|30th Premier of Quebec|
September 19, 2012
|Lieutenant Governor||Pierre Duchesne|
|Preceded by||Jean Charest|
|Leader of the Opposition|
December 9, 2008 – September 19, 2012
|Preceded by||Mario Dumont|
|Succeeded by||Jean-Marc Fournier|
|MNA for Charlevoix–Côte-de-Beaupré,
formerly Charlevoix (2007–2012)
September 24, 2007
|Preceded by||Rosaire Bertrand|
|MNA for Taillon|
September 25, 1989 – August 14, 2006
|Preceded by||Claude Filion|
|Succeeded by||Marie Malavoy|
|MNA for La Peltrie|
April 13, 1981 – December 2, 1985
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Lawrence Cannon|
March 29, 1949 |
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
|Political party||Parti Québécois|
|Residence||Île Bizard, Quebec|
|Occupation||Social worker, civil servant|
Pauline Marois (French: [pɔlin maʁwa]; born March 29, 1949) is the 30th and current Premier of Quebec and leader of the Parti Québécois, representing the riding of Charlevoix–Côte-de-Beaupré in the National Assembly of Quebec. On September 4, 2012, Marois led her party to victory in the Quebec general election, thus becoming the first female premier in the province's history.
Born in a working class family, Marois studied in social work at Université Laval, married businessman Claude Blanchet and became an activist in grassroots organizations and in the Parti Québécois, a social democratic party advocating Quebec's independence. After accepting political jobs in ministerial offices, she was first elected as a member of the National Assembly in 1981. At age 32, she was appointed to the cabinet for the first time as a junior minister in the René Lévesque government.
After being defeated as a PQ candidate in La Peltrie in the 1985 general election and in a by-election in 1988, she was elected as the member for Taillon in the 1989 general election. With the return of the PQ in government in 1994, Premiers Parizeau, Bouchard and Landry appointed Marois to senior positions in the Quebec cabinet. She was instrumental in crafting policies to end confessional school boards in the public education system, she restructured the tuition system in post-secondary education, implemented Canada's first subsidized daycare program, and slashed the Quebec deficit under Premier Bouchard's "deficit zero" agenda. In 2001, Premier Landry appointed her Deputy Premier of Quebec, becoming the third woman after Lise Bacon and Monique Gagnon-Tremblay to assume the second-highest role in the provincial government.
After two failed leadership runs in 1985 and 2005, Marois briefly left political life in 2006. A year later, she ran unopposed to become the seventh leader of the Parti Québécois on June 26, 2007. From 2008 to 2012, she served as Leader of the Official Opposition of the National Assembly of Quebec. In spite of internal strife in 2011 and early 2012, where she survived several challenges to her leadership from prominent members of her caucus – earning her the nickname Dame de béton, "lady of concrete" – she led the Parti Québécois to victory with a minority government in the 2012 Quebec general election.
- 1 Youth and early career
- 2 First political career
- 3 Leader of the Parti Québécois
- 4 Premier of Quebec
- 5 Issues
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Works cited
- 10 External links
Youth and early career
Marois was born at Saint-François d'Assise Hospital, in Limoilou, a working-class neighborhood of Quebec City. Daughter of Marie-Paule (born Gingras) and Grégoire Marois, a heavy machinery mechanic, she is the oldest of five children. She was raised in a small two-story brick house built by his father in Saint-Étienne-de-Lauzon – a village now amalgamated with the city of Lévis—, facing the provincial capital on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.
According to Marois, her parents were nationalists and devout Catholics, but remained rather uninvolved politically. Her mother's efforts to have the family recite the Holy Rosary at night generally lasted for two or three days. Marois has recalled that her father was sympathetic to the ideas of the Social Credit and the Union Nationale party; he kept current with the news and even bought the family a television set in the early 1950s.
