked, among others, Taylor's voicemail. In his "eureka moment", Lewis realised then that it was hacked information which had led to the earlier story about Taylor. From that insight came the realisation that the paper had a potential civil liability from its hacking practices, and that led to Taylor's civil case. In 2011, working now with Taylor Hampton Solicitors in London, Lewis seems about to close a $4.7 million settlement in the Dowler case and has "more than 70 clients who believe News of the World illegally intercepted their cellphone voice mails", according to a Wall Street Journal story.[260]

Media, Culture and Sport Select Committee[edit]

The Culture, Media and Sport Committee spent 6 September 2011 questioning four witnesses: the News of the World's former editor Colin Myler, News Group Newspapers' former legal manager Tom Crone, its former group human resources director, Daniel Cloke, and News International's former director of legal affairs, Jonathan Chapman:.[261]

Independent Police Complaints Commission[edit]

The Independent Police Complaints Commission has been charged or filed to perform various investigations. These presently include:[262]

  • An investigation of the relationship between Commissioner Sir Paul Stephenson and Neil Wallis, and the Commissioner's stay at Champneys health resort
  • An investigation into the conduct of Assistant Commissioner John Yates, with regards his review of the original investigation in 2009
  • An investigation into the conduct of Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, with regards his conduct within the original investigation in 2007
  • An investigation into the conduct of Assistant Commissioner Andy Hayman, with regards his conduct within the original investigation in 2007
  • An investigation into Met Police head of PR Dick Fedorcio, his links with Neil Wallis, and the circumstances under which the Metropolitan Police awarded a contract to Wallis's media consultancy firm Chamy Media[262]
  • An investigation of the employment of Neil Wallis's daughter Amy with the Metropolitan Police, alleged to have been at the request of John Yates

Elizabeth Filkin[edit]

On 18 July 2011, it was announced that former parliamentary commissioner for standards Elizabeth Filkin would "recommend changes to links between the police and the media, including how to extend transparency."[263]

Clive Goodman's 2007 letter[edit]

It was revealed that both John Whittingdale and Tom Watson may need to speak to James Murdoch again as the Commons culture select committee about recalling James Murdoch. An MP has released a letter from the now jailed journalist, alleging senior News of the World figures knew that the hacking scandal was going on, when the former royal editor, Clive Goodman, wrote his letter to News International as he appealed against his dismissal in 2007.[264]

"The News of the World's legal manager Tom Crone attended virtually every meeting of my legal team and was given full access to the Crown Prosecution Service's evidence files." according to Clive Goodman's letter.[264]

Ethical concerns, legal concerns and possible implications[edit]

Criticism of News International culture[edit]

Private Eye cover satirising the scandal.

The effect of the phone hacking scandal originating with the News of the World also raised wider questions about the ethics employed by companies under Murdoch's ownership, as well as the effects the scandal will have on the ethics employed specifically by print journalists and to some extent the wider world of journalism.[265]

Murdoch had previously been criticised for building a media empire that lacked any ethical base[265] and replacing responsible journalism with "gossip, sensationalism, and manufactured controversy."[266] Karl Grossman, a professor of journalism at State University of New York at Old Westbury, accused Murdoch of building the most "dishonest, unprincipled and corrupt" media empire in history and of "making a travesty of what journalism is supposed to be about." Grossman also claimed that News Corporation changes the culture of their newly acquired news outlets, using them to promote Murdoch's political and financial interests. Once-acclaimed newspapers such as the New York Post, The Wall Street Journal, and The Times have been accused of becoming an "instrument" to aide politicians that Murdoch favours.[265]

In Newsweek in July 2011, one of Murdoch's former top executives was quoted as saying: "This scandal and all its implications could not have happened anywhere else. Only in Murdoch's orbit. The hacking at News of the World was done on an industrial scale. More than anyone, Murdoch invented and established this culture in the newsroom, where you do whatever it takes to get the story, take no prisoners, destroy the competition, and the end will justify the means." This same executive went on to say, "In the end, what you sow is what you reap. Now Murdoch is a victim of the culture that he created. It is a logical conclusion, and it is his people at the top who encouraged lawbreaking and hacking phones and condoned it."[266]

In 2010, it was also suggested that the journalistic approach of such newspapers at the News of the World had brought into public focus that there had been a shift away from the traditional ethics of journalism, raising serious questions about privacy, freedom of speech, and confidentiality.[267] There were also observations in the North American Press about the ethics employed by the News of the World. NBC New York noted that the old journalistic maxim, "Get it first. But, first, get it right," although speaking for accurate reporting does not address the situation where in the case of the News of the World information was allegedly obtained in an unethical way or by illegal means.[268] The approach was also criticised by Stephen B. Shepard, dean of the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism, who commenting on the phone hacking scandal, said: "It's wrong. It's not a grey area. What they did was illegal and, even if it weren't, it's just plain wrong. There's no defence for it. Even the government needs a warrant to get into a house or a computer. You can't break into something like this and get away with it."[268]

Ethical backlash[edit]

Prime Minister David Cameron first intimated in early July 2011 that an investigation by Parliament on media ethics and standards will be carried out. Soon after he announced that two independent enquiries, led by a senior judge would take place. This led to anxieties being expressed by newspaper editors about the impact of state media regulation on the free press.[269] There was also concerns amongst journalists that new regulations would be enacted as a means of reining in the press—"an attack on the power of the press itself"—rather than more effective self-regulation and ensuring a stricter enforcement of existing legislation to deter the use of phone hacking, breaches of privacy laws and bribery of public officials.[270] A further major concern was expressed that more stringent regulation will not assist the ordinary people who were the subject of investigative journalism, whereas powerful corporations will still have the money, power, and resources to get out of any tough situation they might encounter.[270]

The consequences of the exposure of ethical transgressions that occurred at News of the World have also led to concerns that such practices could be happening at other News Corporation titles in Britain. Furthermore there has been speculation that American news companies that are a part of Rupert Murdoch's media empire may have become implicated.[271]

In July 2011 the Ethical Investment Advisory Group (EIAG) of the Church of England, England's Established church, issued a statement stating that "The behaviour of the News of the World has been utterly reprehensible and unethical."[272] In August 2012 the EIAG further announced that it had no confidence in News Corporation's stated intention of returning to ethical practices, and that as a result all Church of England organisations would cease investment in News Corporation. In practical terms this involved the Church Commissioners and the Church of England Pensions Board in selling shareholdings valued at around £1.9 million.[273]

Impact in other countries[edit]

Australia[edit]

News Limited announces review[edit]

In light of News Corporations global review, John Hartigan, the CEO of News Corporation's Australian company News Limited, announced a review of all payments in the previous three years, and that he was personally willing to co-operate with any Australian Government led inquiry.[274] The Australian Green party called for a parliamentary inquiry into News Limited, but Hartigan directly denied allegations by both the Greens and the governing Labor party that News Limited has been running a campaign against them, describing his group's journalism as "aggressive but fair."[274]

Australian Government announces formal review[edit]

While the scope of the enquiry was yet to be finalised, a spokesman for the Communications Minister, Stephen Conroy, said that the current administration under the Labor Party had decided that an investigation was required.

