|Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Chief of the RSHA and President of Interpol.|
|Director of the Reich Main Security Office|
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
|Appointed by||Adolf Hitler|
|Preceded by||Reinhard Heydrich / Heinrich Himmler (acting)|
|President of the ICPC|
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
|Preceded by||Arthur Nebe|
|Succeeded by||Florent Louwage|
|Born||4 October 1903
Ried im Innkreis, Austria-Hungary (now Austria)
|Died||16 October 1946 (aged 43)
|Political party||National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)|
|Spouse(s)||Elisabeth Eder (m. 1934)|
|Alma mater||University of Graz|
|Religion||Former Roman Catholic, self-declared Gottgläubig|
|Awards||Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords|
|Years of service||1940–1945|
|Rank||Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 – 16 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), between January 1943 and May 1945 he held the offices of Chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA, Reich Main Security Office) and President of the ICPC, later to become Interpol. He was the highest-ranking member of the SS to face trial at the first Nuremberg Trials. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and executed.
- 1 Early life
- 2 SS career
- 3 World War II
- 4 Nuremberg trials
- 5 Execution
- 6 Popular culture representations
- 7 Summary of his SS career
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
Born in Ried im Innkreis, Austria, Kaltenbrunner was the son of a lawyer, and was educated at the State Realgymnasium in Linz and at Graz University. He'd had deep scars on his face from dueling in his student days, although some sources attribute them to an automobile accident.
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Kaltenbrunner joined the Nazi Party and his NSDAP number was 300,179. In 1932, he joined the SS in Austria. His SS number was 13,039. He was the Gauredner (district speaker) and Rechtsberater (legal consultant) of the SS Abschnitt VIII. In January 1934, Kaltenbrunner was briefly jailed by the Engelbert Dollfuss government with other National Socialists at the Kaisersteinbruch concentration camp. In 1934, he was jailed again on suspicion of high treason in the assassination of Dollfuss. This accusation was dropped, but he was sentenced to six months for conspiracy. In 1934, Kaltenbrunner married Elisabeth Eder (b. 1908) and they had three children. In addition to the children from his marriage, Kaltenbrunner had twins, Ursula and Wolfgang, (b. 1945) with his long-time mistress Gisela Gräfin von Westarp (née Wolf). All of his children survived the war.
From mid-1935 Kaltenbrunner was the leader of the Austrian SS. He assisted in the Anschluss and Hitler promoted him to SS-Brigadeführer on the day the Anschluss was completed. On 11 September 1938 he was promoted to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer, equivalent to a lieutenant general in the army (see Video of Kaltenbrunner in Vienna January 1939). He was also a member of the Reichstag from 1938.
World War II
In July 1940, he was commissioned as a SS-Untersturmführer in the Waffen-SS Reserve. Later in April 1941, he was promoted to major general (Generalleutnant) of the Police. On 30 January 1943 Kaltenbrunner was appointed Chief of the RSHA, composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei: the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst: Security Service). He replaced Reinhard Heydrich, who was assassinated in June 1942. Kaltenbrunner held this position until the end of the war. He was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei on 21 June 1943. He also replaced Heydrich as President of the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), the organization today known as Interpol.
Toward the end of the war, Kaltenbrunner's power increased greatly, especially after the attack on Hitler of 20 July 1944, upon which he gained direct access to the Führer. He was also responsible for conducting "kangaroo trials" and calling for the execution of all the people who were accused of plotting against Hitler. It was often said that even Heinrich Himmler feared him and he managed to be an intimidating figure with his 1.94 metres (6 ft 4 in) height, facial scars and volatile temper. It was rumored that he was responsible for Adolf Eichmann's failure to attain the rank of SS-Standartenführer (Colonel). Kaltenbrunner was also long-time friends with Otto Skorzeny and recommended him for many secret missions, allowing Skorzeny to become one of Hitler's valued agents. Kaltenbrunner was also responsible for heading Operation Long Jump, the attempt to assassinate Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt. This mission was later thwarted by Soviet intelligence agent Gevork Vartanian.