During her youth, Marois recalls in her autobiography, published in 2008, her parents had "profound intuitions", and although her father regretted his own lack of status and education, he was ready to sacrifice in order to get a decent education for his children. Her three brothers, Denis, Robert and Marc, and her sister, Jeannine, would all graduate with university degrees.
She first attended the small parish school in nearby Saint-Rédempteur, where Marois recalls that she excelled in French, History and Geography, developed an interest for reading and received numerous books as prizes for her academic achievements. At the age of 12, she was enrolled at Collège Jésus-Marie de Sillery, an exclusive, all-girl, Catholic private school attended by the offspring of the local bourgeoisie, an episode she describes as a "culture shock", leaving an permanent mark on her outlook and future choices.
According to her autobiography, Marois became aware of her lower social status in school and in the affluent houses of Sillery, where she sometimes gave a hand to her mother, who did housecleaning jobs in order to pay tuition. She was active in school clubs and describes herself as a good student, although she failed her English and Latin classes, momentarily putting her place in school in jeopardy.
In 1968, she enrolled in the social work undergraduate program at Quebec City's Université Laval. At the time, Marois recalls, she was more interested in the condition of the poor and in international issues than other issues such as the status of the French language or the Quebec independence movement. According to her autobiography, she participated in a study on housing in the city's Lower Town and demonstrated against the Vietnam War.
The next year, she married Claude Blanchet, a young man from a nearby village and her high school sweetheart. Despite their differences — Blanchet was a budding entrepreneur who bought his first gas station at the age of 17, while a student in business administration — the young couple began a lifelong relationship.
In September 1970, she got an internship in Hull, where she helped with the creation of a local chapter of the Association coopérative d'économie familiale (ACEF) — a consumer advocacy group —, while her husband was hired by Campeau Corporation, a real estate developer part of Power Corporation. At the time, the region was rapidly expanding due to the growth of the federal bureaucracy and the construction of administrative buildings on the Quebec side of the Ottawa River was met with opposition, according to Marois, because it did not take "into account the needs and the housing conditions of the local population."
This internship, which coincided with the October Crisis and her return to Quebec City to graduate at the spring of 1971, had a profound impact on Marois. "I arrived in the Outaouais as a French Canadian. I left the region identifying forever as a Quebecer", she declared in her 2008 autobiography, Québécoise!.
While gaining experience with several community organizations including launching CFVO-TV, a community television station in the Outaouais region, she lectured for some time in social work at the Cégep de Hull, and took a job as CEO of a CLSC. She also volunteered with the Parti Québécois, delivering barbecue chicken to election workers on election day in 1973. After moving to Montreal in July, she pursued a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree from HEC Montréal, where she took two classes with economist Jacques Parizeau. After graduating, she was hired as the head of the childhood services division at the Centre des services sociaux du Montréal Métropolitain.
In the fall of 1978, Marois left her public service job to join her former professor's office at the Department of Finance, but she left her press job after 6 months, feeling Parizeau wasn't "utilizing her to her full potential", she told the former Premier's biographer, journalist Pierre Duchesne, a future minister in her own 2012 cabinet.
In November 1979, Lise Payette, the minister responsible for the condition of women, got Marois to join her office as chief of staff. According to René Lévesque's biographer, Pierre Godin, she hesitated before taking the job because she felt she was not feminist enough. "With me, you'll become one", Payette answered back.
First political career
Minister in the René Lévesque government
Seven months pregnant, Marois hesitated before entering politics. After some support, her husband and René Lévesque convinced her to run for the PQ in the 1981 general election. After winning a contested nomination, she ran in the La Peltrie electoral district and won with a 5,337-vote majority on her Liberal opponent, as one of only eight women being elected that year.[note 1] Only 11 days after becoming a Member of the National Assembly of Quebec, she gave birth to her second child, Félix, on April 24.
Less than a week later, she joined the René Lévesque government as Minister for the Status of Women, where the 32-year-old replaced her former boss, Lise Payette, who was not running in 1981. She was appointed as vice-chair of the Treasury Board in September 1982 and is promoted to Minister of Labour and Income Security and Minister responsible for the Outaouais region at the end of 1983.