The News Limited chairman, John Hartigan, vowed full co-operation with the government inquiry.[275]

United States[edit]

News Corporation owns a multitude of news outlets in the United States, including the New York Post, The Wall Street Journal, and the Fox News Channel. Several media critics[who?] have called for investigations into whether they too engaged in phone hacking activities. In addition to any possible illegal activities in the US, News Corporation and/or its executives might also face civil and criminal liability under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.[276]

In 2005 US Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) wrote to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales after a small New Jersey marketing company called FLOORgraphics alleged that News America Marketing engaged in illegal computer espionage by breaking into password protected computer systems and obtaining confidential information.[277]

Further controversy was aroused by an unsigned editorial[278] in the News Corporation-owned Wall Street Journal which lashed out against the company's critics, specifically mentioning the BBC, The Guardian and the news website ProPublica. At the same time, the editorial praised former Journal publisher Les Hinton, who had just resigned in the wake of the phone hacking scandal.[278] Many observers were frustrated by The Wall Street Journal's comments. In tweets, Jay Rosen, professor of journalism at New York University, referred to the "deluded dishonest whining victimology delivered in the form of a Wall Street Journal editorial on the phone hacking crisis" and Sarah Ellison of Vanity Fair commented: "Tonite's WSJ Editorial is sad. I've always defended the Edit page, but now It's a PR arm."[279]

Timeline[edit]

Key events in the scandal to date:[280][281]