Following Himmler's appointment as Minister of the Interior in August 1943, Kaltenbrunner sent him a letter wherein he argued that Himmler's new powers must be used to reverse the party cadre organisation's annexation.
In December 1944, Kaltenbrunner was granted the rank of General of the Waffen-SS. Other SS General Officers were granted equivalent Waffen-SS ranks in 1944 as well, so that in the event that they were captured by the Allies, they would have status as military officers instead of police officials. For those who had held police rank prior to 1944, the SS General's title could become rather lengthy. Kaltenbrunner was listed on the SS rolls in 1945 as SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS. On 9 December 1944 he was awarded the Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords. In addition he was awarded the NSDAP Golden Party Badge and the Blutorden.
On 12 March 1945 a meeting took place in the Vorarlberg between Kaltenbrunner and Carl Jacob Burckhardt, President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1945–48). By this stage the Nazis were willing to make some concessions to the wishes of the Red Cross.
On 18 April 1945, Himmler named Kaltenbrunner Commander-in-Chief of those remaining German forces in Southern Europe. Kaltenbrunner reorganized his intelligence agencies as a stay-behind underground net. He divided the subcommands between Otto Skorzeny, head of the sabotage units, and Wilhelm Waneck, who kept in contact not only with Kaltenbrunner and other centers in Germany, but also with stay-behind agents in the southern European capitals.
At the Nuremberg Trials, Kaltenbrunner was charged with conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, war-crimes and crimes against humanity. The most notable witness in this trial was Rudolf Höss, the camp commander of the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Due to his tight control over the RSHA, Kaltenbrunner was held directly responsible for the following crimes:
- Mass murders of civilians of occupied countries by Einsatzgruppen
- Screening of prisoner of war camps and executing racial and political undesirables
- The taking of recaptured prisoners of war to concentration camps, where in some cases they were executed
- Establishing concentration camps and committing racial and political undesirables to concentration and annihilation camps for slave labor and mass murder
- Deportation of citizens of occupied countries for forced labor and disciplining of forced labor
- The execution of captured commandos and paratroopers and protection of civilians who lynched Allied airmen who had been shot down over German-occupied territory
- The taking of civilians of occupied countries to Germany for secret trial and punishment
- Punishment of citizens of occupied territories under special criminal procedure and by summary methods
- The execution and confinement of people in concentration camps for crimes allegedly committed by their relatives
- Seizure and destruction/spoliation of public and private property
- Murder of prisoners in SiPo and SD prisons
- Persecution of Jews
- Persecution of churches and religions
- Persecution of gypsies
During the initial stages of the Nuremberg trials, Kaltenbrunner was absent because of two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage. His lawyer Kurt Kaufmann requested that Kaltenbrunner be acquitted on grounds of health complications as he was medically unfit for the trial. Kaltenbrunner's state of health improved and the tribunal denied his request for pardon. When Kaltenbrunner was released from a military hospital he pleaded not guilty to the charges of the indictment served on his person. Kaltenbrunner stressed during cross-examination that all decrees and legal documents which bore his signature were "rubber-stamped" and filed by his adjutant(s).
During the trial, Kaltenbrunner argued in his defense that his position as RSHA chief existed only in title and was only committed to matters of espionage and intelligence. He maintained that Himmler, as his superior, was the person actually culpable for the atrocities committed during his tenure as chief of the RSHA. The International Military Tribunal noted that Kaltenbrunner was a keen functionary in matters involving the sphere of the RSHA's intelligence network, but the evidence also showed that Kaltenbrunner was an active authority and participant in many instances of war crimes and crimes against humanity. On September 30, 1946 the IMT found Kaltenbrunner not guilty of crimes against peace. However, Kaltenbrunner was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. On October 1, 1946 the IMT sentenced him to death by hanging.
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Kaltenbrunner was executed by hanging at around 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1946. Kaltenbrunner's last words were:
I have loved my German people and my fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry this time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck.
