Autonomous Region of Bougainville

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Autonomous Region
of Bougainville
Flag of Autonomous Regionof Bougainville
Flag
Official seal of Autonomous Regionof Bougainville
Seal
Papua new guinea north salomons province.png
Autonomous Regionof Bougainville is located in Papua New Guinea
Autonomous Regionof Bougainville
Autonomous Region
of Bougainville
Location within Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°0′S 155°0′E / 6.000°S 155.000°E / -6.000; 155.000
Country Papua New Guinea
Capital Buka (interim)
Districts
Government
 • President John Momis (2010-)
 • Governor Joe Lera (2012-)
Area
 • Total 9,384 km2 (3,623 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 249,358
 • Density 27/km2 (69/sq mi)
Time zone AEST (UTC+10)

The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, previously known as the North Solomon Islands, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea. The largest island is Bougainville Island (also the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago), and the province also includes Buka Island and assorted outlying islands including the Carterets. The capital is temporarily Buka, though it is expected that Arawa will once again become the provincial capital. The population of the province is 249,358 (2011 census).

Bougainville Island is ecologically and geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago but not, politically, part of the nation of Solomon Islands. Buka, Bougainville, and most of the Solomons are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion.

History[edit]

The island was named after the French navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville (whose name has also been lent to the creeping tropical flowering vines of the genus Bougainvillea). In 1885, it came under German administration as part of German New Guinea. Australia occupied it in 1914 during World War I and at the end of the war, as a League of Nations mandatory power, administered it from 1918 until the Japanese invaded in 1942 during World War II.

Australia took over administration with the end of that war in 1945, managing until Papua New Guinea independence in 1975. It was appointed as a United Nations mandatory power, Australia having reluctantly accepted dominion sovereignty under the Statute of Westminster 1931 in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 and therefore being formally empowered to do so. It administered British and German New Guinea, but it was not the official colonial power.

During World War II, the island was occupied by Australian, American and Japanese forces. It was an important base for the RAAF, RNZAF and USAAF. On 8 March 1944, during the Pacific War, American forces were attacked by Japanese troops on Hill 700 on this island. The battle lasted five days, ending with a Japanese retreat.

Independence (1975) to present[edit]

The island is rich in copper and gold. A large mine was established at Panguna in the early 1970s by Bougainville Copper Limited, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto. Disputes by regional residents with the company over the environmental impact, financial benefits, and social changes brought by the mine led to a revival of a secessionist movement that had been dormant since the 1970s. Activists proclaimed the independence of Bougainville (Republic of North Solomons) in 1975 and in 1990, but at both times government forces suppressed the separatists.

In 1988, the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) increased their activity significantly. Prime Minister Sir Rabbie Namaliu ordered the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) to put down the rebellion, and the conflict escalated into a civil war. The PNGDF retreated from permanent positions on Bougainville in 1990, but continued military action. The conflict involved pro-independence and loyalist Bougainvillean groups as well as the PNGDF. The war claimed an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 lives.[1][2]

In 1996, Prime Minister Sir Julius Chan requested the help of Sandline International, a private military company previously involved in supplying mercenaries in the civil war in Sierra Leone, to put down the rebellion. The Sandline affair was a controversial incident that resulted from use of these mercenary troops.

Peace agreement and autonomy[edit]

The conflict ended in 1997, after negotiations brokered by New Zealand. A peace agreement finalised in 2000 and disarmament provided for the establishment of an Autonomous Bougainville Government. The parties agreed to have a referendum in the future on whether the island should become politically independent.[3]

Elections for the first Autonomous Government were held in May and June 2005; Joseph Kabui, an independence leader, was elected President. He died in office on 6 June 2008. After interim elections to fill the remainder of his term, John Momis was elected as president in 2010 for a five-year term. He supports autonomy within a relationship with the national government of Papua New Guinea.

On 25 July 2005 rebel leader Francis Ona died after a short illness. A former surveyor with Bougainville Copper Limited, Ona was a key figure in the secessionist conflict and had refused to formally join the island's peace process.

Economy[edit]

Bougainville has one of the world's largest copper deposits. This has been under development since 1972; one of its reserves has almost 915 million tones copper with an average grade of 0.46 % Cu. Mining and export of copper is the basis of the economy.

Districts and LLGs[edit]

District map of Bougainville (North Solomons)

Each province in Bougainville P. N. G. has one or more districts, and each district has one or more Local Level Government (LLG) areas. For census purposes, the LLG areas are subdivided into wards, and those into census units.[4]

District District Capital LLG Name
Central Bougainville District Arawa-Kieta Arawa Rural
Wakunai Rural
North Bougainville District Buka Atolls Rural
Buka Rural
Kunua Rural
Nissan Rural
Selau Suir Rural
Tinputz Rural
South Bougainville District Buin Bana Rural
Buin Rural
Siwai Rural
Torokina Rural

See also[edit]

Autonomous Region of Bougainville
Flag of Bougainville.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Bougainville

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saovana-Spriggs, Ruth (2000). "Christianity and women in Bougainville" (PDF). Development Bulletin (51): 58–60. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  2. ^ "EU Relations with Papua New Guinea". European Commission. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  3. ^ Will Marshall, "Papua New Guinea government obtains shaky weapons disposal pact in Bougainville", World Socialist Web Site, May 23, 2001. Accessed on line March 4, 2008.
  4. ^ National Statistical Office of Papua New Guinea

Further reading[edit]

  • Oliver, Douglas (1973). Bougainville: A Personal History. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. 
  • Oliver, Douglas (1991). Black Islanders: A Personal Perspective of Bougainville, 1937–1991. Melbourne: Hyland House. Repeats text from previous 1973 reference and updates with summaries of Papua New Guinea press reports on the Bougainville Crisis
  • Quodling, Paul. Bougainville: The Mine And The People. 
  • Regan, Anthony and Griffin, Helga (eds.), ed. (2005). Bougainville Before the Crisis. Canberra: Pandanus Books. 
  • Pelton, Robert Young (2002). Hunter Hammer and Heaven, Journeys to Three World's Gone Mad. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-416-6. 
  • Gillespie, Waratah Rosemarie (2009). Running with Rebels: Behind the Lies in Bougainville's hidden war. Australia: Ginibi Productions. ISBN 978-0-646-51047-7. 

External links[edit]

Bougainville travel guide from Wikivoyage