  • February 2010 (2010-02) – A Culture, Media and Sport select committee report finds no evidence that News of the World editor Andy Coulson knew of phone hacking taking place at his publication. It does however say it is "inconceivable" that no one apart from royal editor Clive Goodman was aware of it.[282]
  • 9 March 2010 – The Guardian reports that publicist Max Clifford was paid £1 million to drop legal action that could have revealed more News of the World reporters hacked phones.[283]
  • 1 September 2010 – The New York Times quotes Sean Hoare, a former News of the World reporter, as claiming phone hacking was encouraged at the tabloid; he also tells the BBC that phone hacking was "endemic" at the paper and that Coulson asked him to do it. Paul McMullan, another former journalist at the News of the World, claims that other illegal reporting techniques were widespread.[284]
  • 5 January 2011 – The News of the World suspends assistant news editor Ian Edmondson over hacking allegations. Private investigator Glenn Mulcaire claimed Edmondson commissioned him to hack phones.[285]
  • April 2011 (2011-04) – Edmondson, journalist James Weatherup and senior reporter Neville Thurlbeck are all arrested on suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and unlawfully accessing voicemail messages.[286][287]
  • April 2011 (2011-04) – June 2011 – Several claimants, including actress Sienna Miller and football pundit Andy Gray, receive damages from the News of the World.[288]
  • 4 July 2011 – The Guardian reports that the voice mail of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler was hacked by the News of the World.[289] Rebekah Brooks was editor of the tabloid at the time but said it is "inconceivable" that she knew of the activity.[290]
  • 6 July 2011 – The Telegraph reports that relatives of the 7/7 attack victims were also hacked.[99]
    • Prime Minister David Cameron announces government inquiry into the unfolding scandal.[291]
  • 7 July 2011 – The Telegraph reports that relatives of British soldiers killed in action were hacked.[99]
    • The Royal British Legion announce it is severing all ties with the News of the World.[292]
      • News International announce the closure of the News of the World, with the last edition to be published on 10 July.[293]
  • 8 July 2011 – Andy Coulson is arrested over alleged phone hacking and making illegal payments to police.[294] Clive Goodman is also arrested on suspicion of making illegal payments to police.[295]
  • 11 July 2011 – The Guardian reports two other News Corporation outlets may have illegally accessed records of former Prime Minister Gordon Brown.[296]
  • 13 July 2011 – BSkyB takeover withdrawn by News Corporation.[297]
  • 14 July 2011 – Former News of the World executive editor Neil Wallis arrested.[298]
  • 15 July 2011 – Rebekah Brooks, chief executive of News International, and Les Hinton, chief executive of Dow Jones & Company, both resign.[299]
  • 17 July 2011 – Brooks arrested over corruption and phone hacking.
  • 18 July 2011 – David Cameron postpones parliamentary recess by one day.
  • 19 July 2011 – Brooks, Rupert Murdoch and James Murdoch appear before the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee.[302]
  • 20 July 2011 – Culture, Media and Sport Committee report released, Cameron appeared in parliament and at 1922 Committee.[303]
  • 20 July 2011 – Matt Nixson dismissed as features Editor of The Sun newspaper.[304]
  • 22 July 2011 – The Solicitors Regulation Authority announce an investigation into Harbottle & Lewis, the former solicitors of News International.[305]
  • 2 August 2011 – Former News of the World managing editor Stuart Kuttner arrested.[306]
  • 10 August 2011 – Former News of the World news editor Greg Miskiw arrested.[307]
  • 10 August 2011 – Director of Public Affairs for the Metropolitan Police, Dick Fedorcio, put on extended leave.[308]
  • 16 August 2011 – The Guardian publishes a letter by Clive Goodman that implicates senior staffers at the News of the World, including Coulson, in extensively discussing and covering-up phone hacking.[309]
  • 18 August 2011 – Former News of the World US editor James Desborough arrested.[310]
  • 18 August 2011 – Glenn Mulcaire begins legal action against News International.[311]
  • 19 August 2011 – Former News of the World reporter Dan Evans arrested.[312]
  • 22 August 2011 – (week of) News Corporation subsidiary Wireless Generation loses New York State contract for education information system provision.[313]
  • 30 August 2011 – Former News of the World managing editor Stuart Kuttner re-arrested and bailed until a date in September 2011.[314]
  • 2 September 2011 – Ross Hall, a former reporter for News of the World who wrote under the pen name Ross Hindley, is arrested.[315]
  • 6 September 2011 – Daniel Cloke, Jonathan Chapman, Colin Myler and Tom Crone are questioned by the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee.
    • Leveson inquiry has first hearing.[316]
  • 7 September 2011 – Deputy football Editor of The Times, Raoul Simons, arrested.[317]
  • 13 September 2011 – Australian Government announces formal inquiry into behaviour of the Australian media.[318]
  • 14 September 2011 – House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee decide to recall James Murdoch and Les Hinton for further questioning.[319]
    • The Leveson Inquiry provides background, scope, and procedural plans for the inquiry.[320]
  • 10 November 2011 – James Murdoch appears before the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee.[321]
  • 21 November 2011 – Leveson inquiry receives witness testimony from the family of Milly Dowler, solicitor Graham Shear, writer Joan Smith and Hugh Grant.[322]
  • 13 December 2011 – James Murdoch questioned by the House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee.[323]
  • 28 January 2012 – The former Managing Editor of The Sun Graham Dudman, Head of News Chris Pharo, Crime Editor Mike Sullivan and former Deputy Editor Fergus Shanahan are all arrested.[324]
  • 11 February 2012 – Sun Picture Editor John Edwards, Senior reporter John Kay, Chief Foreign Correspondent Nick Parker, Reporter John Sturgis and Deputy Editor Geoff Webster, as well as a serving British Army Major, his wife who works for the Ministry of Defence and a serving Police Officer are all arrested.[325]
  • 17 February 2012 – Rupert Murdoch flies to London to meet staff from The Sun angry at arrests.[326]
  • 1 March 2012 – James Murdoch resigns as executive chairman of News International and as chairman of BSkyB.[17]
  • 2 March 2012 – Police arrest The Sun's Defence Editor Virginia Wheeler.[327]
  • 7 March 2012 – Reports appear that two Sun journalists made suicide attempts.[328]
  • 13 March 2012 – Former News Corp. executive Rebekah Brooks arrested, along with her husband and four others.[329]
  • 29 March 2012 – Dick Fedorcio, Director of Public Affairs for the Metropolitan Police, resigns after proceedings for gross misconduct were started against him.[330]
  • 19 April 2012 – Police arrest The Sun's Royal Editor Duncan Larcombe. Also arrested are a 42-year-old man who served in the British Army and a 38-year-old woman.[331]
  • 3 May 2012 – Police arrest a retired Police Officer on suspicion of accepting payments.[332]
  • 14 May 2012 – Police arrest a 50-year-old man who works for HM Revenue and Customs and a 43-year-old woman.[333]
  • 25 May 2012 – Clodagh Hartley The Sun's Whitehall editor is arrested.[334]
  • 30 May 2012 – Andy Coulson detained by police and charged with perjury.[164]
  • 14 June 2012 – The Sun journalist Neil Millard, a 40-year-old Prison Officer and a 37-year-old woman are arrested. A Police Superintendent who is serving in the City of London Police is arrested on charges of corruption.[335]
  • 28 June 2012 – A 31-year-old man who is a National Health Service employee is arrested on the charge of corruption.[336]
  • 5 July 2012 – Daily Mirror reporter Grieg Box-Turnbull is arrested on suspicion of bribery and causing misconduct in a public office. Also arrested were a 45-year-old male Prison Officer and a 50-year-old woman. Later a 52-year-old female Scotland Yard Police Officer who is serving in Specialist Operations is arrested on suspicion of receiving illegal payments from journalists.[337]
  • 6 July 2012 – A 46-year-old man and a 42-year-old woman who both work for the National Health Service are arrested in Somerset. A 26-year-old man who is a Murdoch employee is arrested in Surrey.[338]
  • 12 July 2012 – Police arrest the Sunday Mirror's crime reporter Justin Penrose and The Daily Star Sunday's Deputy News Editor Tom Savage on suspicion of corruption and misconduct in a public office.[339]
  • 19 July 2012 – Police arrest a journalist from the Sun newspaper.[340]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Phone-hacking scandal: Timeline". BBC News. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Phone hacking: David Cameron announces terms of phone-hacking inquiry". The Telegraph (London). 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  3. ^ At British Inquiry, Murdoch Apologizes Over Scandal, The New York Times, 26 April 2012
  4. ^ British Panel Finds Murdoch Unfit to Lead Media Empire, The New York Times, 1 May 2012
  5. ^ Revealed: The Rupert Murdoch Tape, Channel 4 News, 3 July 2013
  6. ^ a b "What Price Privacy?". Information Commissioner's Office. 10 May 2006. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  7. ^ a b McLagan, Graeme (21 September 2011). "Fraudster squad". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Lyall, Sarah (29 Nov 2011). "British Inquiry Is Told Hacking Is Worthy Tool". New York Times. Retrieved 4 Aug 2012. 
  9. ^ "Undercover at the News of the World". Channel 4. 2 Aug 2012. Retrieved 4 Aug 2012. 