In 2001, Ernst Kaltenbrunner's personal Nazi security seal was found in an Alpine lake in Styria, Austria, 56 years after he threw it away in an effort to hide his identity. The seal was recovered by a Dutch citizen on vacation. The seal has the words "Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD" (Chief of the Security Police and SD) engraved on it. Experts have examined the seal and believe it was discarded in the final days of the war in May 1945. It was one of Kaltenbrunner's last acts as a free man. Kaltenbrunner gave himself up claiming to be a doctor and offering a false name. However, his mistress spotted him, and by chance occurrence, she called out his name and rushed to hug him. On 12 May 1945, this action tipped off the Allied troops, resulting in his capture, trial, and execution.
The Altaussee Treasures
In late April 1945, Kaltenbrunner fled his headquarters from Berlin to Altaussee, where he had often vacationed and had strong ties. While there, he opposed and thwarted the efforts of local governor August Eigruber to destroy the huge and irreplaceable collection of art stolen by the Nazis from museums and private collections across occupied Europe (more than 6,500 paintings plus statuary) which had been intended for Hitler's planned Führermuseum in Linz.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner's nephew, Michl Kaltenbrunner, revealed that a hoard of Nazi treasure was buried in Lake Toplitz, confirming suspicions held by investigators for decades. It was also the first time any related family member of Ernst Kaltenbrunner gave any information in regards to their relative and the dumping of Nazi property. Ernst Kaltenbrunner's role was also discussed of his acting in defiance of Hitler's orders and the helping to save artworks from the Altaussee salt mines near Lake Toplitz from being destroyed. Kaltenbrunner's nephew substantiated claims made by Austrian journalist Konrad Kramar in his book "Mission Michelangelo" that Ernst Kaltenbrunner allowed Austrian miners in charge of the area to remove the paintings as well as remove bombs that were planted to blow them up.
These were stored in a nearby extensive complex of salt mines. Eigruber was determined to carry out what he had determined was Hitler's true desire – to prevent the collection from falling into the hands of "Bolsheviks and Jews" by destroying it with explosives set off in the mine. Working with Dr. Emmerin Pöchmüller, the mine overseer, Kaltenbrunner countermanded the order and had the explosives removed. Thus, such world treasures as Michelangelo's Madonna of Bruges stolen from the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, and Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece stolen from Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent; Vermeer's The Astronomer and The Art of Painting were not destroyed.
Popular culture representations
Kaltenbrunner has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions.
- Edward Underdown in the 1958 British film The Two-Headed Spy.
- Branko Plesa in the 1971 Yugoslavian television production Nirnberski epilog.
- Alain Nobis in the 1972 French television production La Tragédie de Vérone.
- Mikhail Zharkovsky in the 1973 Russian T.V. mini-series Semnadtsat mgnoveniy vesny (Seventeen Moments of Spring).
- Hans Meyer in the 1978 United States T.V. miniseries Holocaust.
- John Moffatt in the 1981 British television series Private Schulz.
- Hans Meyer in the 1982 United States television production Inside the Third Reich.
- Christopher Heyerdahl in the 2000 Canadian/U.S. T.V. production Nuremberg
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Ideological Soldier of The Third Reich is a biographical work about Kaltenbrunner by Peter R. Black.
- Nuremberg Diary is an account of the Defendants at Nuremberg by G. M. Gilbert.
- The Nuremberg Interviews is a descriptive, yet autobiographical account of the Defendants at Nuremberg by Leon Goldensohn. Kaltenbrunner has his own section, in his own words in this book.
- Freemasonry: Ideology, Organization, and Policy is a book about Freemasonry published with a foreword by Kaltenbrunner.
- Hitler's Elite is a book by Louis L. Snyder compiling all of Hitler's top henchmen and has a section on Kaltenbrunner.
- Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny is a book by Edward Crankshaw that investigates the atmosphere within the Gestapo hierarchy and includes some information about Kaltenbrunner.
