Obergruppenführer

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Gottlob Berger, commander of the SS-Hauptamt, wearing the rank insignia of an SS-Obergruppenführer and a superimposed Knight's Cross of the War Merit Cross

Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA, and adopted by the Schutzstaffel one year later. Until 1942, it was the highest commissioned SS rank, inferior only to Reichsführer-SS (Heinrich Himmler). Translated as "senior group leader",[1] the rank of Obergruppenführer was considered senior to Gruppenführer.[2]

Creation and history[edit]

The rank of Obergruppenführer was created in 1932 by Ernst Röhm and was intended as a senior most rank of the Nazi stormtroopers for use by Röhm and his top SA generals. In its initial concept, the rank was intended to be held by members of the Oberste SA-Führung (Supreme SA Command) and also by veteran commanders of certain SA-Gruppen (SA groups). Some of the early promotions to the rank included Ernst Röhm, Viktor Lutze, Edmund Heines, August Schneidhüber, and Fritz Ritter von Krausser.

The rank of SA-Obergruppenführer was the senior most rank of the Sturmabteilung until the spring of 1933, after which time Röhm created the rank of Stabschef (formerly a title for the SA Chief of Staff) and promoted himself to the position.

Also in the summer of 1933, Heinrich Himmler was promoted by Adolf Hitler to the newly created rank of SS-Obergruppenführer with the intent being to make Himmler the equivalent of the senior commanders of the SA, to which the SS was still subordinated. Although Himmler usually referred to himself as Reichsführer-SS, before 1934 this was simply a title for the SS commander, and not yet an actual rank. Shortly after Himmler's promotion, Hitler further promoted Franz Xaver Schwarz, with Himmler's date of rank backdated to 1 January 1933 in order to confirm his seniority as the top officer within the SS. In September 1933, so as to prevent a power struggle within the SS, Hitler further promoted Kurt Daluege who commanded most of the SS in the Berlin region. Daluge's promotion was to avoid the SS splitting into two separate entities, one based in Northern Germany under Daluege and the other in Bavaria under Himmler. This early SS disunity became a non-issue after a common ground was found amongst SS leaders in their general hatred of the SA.

Four men were promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer in 1934, these being Fritz Weitzel, Richard Walther Darré, Walter Buch, and Rudolf Hess. After the Night of the Long Knives in July 1934, Sepp Dietrich was promoted to the rank, backdated to July 1933 in order to make him the third most senior officer in the SS (after Himmler and Schwarz). Paul Hausser, who was made an SS-Obergruppenführer in 1941, further received backdated rank to 1933 after his promotion to SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer in 1944.

Udo von Woyrsch and Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger were promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer in 1935 while Josias Erbprinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont and Max Amann received the rank a year later along with Friedrich Karl Freiherr von Eberstein and Philipp Bouhler. The year 1936 saw several promotions to the rank, including Friedrich Jecklen who would become one of the most infamous SS and Police Leaders on the Eastern Front during World War II. The last pre-war promotion to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer was in 1937 when Ernst Heinrich Schmauser received the rank. Upon the outbreak of World War II, there were seventeen men who held the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer.

Promotion History[edit]

Promotions to SS-Obergruppenführer by year
1933 3 Heinrich Himmler, Franz Xaver Schwarz, Kurt Daluege
1934 5 Fritz Weitzel, Richard Walther Darré, Walter Buch, Rudolf Hess, Sepp Dietrich
1935 2 Udo von Woyrsch, Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger
1936 8 Josias Erbprinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont, Max Amann, Karl von Eberstein, Philipp Bouhler, Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorf, Friedrich Jecklen, Werner Lorenz, August Heissmeyer
1937 1 Ernst-Heinrich Schmauser
1938 0
1939 0
1940 3 Joachim von Ribbentrop, Martin Bormann, Hans Lammers
1941 8 Otto Dietrich, Reinhard Heydrich, Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Wilhelm Rediess, Paul Hausser, Wilhelm Reinhard, Albert Forster
1942 20 Karl Kaufmann, Friedrich Hildebrandt, Karl Fiehler, Dietrich Klagges, Paul Körner, Wilhelm Murr, Fritz Sauckel, Richard Hildebrandt, Wilhelm Koppe, Theodor Berkelmann, Wilhelm Keppler, Karl Wolff, Josef Bürkel, Arthur Greiser, Theodor Eicke, Emil Mazuw, Paul Scharfe, Oswald Pohl, Walter Schmitt, Herbert Backe
1943 23 Siegfried Taubert, Joachim Albrecht Eggeling, Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, Konstantin von Neurath, Julius Schaub, Günther Pancke, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Konrad Henlein, Ernst Sachs, Karl Hermann Frank, August Eigruber, Friedrich Rainer, Hugo Jury, Rudolf Querner, Friedrich Alpers, Gottlob Berger, Otto Hofmann, Hans Albin Rauter, Hans Jüttner, Artur Phleps, Felix Steiner, Alfred Wünnenberg, Karl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch
1944 32 Hartmann Lauterbacher, Karl Hanke, Ulrich Greifelt, Wilhelm Stuckart, Otto Winkelmann, Hermann Höfle, Ernst-Robert Grawitz, Leonardo Conti, Franz Breithaupt, Werner Best, Maximilian von Herff, Georg Keppler, Walter Krüger, Karl Maria Demelhuber, Kurt Knoblauch, Curt von Gottberg, Oskar Schwerk, Heinrich von Maur, Karl Wahl, Fritz Wächtler, Jürgen von Kamptz, Erwin Rösener, Benno Martin, Gustav Adolf Scheel, Paul Wegener, Karl Gutenberger, Carl Albrecht Oberg, Wilhelm Bittrich, Matthias Kleinheisterkamp, August Frank, Fritz Schlessmann, Herbert Otto Gille
1945 1 Hans Kammler