  10. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (3 Aug 2012). "Kieren Fallon says he felt suicidal over News of the World sting". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 Aug 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Davies, Nick (9 June 2011). "The NoW’s merchant of secrets". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  12. ^ Somaiya, Ravi (23 July 2012). "Murdoch Inquiry Extends to Cellphone Theft". New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Davies, Nick (11 March 2011). "Jonathan Rees: private investigator who ran empire of tabloid corruption". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  14. ^ Jones, Sam (12 July 2011). "Blagging – the dark art of the men Gordon Brown calls 'known criminals'". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  15. ^ a b McLagan, Graeme (21 September 2011). "Journalists caught on tape in police bugging". The Guaradian. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c d Davies, Nick (8 June 2011). "Phone-hacking scandal: Jonathan Rees obtained information using dark arts". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c Nick Davies (2014). Hack Attack. How the truth caught up with Rupert Murdoch. Chatto & Windus. ISBN 9780701187309. 
  18. ^ a b c Davies, Nick (6 July 2011). "News of the World surveillance of detective: what Rebekah Brooks knew". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  19. ^ Dodd, Vikram and Sandra Laville (11 March 2011). "Scotland Yard in spotlight as axe murder case collapses". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  20. ^ "Information Commissioner's Office". Information Commissioner's Office Website. Information Commissioner's Office. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c "Info Chief's broadside at Press over data crimes". Press Gazette. 15 December 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c d "What Price Privacy Now?". Information Commissioner's Office. December 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c Davies, Nick (30 August 2009). "Operation Motorman: the full story revealed". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  24. ^ "Background information from "What Price Privacy?" report". What Do They Know.com- Make and explore Freedom of Information requests. What Do They Know.com. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  25. ^ Robinson, James and Ed Pilkington (14 September 2011). "Phone hacking: 7/7 disaster victim's mother to sue NoW publisher". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c d Cozens, Claire and Chris Tryhorn (16 April 2005). "Police data sold to newspapers". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  27. ^ a b c d Watts, Mark (22 April 2005). "Private eyes charged with breaking data law in search of news scoops". PressGazette. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  28. ^ "Moment Prince William discovered 'voicemail scam'". Daily Mail (UK). 9 August 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  29. ^ Julia Day (9 August 2006). "Phone tap investigation widens". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  30. ^ Campbell, Duncan; Cowan, Rosie (29 July 2005). "The Guardian profile: Peter Clarke". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  31. ^ Nick Davies. "Police 'ignored News of the World phone hacking evidence'". The Guardian. 4 April 2010.
  32. ^ a b "Pair jailed over royal phone taps". BBC News. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Laville, Sandra and Vikram Dodd (7 July 2011). "Phone hacking: the hunt for corrupt officers and 4,000 possible victims". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  34. ^ a b c Van Natta, Don Jr. (16 July 2011). "Stain From Tabloids Rubs Off on a Cozy Scotland Yard". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c d e Van Natta, Don Jr., Jo Becker, and Grahm Bowley (1 September 2010). "Tabloid Hack Attack on Royals, and Beyond". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  36. ^ "Two charged in 'phone-tap' probe". BBC News. 9 August 2006. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  37. ^ Chris Tryhorn (26 January 2007). "Clive Goodman sentenced to four months". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  38. ^ "Pair jailed over royal phone taps". BBC News. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  39. ^ Don Van Natta, Jr., Jo Becker, and Graham Bowley (1 September 2010). "Tabloid Hack Attack on Royals, and Beyond". The New York Times. 
  40. ^ Stephen Brook (21 July 2009). "James Murdoch 'agreed with payout to Gordon Taylor for privacy claim'". The Guardian (London). 
  41. ^ "PCC Report on Subterfuge and Newsgathering". Press Complaints Commission. May 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  42. ^ Preston, Peter (6 February 2011). "PCC editors failed to sound the phone-hacking alarm". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  43. ^ a b c d Davies, Nick (8 July 2011). "Trail of hacking and deceit under nose of Tory PR chief". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  44. ^ "PCC report on phone message tapping allegations". Press Complaints Commission. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  45. ^ "Statement from the PCC on phone hacking following meeting today (6 July 2011)". Press Complaints Commission. 6 July 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  46. ^ "Letter from Baroness Buscombe to John Whittingdale". Press Complaints Commission. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  47. ^ Robinson, James (24 February 2010). "News of the World phone-hacking scandal: the verdicts". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  48. ^ Rusbridger, Alan (17 July 2011). "How We Broke the Murdoch Scandal- Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger on his dogged reporter, a U.S Ally—and a gamble that finally paid off.". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  49. ^ "Correspondence Between The New York Times and Scotland Yard". The New York Times. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011. 
  50. ^ a b c d Davies, Nick (8 July 2009). "Murdoch papers paid £1m to gag phone-hacking victims". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  51. ^ Dodd, Vikram (8 July 2009). "Ex-Murdoch editor Andrew Neil: News of the World revelations one of most significant media stories of our time". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  52. ^ Wilson, Cherry (9 July 2011). "John Yates expresses 'massive regret' over phone hacking investigation". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  53. ^ a b Palmer, Alasdair and Robert Mendick (9 July 2011). "John Yates: Phone hacking investigation was a 'cock up'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  54. ^ a b "Examination of Witnesses (Question Numbers 1889-1899)-Assistant Commissioner John Yates and Detective Chief Superintendent Philip Williams". UK Parliament. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  55. ^ a b "Examination of Witnesses (Question Numbers 1900-1919)-Assistant Commissioner John Yates and Detective Chief Superintendent Philip Williams". UK Parliament. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  56. ^ "Phone hacking: Transcript of MPs questioning Met police in 2009". The Guardian. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  57. ^ a b "Press standards, privacy and libel- Second Report of Session 2009–10 Volume I Report, together with formal minutes". Press standards, privacy and libel. UK Parliament- Culture, Media and Sport Committee. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  58. ^ Davies, Nick (24 March 2011). "Phone hacking: Metropolitian police chief keeps up row with DPP". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 Sep 2012. 
  59. ^ Leyden, John (15 July 2009). "MPs shown 'email evidence' of wider NotW snooping alert print tweet'One bad apple' defence wormed into". The Register. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  60. ^ Laville, Sandra (25 August 2011). "Scotland Yard paid John Yates's legal bills". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f g Owen Bowcott (19 July 2011). "News Corp board shocked at evidence of payments to police, says former DPP". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  62. ^ "News executive sacked, as police begin new phone-hacking probe". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 27 January 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  63. ^ a b c Lyall, Sarah (8 April 2011). "British Tabloid Accepts Blame in Cell Hacking". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ "Police arrest News of the World phone-hacking suspects". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 6 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  65. ^ a b "Phone hacking: Third News of the World journalist James Weatherup arrested". Daily Mail (London). 15 April 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  66. ^ Amelia Hill; Dan Sabbagh (15 April 2011). "Unexpected arrest in phone-hacking case leaves News of the World stunned". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  67. ^ Josh Halliday (14 April 2011). "Phone hacking: who is James Weatherup?". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  68. ^ Amelia Hill (14 April 2011). "Phone hacking: senior News of the World journalist arrested". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  69. ^ Somaiya, Ravi; Goodman, J. David (14 April 2011). "Third British Journalist Is Arrested in Phone-Hacking Case". The New York Times. 