- Colonization: Down to Earth, a fictional account of historic events merged with an alternate history, Harry Turtledove creates a scenario where Kaltenbrunner is the successor of Himmler as the third Führer and Reich Chancellor of the Greater German Reich and triggers a war between Nazi Germany and alien settlers, a war that results in the destruction of the Reich and the death of Kaltenbrunner himself.
- The Canaris Fragments is a novel by Walter Winward which involves a fictional plot to rescue Kaltenbrunner from Nurnberg court by a small group of British Free Corps agents led by an SS major.
Summary of his SS career
Dates of rank
- SS-Mann – 31 August 1931
- SS-Oberscharführer – c. 1932
- SS-Sturmhauptführer – 25 September 1932
- SS-Standartenführer – 20 April 1936
- SS-Oberführer – 20 April 1937
- SS-Brigadeführer – 12 March 1938
- SS-Gruppenführer – 11 September 1938
- SS-Untersturmführer d.R. – 1 July 1940
- Generalleutnant der Polizei – 1 April 1941
- SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei – 21 June 1943
- General der Waffen-SS – 1 December 1944
Nazi awards and decorations
- Honour Chevron for the Old Guard
- SS-Membershipspin Nr. 160,180
- SS Honour Ring
- SS Julleuchter
- Sword of honour of the Reichsführer-SS
- SS Long Service Award For 4, 8, and 12 Years Service
- NSDAP Long Service Award in Bronze and Silver
- Anschluss Medal (1938)
- Sudetenland Medal (1938) with Prague Castle Bar (1939)
- Golden Party Badge (1939)
- Blood Order (1942)
- War Merit Cross, Second (1942) and First (1943) Classes with Swords
- German Cross in Silver (1943)
- Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords (1944)
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner
- The Nuremberg Trials
- This image is from the Bundesarchiv.
- Biondi, Robert, ed., SS Officers List: SS-Standartenführer to SS-Oberstgruppenführer (As of 30 January 1942), Schiffer Military History Publishing, 2000, p. 9
- A Complete Biography of Ernst Kaltenbrunner – Promotions
- Lumsden, Robin (2002), A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS, p 83.
- Armenian Intelligence Agent, Hero of the Soviet Union Gevork Vartanian Passed Away
- Fsefehlsblatt of the Security Police and SD (51): 361. Missing or empty
- Moorhead, Caroline (1998), Dunant's Dream, pp. 458-460.
- The Last Days of Ernst Kaltenbrunner
- Goldensohn, L. (2004), The Nuremberg Interviews Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses, United States of America: Pimlico
- Owen, J. (2006), Nuremberg Evil On Trial, Great Britain: Headline Review
- Persico, J. (1994), Nuremberg Infamy on Trial, United States of America: Penguin Books
- Nazi chief's seal found in Alpine lake
- Has secret Nazi treasure been hidden in this beautiful lake for 70 years?
- Has Hollywood rewritten history again? Writer claims Austrian salt miners - NOT George Clooney's 'Monuments Men' - saved priceless works of art from Nazis
- "Ernst Kaltenbrunner (Character)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- ""Semnadtsat mgnoveniy vesny" (1973)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- A Complete Biography of Ernst Kaltenbrunner – Decorations & Awards
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ernst Kaltenbrunner.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ernst Kaltenbrunner|
- Video of a Parade with Kaltenbrunner in January 1939
- Audio recording of Kaltenbrunner at Nuremberg Trial
- Kaltenbrunner defense broadcast during Nuremberg Trial
- Testimony of Rudolf Hoess in the Nuremberg Trial
- Kaltenbrunner's seal found in Alpine lake
- Nuremberg film
- Seventeen Moments of Spring film
- Holocaust miniseries
- "Ernest Kaltenbrunner" at Find-A-Grave
Heinrich Himmler (acting)
|Director of the Reich Main Security Office
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
|President of Interpol
30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945
|Commander-in-Chief of Southern Germany
18 April 1945 – 2 May 1945