Marois played a minor role in the turmoil and infighting that shook the Lévesque cabinet after the election of Brian Mulroney as the new Canadian Prime Minister, in the fall of 1984. She was first approached by Pierre Marc Johnson, the leader of the kangaroo faction — favourable to reaching some accommodations with the new Conservative government —, but finally joined the more hardline group — the caribou —, who oppose the affirmation nationale agenda and call for the respect of PQ orthodoxy.
On November 9, 1984, she was one of the 12 signatories of a letter in which half of René Lévesque ministers disavowed the beau risque strategy advocated by the Premier and called upon him to put sovereignty at the heart of the next election campaign. However, she did not resign from her position as seven of her co-signatories did by the end of the month.
After Lévesque's resignation in June 1985, Marois entered the leadership race despite unfavourable polls.[note 2] Running on a full-employment and sovereignty platform, Marois finished in second place with 19,471 (19.7%) votes, a far cry from the 56,925 (58.7%) cast for the new leader, Pierre Marc Johnson.
After being defeated in the 1985 general election by Liberal candidate Lawrence Cannon, she joined the feminist movement and became treasurer of the Fédération des femmes du Québec and a consultant with the Elizabeth Fry Society, while lecturing at Université du Québec à Hull.
Marois remained in the party's executive until the end of her term, in the spring of 1987. After Johnson left a party in shambles six months later,[note 3] she decided not to run for party leader mainly for personal reasons. In an interview she gave Le Devoir in late January 1988, she took shots at the front runner and former colleague, Jacques Parizeau, criticizing his "unacceptable attitude towards women and his outdated conception of social democracy".
Less than 10 days later, Parizeau met Marois and convinced her to return to the PQ national executive as the person in charge of the party platform and asked her to run in the Anjou district, left vacant by the Johnson's resignation. On June 20, 1988, Marois came second with 44.8%.
Marois ran again as a candidate in the Longueuil-based Taillon district, where she was elected in September 1989 general election. She entered Parizeau's Shadow Cabinet as the Official opposition critic for industry and trade in 1989 and became Treasury Board and public administration critic in 1991. She was also a PQ representative on the Bélanger-Campeau Commission set up by Premier Robert Bourassa after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord.
"Minister of Everything"
Re-elected for a second term in 1994, Marois became one of the most important ministers in the successive PQ governments of Premiers Jacques Parizeau, Lucien Bouchard and Bernard Landry. In nine years, she dominated over the Quebec political scene. She became the only politician in Quebec history to hold the "three pillars of government" — the Finance, Education and Health portfolios.
She was first appointed as Chair of the Treasury Board and Minister of Family in the Jacques Parizeau government. After the narrow defeat in the 1995 sovereignty referendum, she briefly held the Finance portfolio before being reassigned to head the department of Education by the new Premier Lucien Bouchard.
During her tenure as Minister of Education, she proposed lifting the two decades long tuition freeze on higher education in Quebec. This proposal was met with fierce resistance from students' federations who initiated the 1996 Quebec student protests. In the end, the PQ government reinstated the tuition freeze, but Marois introduced policies that would charge an out-of-province fee to non-Quebec Canadian students, and a fee for failing CEGEP courses. She also successfully piloted Bill 109, replacing of confessional school boards by language-based ones implementing a bilateral amendment to the Canadian constitution with the Jean Chrétien Liberal government in Ottawa in 1997.
Although Marois was widely perceived as a staunch supporter of the centre-right direction of the PQ under Lucien Bouchard who promised "zero deficit" in order to gain winning conditions for a future referendum on Quebec sovereignty, the government's capitulation in the student protests was seen as a political move to ensure student support in the upcoming general election. Historically, students had been a key voting bloc for the PQ.
In the Parti Québécois's second term, she became Minister of Health between 1998 and 2001. Bernard Landry named her Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance, positions she held for two years. By 2003, Marois had occupied 15 different ministries and was instrumental in the legacy of the second PQ government (1994-2003).