  70. ^ "Phone-Hacking Inquiry: News Of The World Journalist James Weatherup Arrested By Police". BSkyB. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  71. ^ "James Weatherup – United Kingdom". Uk.linkedin.com. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  72. ^ "Phone-hacking scandal: Time for a public inquiry" The Guardian. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  73. ^ a b c Nick Davies; Vikram Dodd. "Murder trial collapse exposes News of the World links to police corruption" The Guardian. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  74. ^ Hugh Muir; Duncan Campbell. "DNA may solve killing that shamed Met", The Guardian. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  75. ^ Nick Davies. "Jonathan Rees' empire of corruption". 12 March 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  76. ^ a b c Hélène Mulholland; Alan Travis; Vikram Dodd (12 July 2011). "Thousands of hacking victims yet to be contacted, says Met's Sue Akers". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  77. ^ "News International 'failed to cooperate'". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 14 July 2011. 
  78. ^ a b Robinson, James (9 April 2011). "News of the World phone hacking victims get apology from Murdoch". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  79. ^ a b c "News of the World offers apology in some phone-hacking cases". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 9 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  80. ^ a b James Robinson (8 April 2011). "Phone hacking: NI to apologise to victims including Sienna Miller". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  81. ^ a b "News says it will settle phone-hacking suits". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  82. ^ a b c Milmo, Cahal (28 January 2011). "New claims suggest that phone hacking is still going on". The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  83. ^ a b Kennedy, Maev (10 April 2011). "News of the World phone-hacking victims reject apology". The Guardian (UK). 
  84. ^ "Sienna Miller accepts £100,000 payout from News of the World". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 14 May 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  85. ^ "Andy Gray accepts settlement in phone hacking case". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 22 June 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  86. ^ Toby Helm; James Robinson. "Phone hacking: Rupert Murdoch 'urged Gordon Brown' to halt Labour attacks". The Guardian. 9 April 2011.
  87. ^ "Hacking row: News of the World executive 'implicated'". BBC News. 20 May 2011. 
  88. ^ a b c Davies, Nick, and Hill, Amelia (4 July 2011). "Missing Milly Dowler's voicemail was hacked by News of the World". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  89. ^ Fiveash, Kelly. "NotW didn't delete Milly Dowler 'false hope' voicemail". The Register. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  90. ^ Robinson, James (4 July 2011). "Milly Dowler phone hacking: Family shocked by NoW revelations". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  91. ^ Gabbatt, Adam; Davies, Nick; Hill, Amelia (5 July 2011). "Milly Dowler phone hacking: Cameron condemns News of the World". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  92. ^ a b "Cameron joins Milly Dowler hacking outrage, condemning 'a truly dreadful act'". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 5 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  93. ^ Peston, Robert (5 July 2011). "News International's Rebekah Brooks 'won't resign'". BBC News. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  94. ^ Rebekah Brooks "Milly Dowler phone hacking: the full text of Rebekah Brooks's email". The Guardian. 5 July 2011.
  95. ^ Mulholland, Hélène; Robinson, James (4 July 2011). "Milly Dowler phone hacking: Politicians hit out over revelations". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  96. ^ "Hacked Off: Campaign for a Public Inquiry into Phone Hacking". Media Standards Trust. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  97. ^ Gordon Rayner (23 January 2012). "News of the World reporter played police Milly Dowler voicemail". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  98. ^ Wilkinson, Peter; Gilbert, Dave (16 August 2011). "Phone hacking: How scandal unfolded". CNN World. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  99. ^ a b c Hughes, Mark; Gardham, Duncan; Bingham, John; Bloxham, Andy (7 July 2011). "Phone hacking: families of war dead 'targeted' by News of the World". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  100. ^ "Citing 'revulsion', veterans charity cuts ties with News of the World". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  101. ^ "Royal British Legion suspends NoW ties over 'hacking'". BBC News. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  102. ^ "News of the World 'hacked 7/7 family phones'". BBC News. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  103. ^ Hutchinson, Lisa (7 July 2011). "Tyneside 7/7 bombings survivor Lisa French has been contacted by detectives investigating News of the World phone hacking scandal. – Chronicle News – News". ChronicleLive. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  104. ^ "London bombing survivor threatens to sue over hacking – News". Kent News. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  105. ^ Susan Ryan. "Warnings of potential Irish victims of NOTW phone hacking · TheJournal". Thejournal.ie. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  106. ^ Nick Davies; Amelia Hill. "News of the World targeted phone of Sarah Payne's mother". The Guardian. 28 July 2011.
  107. ^ "Phone hacking: The dark arts of Jonathan Rees". The Guardian (UK). 11 March 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  108. ^ "News of the World 'paid royal police officer'". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  109. ^ a b "Sunday Times is being investigated over more illegal practices, claims Prescott". London Evening Standard. UK. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  110. ^ "Gordon Brown 'genuinely shocked' at News International hacking claim". News.stv.tv. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  111. ^ Hartley-Parkinson, Richard (15 July 2011). "Rebekah Brooks resigns head News International refuses apologise". Daily Mail (London). 
  112. ^ Ward, Victoria (12 July 2011). "John Yates reveals his own phone was hacked as he appears before MPs". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  113. ^ "News of the World 'hacked Paul O'Grady after heart attack' – Showbiz News". Digital Spy. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  114. ^ Dyson, Ed. "Simply The Best 7 Days A Week :: News :: LILY SAVAGES HACKERS". Daily Star. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  115. ^ Gayle, Damien (25 May 2012). "Murdoch private detective tricked Claridge's into handing over bill of top U.S. financier". Daily Mail. 
  116. ^ "Solicitors' phones 'hacked by News of the World'". Ch4 News. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  117. ^ Alberici, Emma (18 July 2011). "Australian link to phone hacking scandal". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  118. ^ a b Bingham, John (22 July 2005). "Phone hacking: Jean Charles de Menezes cousin may have been targeted". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  119. ^ a b "De Menezes family dragged into phone-hacking row". Politics.co.uk. 22 July 2005. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  120. ^ Yapp, Robin (22 July 2005). "Phone hacking: Jean Charles de Menezes's cousin attacks Rupert Murdoch". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  121. ^ a b "Call for police chief to resign over hacking". The Sydney Morning Herald. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  122. ^ James Robinson (1 November 2011). "Phone hacking: Carole Caplin told she was target". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  123. ^ "Coulson resigns due to phone-hacking scandal". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 21 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  124. ^ "Rusbridger: 'I warned David Cameron over Coulson link'". BBC Newsnight. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  125. ^ Walters, Simon (4 March 2012). "How No10 misled the Mail on Sunday about Cameron and THAT police horse". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  126. ^ a b c "GM's Vauxhall Suspends Advertising in News of the World". The Wall Street Journal. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011. [dead link]
  127. ^ a b Laura Smith-Spark, CNN (7 July 2011). "Firms reconsider ad deals over newspaper phone hacking scandal". CNN. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  128. ^ "DJ Taylor: For 168 years News of the World was as English as roast beef". The Independent (UK). 8 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  129. ^ Robinson, James; Scott, Kirsty; Sweney, Mark (7 July 2011). "News of the World axed by News International". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  130. ^ "End of the 'World': Rupert Murdoch's News of the World To Close After Phone Hacking Scandal". Time. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  131. ^ "News of the World to close on Sunday, says James Murdoch". The Daily Telegraph (London). 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  132. ^ "News of the World to cease publication". RTÉ News. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  133. ^ "News of the World to close amid hacking scandal". BBC News. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  134. ^ Mills, Elinor. "British tabloid to shutter in wake of phone hacking scandal cnet 7 July 2011". CNET Networks. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  135. ^ McCarthy, Ellen (7 July 2011). "Phone hacking scandal closes News of the World". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  136. ^ "How Will News of the World Scandal Affect Murdoch's Power, Media Empire?". PBS. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  137. ^ "The News of the World is sacrificed – how long before we have The Sun on Sunday?". The Daily Telegraph (London). 