During the Second World War, there were eighty eighty promotions to the rank, of which twenty two were considered regular officers of the Waffen-SS. The first war time promotions to SS-Obergruppenführer occurred in April 1940 when the rank was granted to Joachim von Ribbentrop, Martin Bormann and Hans Lammers; Otto Dietrich was promoted a year later. All four promotions were honorary SS ranks with the first promotion of an active SS officer occurring in September 1941 when the rank was granted to Reinhard Heydrich. The first war time promotion of a Waffen-SS officer was on 20 April 1942 when Theodor Eicke was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS. Sepp Dietrich remained senior, having served as General der SS-VT (SS-Verfügungstruppe) upon the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

Two SS officers would be demoted from the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer, these being Rudolf Hess and Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf. Hess was stripped of his rank and expelled from both the SS and Nazi Party after his abortive flight to England in 1941. Von Helldorf was striken from the SS rolls in 1944 after the 20 July plot against Hitler. Von Helldorf was a unique case, in that his SS rank had been bestowed for technical reasons in order to command the Berlin Police. While holding SA membership, von Helldorf was never actually an SS member although for administrative purposes he held SS rank and was ranked as the 15th most senior SS officer.

One hundred and six men would eventually hold the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer with ninety seven such officers listed on the SS seniority list in 1944. Several SS-Obergruppführer would die during World War II, some of the more notable being Reinhard Heydrich, Theodor Eicke, and Artur Phleps. The last promotion was made in March 1945 to Hans Kammler.

Rank usage[edit]

The rank of Obergruppenführer was used by four major paramilitary groups of the Nazi Party, these being the SA, SS, National Socialist Motor Corps, and National Socialist Flyers Corps. The rank would remain the highest SS general officer rank until April 1942, when the rank of SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer was created.

Standard practice for SS generals serving as an SS and Police Leader, as well as those senior SS personnel of the RSHA, was to hold dual police rank as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei. SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS was the equivalent in the armed SS; in 1944, most active SS generals received this designation in order to command military troops during the last days of the war. Approximately fifteen SS generals were ranked as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS.

SS-Obergruppenführer was considered the highest rank of the Allgemeine SS until April 1942; equivalent to a lieutenant general (three-star general) in the American and British armies.[3] It was only outranked by Himmler’s special rank of Reichsführer-SS. However, within the Waffen-SS, the rank of SS-Gruppenführer was equivalent to a Generalleutnant, and an SS-Obergruppenführer came to be considered the equivalent of a General; holders were titled in full SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS.[4]

Fictional portrayals[edit]

The Captain America villain Red Skull held the SS rank of Obergruppenführer during World War II.

The Wolfenstein villains Viktor Zetta and Wilhelm Strasse both possess the rank of Obergruppenführer, as does the German officer Wolfgang Statz whom is assassinated in a side level.

Insignia of rank of SS-Gruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS
Junior Rank
Gruppenführer
SS rank
Obergruppenführer
Senior Rank
SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer
Junior Rank
Gruppenführer
SA rank
Obergruppenführer
Senior Rank
Stabschef (SA)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McNab (II) 2009, p. 15.
  2. ^ McNab 2009, pp. 29, 30.
  3. ^ Flaherty 2004, p. 148.
  4. ^ Haskew 2011, p. 46.

Bibliography[edit]