During her years as cabinet minister, Marois' husband, Claude Blanchet was named president of the Société générale de financement (SGF), the investment arm of the Quebec government. His substantial personal investments in public companies doing business with the government has put Marois into an uncomfortable position as a political figure, especially during the years she was Minister of Finance and vice-premier.
Second leadership race
She quickly started to organize her leadership bid following the PQ electoral defeat of 2003. Her close supporters founded Groupe réflexion Québec, which served as a think tank. Her key organizers were Danielle Rioux, Nicole Léger, Nicolas Girard, Nicole Stafford, Joseph Facal and Pierre Langlois.
Although many in the PQ saw her as one of the most influential ministers to ever serve in Quebec's history, raising expectations that she would one day lead the party back to victory, Marois retired from the National Assembly in March 2006, stating that after 25 years in elected politics, it was time for her to pursue other interests. She vowed to remain active in the PQ, and reaffirmed her confidence in Boisclair's leadership. She was succeeded as MNA for Taillon by Marie Malavoy.
Leader of the Parti Québécois
Third leadership race
In the March 26, 2007, Quebec provincial election, the Parti Québécois was reduced to third place in the National Assembly, behind both the governing Quebec Liberal Party and the opposition Action démocratique du Québec. Following this disappointing result, PQ leader André Boisclair announced his resignation as leader on May 8, 2007. Marois was considered a leading candidate to replace Boisclair, especially following federal Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe's withdrawal from the race.
On May 11, 2007, Marois announced that she would run again for leader of the PQ for the third time.
No other candidate stepped forward to contest the election, and Marois was acclaimed leader on June 27, 2007. She led the party from outside the National Assembly until winning the Charlevoix by-election on September 24.
On August 13, 2007, Marois announced her candidacy for the riding of Charlevoix, after the incumbent, Rosaire Bertrand, retired from politics after 13 years as the MNA. The by-election was held on September 24, 2007. Marois did not compete against a candidate from the minority governing Liberal party, which chose not to present an opposing candidate, but did face Action démocratique du Québec candidate Conrad Harvey, who had been a candidate in the same riding against Bertrand in the 2007 general elections, and won with 58.2% of the popular vote.
Marois's campaign signs displayed her image on a blue-green background along with the slogan "Chez nous, c'est Pauline" in an effort to claim a return to the PQ's nationalist beginnings. This attempt to present a populist image clashed with Marois's affluent lifestyle, epitomized for many voters in the 12,000 square foot mansion that Marois then occupied on Île-Bizard, and later sold in January 2012 for nearly seven million dollars.
Canadian tradition holds that, in a by-election, a party leader without a seat is allowed to run unopposed by other major parties. Also, the leaders of other parties are expected not to campaign in the riding where the seatless leader is seeking election. This principle was respected by the other Quebec parties during Marois's 2007 campaign. Marois herself, however, broke with tradition when she campaigned for a PQ candidate in a by-election against Liberal party leader Robert Bourassa in 1985, as did also PQ leader René Lévesque.
As in most by-elections, voter turnout in the riding won by Marois was low, with only 13.18 per cent of the 33,156 Charlevoix voters turning up at the advance poll and an overall turnout of about 58%.
Immediately after being named the new leader of the PQ, Marois conducted a major shuffle of the shadow cabinet. François Gendron was named the new house leader, replacing Diane Lemieux. Lemieux was offered the position of caucus chair by Marois, but refused to indicate her disagreement and furthermore stated her intention to resign her seat in Bourget.
Marois stated that the project of holding a referendum on sovereignty would be put on hold indefinitely, indicating that this would not be her main objective.
In September 2007, she proposed a strategic plan for helping the forestry sector, which has been hard hit in recent years by the closure of several mills in western and central Quebec. Measures proposed included an increase in protected forest space, an increase of productivity by developing the second and third transformation of wood and incentives to encourage the usage of wood from Quebec for construction projects.