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  138. ^ "Phone hacking scandal: Timeline". BBC News. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  139. ^ a b "Facing overwhelming pressure, News Corp pulls out of bid for BSkyB". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  140. ^ Wintour, Patrick; Sabbagh, Dan; Watt, Nicholas (14 July 2011). "Rupert Murdoch gives up BSkyB takeover bid". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  141. ^ "Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)". House of Commons. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  142. ^ Sparrow, Andrew (13 July 2011). "Phone-hacking scandal + PMQs – Wednesday 13 July 2011". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  143. ^ "Wireless Generation". Wireless Generation. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  144. ^ Otterman, Sharon (29 August 2011). "Subsidiary of News Corp. Loses Deal With State". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  145. ^ Sabbagh, Dan; Martinson, Jane (13 July 2011). "News of the World legal manager Tom Crone to leave News International". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  146. ^ Martinson, Jane (11 July 2011). "Tom Crone: News International's go-to man on legal issues". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  147. ^ a b c "Phone hacking: News International chief Brooks quits". BBC News. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  148. ^ "Rebekah Brooks' resignation letter and James Murdoch's statement". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  149. ^ Martinson, Jane; Watt, Nicholas (16 July 2011). "Rupert Murdoch's bloody Friday as Rebekah Brooks and Les Hinton quit". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  150. ^ a b "Les Hinton, Murdoch's right-hand man, quits over News International scandal". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 16 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  151. ^ "Met Police Chief Quits Amid Hacking Claims". Sky News. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  152. ^ Porter, Andrew (21 July 2011). "Phone Hacking: The Sun dragged into scandal after senior journalist sacked". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  153. ^ James Robinson (20 September 2011). "Phone hacking: sacked Sun journalist will not face police questioning". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  154. ^ "Dick Fedorcio". Met.police.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  155. ^ Robinson, James (10 August 2011). "Met PR man Dick Fedorcio put on leave". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  156. ^ Hough, Andrew (7 September 2011). "Phone hacking: Guardian journalist interviewed over police inquiry leaks". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  157. ^ a b c Sweney, Mark (14 July 2011). "Phone hacking: NI plans full page apology in national press". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  158. ^ Suzi Ring (15 July 2011). "Murdoch cites 'major mistake' at legal adviser in culmination of a week of high drama". LegalWeek.com. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  159. ^ "Harbottle Defends Hackgate Position". LegalWeek.com. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  160. ^ "Rupert Murdoch 'sorry' in newspaper adverts". BBC News. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  161. ^ Hill, Amelia (7 July 2011). "Andy Coulson to be arrested over phone hacking tomorrow". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  162. ^ "NOTW Closes: Ex-Editor To Be Quizzed By Cops". UK: Sky News. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  163. ^ Rainey, Sarah; Jones, Lucy; Rayner, Gordon; Hughes, Mark (8 July 2011). "News of the World phone hacking live 8 July 2011". The Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  164. ^ a b Carrell, Severin; Wintour, Patrick (30 May 2012). "Andy Coulson charged with perjury". The Guardian (London). 
  165. ^ "Phone hacking: Rebekah Brooks and Andy Coulson in 2013 trial". BBC News. 26 September 2012. 
  166. ^ Paul Owen (14 July 2011). "Phone hacking scandal – live coverage – 4.32 pm". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 14 July 2011. 
  167. ^ "Rebekah Brooks arrested by hacking police". BBC News. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  168. ^ Sanchez, Raf (17 July 2011). "Phone hacking: Rebekah Brooks arrested". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  169. ^ "Rebekah Brooks arrested over phone hacking and corruption allegations". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  170. ^ "Rebekah Brooks released on bail". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  171. ^ "Detectives seize computer found in bin near Brooks' flat". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  172. ^ Evans, Martin (20 July 2011). "Phone Hacking: Brooks' husband denies cover up after bag found near flat". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  173. ^ Sabbagh, Dan and Josh Halliday and Vikram Dodd (13 March 2012). "Rebekah Brooks and husband arrested in new twist in phone-hacking inquiry". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  174. ^ a b Laville, Sandra (15 May 2012). "Rebekah Brooks charged with perverting the course of justice". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  175. ^ Burns, John F. and Alan Cowell (15 May 2012). "Top Murdoch Aide Is Charged in Hacking Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  176. ^ Hill, Amelia (2 August 2011). "Phone-hacking scandal: Stuart Kuttner is latest NoW exec to be arrested". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  177. ^ "Police arrest former News of the World managing editor". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 2 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  178. ^ McSmith, Andy (31 August 2011). "Former NOTW managing editor Stuart Kuttner is re-arrested". The Independent (London: Independent Press). Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  179. ^ a b c "Alison Levitt QC's announcement on charges arising from Operation Weeting" (Press release). Crown Prosecution Service. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  180. ^ a b c "Phone hacking: full list of charges". The Guardian. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  181. ^ "Phone hacking: former News of the World news editor Greg Miskiw arrested". The Daily Telegraph (London). 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  182. ^ "Former News of the World news editor arrested". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  183. ^ Hill, Amelia (18 August 2011). "Phone hacking: News of the World Hollywood reporter is arrested". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  184. ^ James Robinson (19 August 2011). "Phone hacking: Met police detective arrested". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  185. ^ "Phone hacking: Man bailed in News of the World probe". BBC News. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  186. ^ Walker, Kirsty; Pickup, Oliver (8 September 2011). "Times deputy football editor held in pre-dawn raid by phone hacking detectives". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  187. ^ Hughes, Mark (4 November 2011). "'Sun journalist' arrested over 'payments to police'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  188. ^ Hughes, Mark (4 November 2011). "Sun journalist arrested by police named as Jamie Pyatt". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  189. ^ "Police Payments: Sun Reporter Bailed By Met". Sky News. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  190. ^ "Jamie Pyatt". journalisted.com. Retrieved 10 November 2011. [verification needed]
  191. ^ "News Corp. Inquiry Turns on Staff Ahead of U.K. Hearing". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  192. ^ Robinson, James (31 October 2011). "Phone hacking: Milly Dowler police investigation may have been targeted". The Guardian (London). 
  193. ^ Dodd, Vikram and Jason Deans (2 October 2012). "Alex Marunchak and Jonathan Rees held as part of Operation Kalmyk". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  194. ^ Phone hacking: Murdochs agree to appear before MPs. BBC News, 14 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  195. ^ Watson, Tom (20 April 2012). "Exclusive extracts from 'Dial M for Murdoch'". The Independent (London). 
  196. ^ a b "Phone hacking: 'Humbled' Murdoch rejects blame". BBC News. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  197. ^ Hough, Andrew (19 July 2011). "Rupert Murdoch attacked by protester". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  198. ^ "Murdoch Grilled Over U.K. Phone-Hacking Scandal". Time. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. [dead link]
  199. ^ "Protester Attacks Rupert Murdoch in UK Parliament". NewsMax. 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  200. ^ "Wendi Deng: just who is the smack-down sister?". Channel 4 News. 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  201. ^ "Murdoch pie thrower has respect for wendi". Channel 4 News. 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  202. ^ "Murdoch foam attack: 'Jonnie Marbles' jailed". BBC News. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  203. ^ a b "Ex-Met Police chief denies 'swipe' at prime minister". BBC News. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  204. ^ "Murdochs, Brooks, Police testify in phone-hacking scandal". CNN. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  205. ^ Lyall, Sarah (19 July 2011). "Murdochs Say Top Executives Didn't Know of Phone Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  206. ^ "Rebekah Brooks testifies to UK lawmakers". Forbes. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. [dead link]
