North America and West Indies Station
|North America and West Indies Station|
|Active||North American Station (1745–1818)
North America and West Indies Station (1818–1926)
America and West Indies Station (1926–1956)
West Indies (1956–1976)
HMS Malabar (1976–1995)
|Country||United Kingdom, Bermuda, and Canada|
|Type||Naval squadron & fleet|
|Part of||Royal Navy|
|Garrison/HQ||Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax &
Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
|Notable ships||HMS Fame, HMS Invincible, HMS Leopard, HMS Resolute|
|Engagements||Battle of the Chesapeake, Battle of Cape Henry, Siege of Yorktown, Battle of St. Kitts (1781–1782)
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere, Capture of HMS Frolic, Capture of USS Chesapeake, Capture of HMS Boxer, Battle of Baltimore (1812–1814),
pursuit of SM U-53 (1916),
Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945)
|Disbanded||1 April 1976|
- For American naval forces in the West Indies, see West Indies Squadron (United States).
The North America and West Indies Station was a formation or command of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy stationed in North American waters from 1745 until 1956. The North American Station was separate from with the West Indies Station until 1818 when the two combined to form the North America and West Indies Station. It was renamed the America and West Indies Station in 1926. It was commanded by the Commander-in-Chief, North America and West Indies Station and subsequently by the Commander-in-Chief, America and West Indies Station.
The squadron was formed in 1745 to counter French forces in North America: for the first sixty years the headquarters of the squadron was at Halifax Naval Yard in Nova Scotia - now CFB Halifax. The headquarters for North American Station of the Royal Navy was Halifax for sixty years (1758-1818). Land and buildings for a permanent Naval Yard were purchased by the Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax in 1758 and the Yard was officially commissioned in 1759. The Yard served as the main base for the British Royal Navy in North American during the Seven Years' War, the American Revolution, the French Revolutionary Wars and the War of 1812. In 1818 Halifax became the summer base for the squadron which shifted to the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda for the remainder of the year.
In 1818, its main base was moved to Bermuda which was better positioned to counter threats from the United States. The Royal Navy had created a permanent establishment in Bermuda in 1795, and began buying land around the archipelago for the development of a naval base including what became the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda. Halifax continued to be used as the summer base for the station.
In 1926 the appointment was redesignated Commander-in-Chief, America and West Indies. After the closure of most of the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda in 1951, a small part of the base known as HMS Malabar served as the succeeding station.
In 1952 the Commander-in-Chief, Vice Admiral Sir William Andrewes, became the initial Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic. On 29 October 1956, the command became Senior Naval Officer West Indies (SNOWI): SNOWI served as Island Commander Bermuda in the NATO chain of command, reporting to Commander-in-Chief, Western Atlantic as part of SACLANT. SNOWI was finally disbanded on 1 April 1976.
By 1995, when Malabar was handed over to the Government of Bermuda, the Royal Naval presence in the North-Western Atlantic and Caribbean had been reduced to the West Indies Guard Ship (now called Atlantic Patrol Task (North)), a role which was rotated among the frigates of the fleet, which took turns operating extended patrols of the West Indies.
- List of fleets and major commands of the Royal Navy
- Military history of Nova Scotia
- Military history of Canada
- Commander-in-Chief, North America
- Commander-in-Chief, North American Station
- "Royal Naval Dockyards". Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Marilyn Gurney, The Kings Yard, Maritime Command Museum, Halifax.
- Gwyn, Julian, Frigates and Foremasts: The North American Squadron in Nova Scotia Waters, 1745-1815 Vancouver, BC: UBC Press (2004) ISBN 978-0-7748-0911-5. OCLC 144078613
- "Bermuda's Royal Navy base at Ireland Island from 1815 to the 1960s". Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Wardroom Officers' Mess". CFB Halifax. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Commanders-in-Chief 1904 - 1975
- Sean M. Maloney, 'To Secure Command of the Sea: NATO Command Organization and Naval Planning for the Cold War at Sea, 1945-54,' MA thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1991, p.198 and Chapter 4 generally
- UK Chiefs of Staff Committee, Command in the Caribbean, DEFE 5/188/4, January 1971, via The National Archives
- "West Indies Guard Ship". Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Leo Niehorster, Station as at 3 September 1939