In November 2007, when Mario Dumont suggested the elimination of school boards and proposed a motion to topple the government in the wake of poor voting turnouts during the school elections on November 4, 2007, the PQ and the Liberals both disagreed, stating that this reflected a lack of judgment by the ADQ leader. Marois nevertheless added that she was open to the idea of structural changes to the school boards.
Leader of the Opposition
Not long after the re-election of the federal Conservatives to a second minority government, and with the global financial crisis increasingly coming to the foreground of current events, Jean Charest precipitated the fall of his own minority government, arguing before the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec that the National Assembly was no longer functional. Obtaining the right to dissolve the parliament, an election was called in Quebec.
The PQ campaign was largely seen as lacking momentum until Marois’ performance in the televised debate against Charest and Mario Dumont brought new enthusiasm to the party. Benefiting from the collapse the Action démocratique du Québec, Marois increased the PQ representation in the National Assembly by 15 seats and increased her party's share of the popular vote by almost 7 points to 35.2% in the 2008. While the PQ did not win the election or prevent the Liberals from obtaining a majority, their return to the status of official opposition, the unexpectedly large number of seats obtained (51), and the ADQ’s effective marginalization were seen as a moral victory by supporters. Marois thus became the first elected woman Leader of the Official Opposition in Quebec.
Marois and her caucus aggressively pursued the Liberal government over allegations surfacing in the media of corruption, collusion and illegal political financing related to provincial and municipal contracts forcing the government to set up a public inquiry in the fall of 2011, the Charbonneau Commission. This commission has revealed a pattern of illegal payments dating back several decades and involving all political parties.
In another scandal, after weeks of pointed questioning by PQ critic Nicolas Girard, Family minister Tony Tomassi resigns in May 2010, over allegations of improperly receiving and using a private company credit card to pay for expenses in exchanges for daycare licences.
But soon after winning a confidence vote of 93.6% of the delegates at the April 2011 party convention, two crisis shook the PQ leader. Two weeks after her confidence vote, the Bloc Québécois lost all but four of its seats in the Canadian House of Commons in the May 2 federal election, soon followed by a confidence crisis caused by a private bill introduced by Marois loyalist, Agnès Maltais facilitating the construction of a publicly funded multipurpose amphitheatre to replace the aging Colisée Pepsi in Quebec City. Marois insistence on maintaining the party line caused a revolt and the resignation of four heavyweights in her caucus: Louise Beaudoin, Pierre Curzi, Lisette Lapointe and Jean-Martin Aussant.
Premier of Quebec
2012 general election
On September 4, 2012, Pauline Marois won the election and became Quebec's first woman Premier at a swearing-in ceremony on September 17. She is the sixth woman to serve as the premier of a Canadian province, and the oldest currently serving premier.
Her party won 54 of the 125 seats in the National Assembly, as a minority government. Marois plans to abolish the increase in student tuition fees which had paralyzed the previous government for 8 months. She also wants to abolish Hydro Quebec's 3.9% increase in electricity rates, the 200 dollar medical fee for all individuals living in Quebec, and the increase in daycare centre fees.
While Pauline Marois was giving her victory speech, a man named as Richard Henry Bain attempted to enter from the side door of the Métropolis. A technician at the venue, Denis Blanchette, 48, attempted to prevent him from entering and was shot and killed by Richard Bain. Another technician was injured from the bullet that ricocheted off Blanchette. Richard Henry Bain, from Mont-Tremblant, had a semi-automatic rifle, type CZ-858 and a pistol. Bain's rifle became jammed, preventing further violence.
Following the shots fired, two Quebec Security guards took Mrs. Marois away from centre stage to the immediate hallway, and away from television cameras. A few minutes later, Pauline Marois returned to calm down the crowd and ask them to leave quietly.
On September 10, 2012, a civic funeral was held for Denis Blanchette where Pauline Marois attended along with other important political leaders from Quebec.