  207. ^ "Live – Hacking Inquiry". RTÉ News. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  208. ^ "James Murdoch evidence questioned by former executives". BBC News. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  209. ^ a b Peston authorlink=Robert Peston, Robert (18 July 2011). "BSkyB: Decision expected on James Murdoch's role". BBC News. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  210. ^ Lisa O'Carroll (30 September 2011). "Phone hacking: Neville Thurlbeck says 'truth will out'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  211. ^ "NoW phone-hacking whistle-blower Sean Hoare found dead". BBC News. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  212. ^ Amelia Hill, James Robinson and Caroline Davies (18 July 2011). "News of the World phone-hacking whistleblower found dead". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  213. ^ "Ex-NoW reporter Sean Hoare 'died of natural causes'". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  214. ^ Private Eye, "Brooks and Brooksmen", issue 1293, p9
  215. ^ "Ex-Mirror Journalist Makes New Hacking Claim". Sky News. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  216. ^ a b Burrell, James; Burrell, Ian (23 July 2011). "Hacking was endemic at the 'Mirror', says former reporter". The Independent (UK: Independent Print Limited). Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  217. ^ Press Association, The Guardian, 23 July 2011, Phone hacking also rife under Piers Morgan at Mirror, claims ex-reporter
  218. ^ The Guardian, 23 July 2011, Phone hacking used by Sunday Mirror, claims BBC Newsnight
  219. ^ The Guardian, 26 July 2011, Daily Mirror publisher to review editorial controls
  220. ^ "Heather Mills 'told she was phone-hacking target'". BBC News. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  221. ^ Burns, John F. (4 August 2011). "Calls for CNN Host to Testify in Hacking Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  222. ^ Morgan, Piers (19 October 2006). "I'm sorry, Macca, for introducing you to this monster". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  223. ^ "Heather Mills 'told she was phone-hacking target'". BBC News. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  224. ^ Owen, Glen (17 July 2011). "Why did Prince William's lawyers hide hacking evidence? Firm that advises Royals entangled in row over 'cover up'". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  225. ^ a b "News International found 'smoking gun' e-mails in 2007". BBC News. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  226. ^ Becker, Jo; Van Natta Jr., Don (31 July 2011). "2007 Letter Clearing a Tabloid Comes Under Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  227. ^ a b "Harbottle defends Hackgate position; Grabiner to lead News Corp clean-up". Legal Week.com. 18 July 2011. 
  228. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/culture-media-sport/Harbottle_and_Lewis_letter.pdf
  229. ^ Byrne, Matt. "Harbottle forbidden from responding to News International's put-down". The Lawyer. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  230. ^ Burrell, Ian; Wright, Oliver (21 July 2011). "Law firm given right of reply over 'failure' to expose bribery". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  231. ^ Rose, Neil (22 July 2011). "How far can legal professional privilege go?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  232. ^ "Response from Solicitors Regulation Authority – Harbottle & Lewis – Tom Watson MP". Tom-watson.co.uk. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  233. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/culture-media-and-sport/PH20A-Chairman-to-Harbottle-and-Lewis-29-July-2011.pdf
  234. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/culture-media-and-sport/PH20HarbottleandLewis11Aug2011coveringletter.PDF
  235. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/culture-media-and-sport/PH20.2.pdf
  236. ^ "Phone hacking: Murdochs savaged by Harbottle". BBC News. 18 August 2011. 
  237. ^ a b c BBC News (24 June 2014). "Hacking trial: Coulson guilty, Brooks cleared of charges". BBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  238. ^ Cozens, Claire and Chris Tryhorn (16 April 2005). "Police data sold to newspapers". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  239. ^ Jones, Sam (9 August 2011). "News of the World royal editor arrested over Clarence House phone tapping". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  240. ^ Cusick, James and Cahal Milmo (22 September 2011). "Exclusive: Murdoch execs told of hacking evidence in 2006". The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  241. ^ a b c Kiss, Jemima (29 November 2006). "Goodman pleads guilty". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  242. ^ Kiss, Jemima (29 November 2006). "Goodman pleads guilty". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  243. ^ "Respose from Harbottle & Lewis to the Culture, Media, and Sport Committee and the Home Affairs Committee". Harbottle & Lewis LLP. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  244. ^ "Statement from Commissioner" (Press release). Metropolitan Police. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  245. ^ Sabbagh, Dan (13 March 2012). "Phone-hacking: how the 'rogue reporter' defence slowly crumbled". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  246. ^ a b BBC News (12 December 2013). "Defendant Ian Edmondson 'unfit' for hacking trial". BBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  247. ^ Lisa O'Carroll (30 June 2014). "Andy Coulson to face retrial over alleged payments to public officials". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  248. ^ a b BBC News (4 July 2014). "Andy Coulson jailed for 18 months over phone hacking". BBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  249. ^ Now Met Police probes 'The Sun' after union chief raises concerns, The Independent, 9 February 2011
  250. ^ a b c Tara Conlan (5 July 2011). "Phone hacking: Buscombe admits News of the World lied to PCC". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  251. ^ "Statement By Baroness Buscombe, Chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, On New Evidence in the Phone Message Hacking Episode". Press Complaints Commission. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  252. ^ "Phone hacking: Cameron and Miliband demand new watchdog". BBC News. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  253. ^ Ex-British prime minister 'shocked' by new hacking claims, CNN, 11 July 2011
  254. ^ Private Eye, issue 1293, p7
  255. ^ Lisa O'Carroll (20 July 2011). "Phone-hacking inquiry extended to include broadcasters and social media". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  256. ^ Hope, Christopher (22 July 2011). "Phone hacking inquiry judge attended parties at home of Rupert Murdoch's son-in-law". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  257. ^ "MP calls for police to investigate Murdoch son over crucial email". London Evening Standard (UK). 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  258. ^ "Phone hacking: Select Committee Report". UK Parliament. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  259. ^ House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Unauthorised tapping into or hacking of mobile communications pdf
  260. ^ Whalen, Jeanne, and Steve Stecklow, "At the Eye of Hacking Storm: British Lawyer Mark Lewis Filed One of the First Suits Against News Corp.", The Wall Street Journal (a Murdoch-owned paper), 21 September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  261. ^ Bradshaw, Tim, Salamander Davoudi and Kiran Stacey, "Hacking inquiry puts heat back on Murdoch", Financial Times, 6 September 2011.
  262. ^ a b "Phone hacking: IPPC to probe Met press chief Fedorcio". BBC News. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  263. ^ The Guardian, 19 July 2011, Phone hacking: Theresa May announces more inquiries
  264. ^ a b Dominic Casciani (16 August 2011). "Hacking 'discussed' at News of the World, Clive Goodman letter says". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  265. ^ a b c Grossman, Karl. "Murdoch Media Empire: A Journalistic Travesty" Huffington Post 13 July 2011
  266. ^ a b Bernstein, Carl. "Is Phone-Hacking Scandal Murdoch's Watergate?." Newsweek 11 July 2011
  267. ^ Straubhaar, Joseph, Robert LaRose, and Lucinda Davenport. Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, 2010. 477–488. Print.
  268. ^ a b Pressman, Gabe. "In Journalism, the End Doesn't Justify the Means." NBC Newyork 12 July 2011
  269. ^ Heawood, Jonathan (13 July 2011). "A new manifesto for media ethics". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  270. ^ a b Doctorow, Cory (14 July 2011). "The phone-hacking scandal must not be used to rein in the press." The Guardian
  271. ^ McMahon, Barbara (15 July 2011). "Rupert Murdoch's US papers face closer scrutiny." The Guardian
  272. ^ Church of England website, Media Centre, here
  273. ^ Church of England website, Media Centre, here
  274. ^ a b "Phone hacking: Australian PM promises 'hard questions'". BBC News. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  275. ^ Malkin, Bonnie (13 September 2011). "Australia to hold media inquiry". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  276. ^ Ed Pilkington and Dominic Rushe (18 July 2011). "News Corp faces global investigation into bribery". The Guardian (London). 
  277. ^ "Senator Frank R. Lautenberg". Lautenberg.senate.gov. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  278. ^ a b "News and Its Critics". The Wall Street Journal. 18 July 2011. 
  279. ^ Kari Lipschutz (18 July 2011). "'WSJ' Editorial Skewers News Corp.'s Critics". Adweek. 
