The Mosque is located in the Niujie area of Beijing's Xicheng District, the spiritual centre for the 10,000 Muslims living in the vicinity and it is the biggest and oldest one in Beijing. It was within the Xuanwu District before it merged into Xicheng in 2010. Niujie in Xicheng District, where the mosque is located, is the largest area inhabited by Muslims in Beijing.
The Niujie Mosque covers an area of approximately 10,000 square meters. The mosque reflects a mixture of Islamic and Han Chinese cultural and architectural influences. From the outside, its architecture shows traditional Chinese influence and the inside has blend of Islamic calligraphy and Chinese design. The main prayer hall is 600 square meters in area, and can hold more than 1,000 worshipers, while non-believers cannot enter it. The mosque, built out of timber, is home to some important cultural relics and tablets such as the upright tablet of an emperor's decree proclaimed in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty.
The Niujie Mosque, the largest of all the mosques in Beijing, was first built in 996 during the Liao Dynasty (916-1125). The local Muslim community constructed the mosque using traditional Chinese architecture, with the exception that it displays Arabic calligraphy in the interior. It was originally designed by Nazaruddin, the son of an imam. After it was destroyed by armies of Genghis Khan in 1215, the Mosque was rebuilt in 1443 in the Ming Dynasty and significantly expanded in 1696 under the Qing Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, the neighbouring markets were known for Halal beef and mutton, even until today, the presence is still quite strong with Muslim grocery stores with Arabic sign along the road. The actual name of the Mosque is Lǐbàisì, which is given by the Chenghua Emperor in 1474, since it is located in Oxen Street (Niú means Oxen and jiē means street) this Mosque is simply called Niujie. It is now one of the major mosques in north China.
The Government of the People's Republic of China often uses the Niujie Mosque as a visiting site for delegations coming from Islamic countries. Han Chinese and Hui tourists and Muslims from outside of China visit the Niujie Mosque for tourism reasons.