  280. ^ "Timeline of the phone hacking scandal". The Australian. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  281. ^ Chandrasekhar, Indu; Wardrop, Murray; Trotman, Andy (19 July 2011). "Phone hacking: timeline of the scandal". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  282. ^ The Committee Office, House of Commons. "House of Commons – Unauthorised tapping into or hacking of mobile communications – Home Affairs Committee". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  283. ^ Evans, Rob; Davies, Nick (9 March 2010). "Max Clifford drops News of the World phone hacking action in £1m deal". The Guardian (London). 
  284. ^ Greenslade, Roy (18 January 2011). "News of the World feigns shock at new twist in the phone-hacking saga". The Guardian (London). 
  285. ^ Robinson, James (5 January 2011). "News of the World suspends assistant editor over phone-hacking claims". The Guardian (London). 
  286. ^ The Guardian: Phone hacking: NoW journalists arrested. 5 April 2011.
  287. ^ The Telegraph: Phone hacking scandal: senior News of the World reporter James Weatherup arrested. 14 April 2011.
  288. ^ Robinson, James (21 June 2011). "Andy Gray settles phone-hacking case". The Guardian (London). 
  289. ^ Davies, Nick; Hill, Amelia (4 July 2011). "Missing Milly Dowler's voice mail was hacked by News of the World". The Guardian (London). 
  290. ^ Robinson, James; Gabbatt, Adam; Laville, Sandra; Davies, Nick; Hill, Amelia; Conlan, Tara (5 July 2011). "Rebekah Brooks: 'It's inconceivable I knew of Milly Dowler phone hacking'". The Guardian (London). 
  291. ^ Sparrow, Andrew; Batty, David (6 July 2011). "News of the World phone hacking – Wednesday 6 July 2011". The Guardian (London). 
  292. ^ Deans, Jason; Robinson, James (7 July 2011). "Phone hacking: Royal British Legion drops NoW as campaign partner". The Guardian (London). 
  293. ^ "News of the World to close amid hacking scandal". BBC News. 7 July 2011. 
  294. ^ CNN: Brooks, Coulson charged over alleged payments to officials. 6 November 2012.
  295. ^ The Independent: Andy Coulson and ex-royal reporter Clive Goodman arrested. 8 July 2011.
  296. ^ Davies, Nick; Leigh, David (11 July 2011). "News International papers targeted Gordon Brown". The Guardian (London). 
  297. ^ "News Corp withdraws bid for BSkyB". BBC News. 13 July 2011. 
  298. ^ Morgan, Tom (14 July 2011). "Andy Coulson's deputy Neil Wallis arrested – Crime – UK". The Independent (London). Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  299. ^ Martinson, Jane; Watt, Nicholas (16 July 2011). "Rupert Murdoch's bloody Friday as Rebekah Brooks and Les Hinton quit". The Guardian (London). 
  300. ^ "Rebekah Brooks arrested by hacking police". BBC News. 17 July 2011. 
  301. ^ Phone hacking: Theresa May announces more inquiries The Guardian.
  302. ^ "Rupert Murdoch attacked at Parliament, appears unharmed". Los Angeles Times. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  303. ^ Watt, Nicholas (22 July 2011). "James Murdoch stands by evidence he gave Commons committee". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  304. ^ Watt, Nicholas (21 July 2011). "Matt Nixson, former News of the World executive, sacked from the Sun". The Guardian (London). 
  305. ^ Owen, Glen (17 July 2011). "Why did Prince William's lawyers hide hacking evidence? Firm that advises Royals entangled in row over 'cover up'". Daily Mail (London). 
  306. ^ Hill, Amelia (2 August 2011). "Phone-hacking scandal: NoW exec Stuart Kuttner bailed after arrest". The Guardian (London). 
  307. ^ "Phone hacking: former News of the World news editor Greg Miskiw arrested". The Daily Telegraph (London). 10 August 2011. 
  308. ^ Robinson, James (10 August 2011). "Met PR man Dick Fedorcio put on leave". The Guardian (London). 
  309. ^ Robinson, James (16 August 2011). "Phone hacking scandal (Media),News of the World,Clive Goodman,Andy Coulson (Media),News International,News Corporation (Media),UK news,Metropolitan police,Press intrusion (Media)". The Guardian (London). 
  310. ^ "Phone hacking: Reports of James Desborough arrest". BBC News. 18 August 2011. 
  311. ^ Morgan, Tom; Davis, Margaret (18 August 2011). "Glenn Mulcaire suing News International". The Independent (London). 
  312. ^ Camber, Rebecca (20 August 2011). "Phone hacking investigation detective arrested 'for leaking information to the Guardian'". Daily Mail (London). 
  313. ^ Otterman, Sharon (29 August 2011). "State Education Contract Canceled With News Corp. Subsidiary Wireless Generation". The New York Times. 
  314. ^ McSmith, Andy (31 August 2011). "Former NOTW managing editor Stuart Kuttner is re-arrested". The Independent (London). 
  315. ^ James Robinson (2 September 2011). "Phone-hacking scandal: reporter linked to the 'for Neville' email arrested". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 September 2011. 
  316. ^ "Hearings". Levesoninquiry.org.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  317. ^ Robinson, James; O'Carroll, Lisa (7 September 2011). "Phone hacking: Raoul Simons of the Times arrested". The Guardian (London). 
  318. ^ "Australia to investigate media after UK phone-hacking scandal". The Guardian (London). 13 September 2011. 
  319. ^ Cassell Bryan-Low and Paul Sonne (14 September 2011). "James Murdoch, Les Hinton Asked to Reappear Before U.K. Committee". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  320. ^ "Terms of Reference". Levesoninquiry.org.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  321. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa; Halliday, Josh; Robinson, James (10 November 2011). "Phone hacking: James Murdoch questioned by MPs – Thursday 10 November". The Guardian (London). 
  322. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa; Halliday, Josh (21 November 2011). "Leveson inquiry: Hugh Grant and the Dowlers give evidence". The Guardian (London). 
  323. ^ Sabbagh, Dan; Sweney, Mark (13 December 2011). "Phone hacking: James Murdoch given another grilling by MPs". The Guardian (London). 
  324. ^ Barrett, David; Mendick, Robert; Sawer, Patrick (28 January 2012). "Phone hacking: four Sun journalists arrested". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  325. ^ Stobart, Janet (11 February 2012). "British police make eight more phone-hacking related arrests". Los Angeles Times. 
  326. ^ Stobart, Janet (17 February 2012). "Rupert Murdoch flies to London to confront angry tabloid staff". Los Angeles Times. 
  327. ^ Evans, Martin (1 March 2012). "The Sun's defence editor, latest journalist arrested". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  328. ^ Prodhan, Georgina (7 March 2012). "Two journalists in suicide attempts". London. Reuters. 
  329. ^ Lang, Brett (13 March 2012). "Rebekah Brooks, her husband and four others arrested". The Wrap (London). 
  330. ^ "Met Police press chief Dick Fedorcio resigns". BBC News. 29 March 2012. 
  331. ^ Groves, Jason; Shipman, Tim (19 April 2012). "Phone hacking scandal: Sun Royal Editor Duncan Larcombe arrested in dawn raids". Daily Mail. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  332. ^ Evans, Martin (3 May 2012). "Retired police officer arrested on suspicion of 'illegal payments'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  333. ^ Jason Deans and agencies (15 May 2012). "Two further arrests in Operation Elveden corrupt payments investigation | The Guardian.". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  334. ^ Evans, Martin (25 May 2012). "The Sun's Whitehall Editor arrested in illegal payments probe". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  335. ^ Rob Cooper (14 June 2012). "Sun journalist and serving superintendant among four new arrests over alleged corrupt payments to public officials". Daily Mail. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  336. ^ "UK police investigating phone hacking arrest ex National Health Service employee". CanadianBusiness.com. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  337. ^ "Fresh arrests of police, journalists, public officials in UK hacking/bribery scandal". Wsws.org. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  338. ^ "Operation Elveden: Two former NHS workers arrested". BBC. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  339. ^ "Operation Elveden: Mirror and Star journalists arrested". BBC. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  340. ^ Mark Sweeney, Josh Halliday & Lisa O'Carroll (19 July 2012). "Operation Tuleta:Sun journalist arrested". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  341. ^ Peston, Robert (22 July 2012). "Rupert Murdoch resigns as News International director". BBC. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  342. ^ Dan Sabbagh and Vikram Dodd (24 July 2012). "Andy Coulson and Rebekah Brooks charged over phone hacking | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  343. ^ "Phone-hacking police release Sun journalist on bail". BBC. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  344. ^ Rebecca Camber (16 August 2012). "Andy Coulson and other former News of the World staff due in court today on hacking charges". Daily Mail. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  345. ^ Severin Carrell, Scotland correspondent (29 August 2012). "Phone-hacking police arrest former News of the World Scotland editor | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  346. ^ Lisa O'Carroll and Josh Halliday (30 August 2012). "Phone hacking: former News of the World head of legal arrested | The Guardian.". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  347. ^ Lisa O'Carroll & Caroline Davis (31 October 2013). "How did the editor know his story was true? 'Because of hacking'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  348. ^ Jason Deans (30 July 2014). "Phone hacking: NoW's Neil Wallis and Jules Stenson to be charged". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  349. ^ Lisa O'Carroll (6 August 2014). "Andy Coulson charged with perjury in Tommy Sheridan case". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 

External links[edit]