Heading the third minority government in the history of Quebec — and the second in the last decade – Marois took two weeks to craft her cabinet, naming 25 ministers on September 19. At its first meeting, the new Marois government was quick to honour campaign commitments and cancelled a slew of decisions of the outgoing Charest administration. The Marois government suspended most sections of Bill 78, an emergency bill aimed at stopping the 2012 Quebec student protests, cancelled a loan guarantee to restart the Jeffrey asbestos mine in Thetford Mines and abandoned the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station refurbishment project.
As Premier, she has laid out an agenda designed to promote "sovereigntist governance" in relations with the rest of Canada, to return Quebec to balanced budgets through higher taxes and debt reduction, to increase the use of French in public services, and to address resource development in Northern Quebec. Many aspects of these policies, such as restrictions on the use of English and on access to higher Education in English at a time when the use of French in commerce, education and the workforce is increasing in Quebec[not in citation given], are widely viewed as an affront to immigrants and to citizens whose mother tongue is not French.[not in citation given] Such measures have also been questioned by native speakers of French, who recognize the benefits of a knowledge of other languages, including English, and the fact that the knowledge of other languages will not cause them to abandon French as their primary language.[disputed ]
Marois then called the National Assembly into sessions at the end of October. Soon after, her Democratic Reform minister, Bernard Drainville, introduced Bills 1 and 2 to strengthen rules on contracts and banish unreputable government contractors from doing business with the Quebec government and affiliated entities. The second one establishes a new political financing framework financed almost entirely on public funding. The bill also limits political contributions to provincial parties at C$100 a year ($200 in election years).[note 4] The new system finances from the cancellation of the political donations tax credit.
Finance and Economy minister Nicolas Marceau introduced his 2013/14 budget in the fall. The budget laid out revenues, without specifying expenditures. These were presented later, after the budget had passed. The budget projects a break-even operating balance by the end of fiscal year 2013/14 mainly by slowing down the rate of growth of public spending. The budget implements higher taxes on tobacco and alcohol and modifies – but doesn't cancel outright – the $200 health tax passed in Raymond Bachand's 2010 budget, adding an element of progressiveness to it. The Marceau budget also changes the planned increase to the low-cost heritage pool electricity sold by Hydro-Québec to every Quebecer. Instead of raising the heritage pool price from 2.79 to 3.79¢/kWh from 2014 to 2018 as set by the previous government in 2010, the PQ government chose to let the rate increase with inflation while asking government-owned Hydro-Québec to increase its dividend. The budget narrowly passed on November 30, 2012, in spite of objections by the Liberals and CAQ. Subsequent to passage of the budget, the PQ government announced increased expenditures in the area of subsidized child care, while cutting payments to universities. The latter cuts to university funding included a retroactive cut of $124 million in the 2012-2013 fiscal year, an action criticized by both university rectors and student leaders.
Identity and language
On October 18, 2007, Marois proposed Bill 195, the Quebec Identity Act, which included a requirement that immigrants must learn French in order to obtain rights, including a putative Quebec citizenship and the right to run in elections at all levels. The bill also proposed the fundamental values of Quebec should be taken into account in a future constitution, including equality between sexes and the predominance of French.
The idea was met with criticism amongst various minority groups. The Quebec Liberal Party also dismissed some of the measures as divisive and harmful. House Leader Jean-Marc Fournier also made a parallel between the proposed bill and Jacques Parizeau's "Money and the ethnic vote" speech following the 1995 referendum, while Cabinet Minister Benoit Pelletier added that it would violate the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Many current and past members of the Parti Québécois also rejected this proposal, including Bernard Landry.
Outside Quebec, several newspapers described the bill as racist. Don Martin, columnist for the National Post, wrote that the population should try to stop the racism taking place in Quebec. While the vast majority of Quebec non-francophones were opposed, it was supported by a bare majority of francophones. However, the Liberals and the ADQ stated that they would defeat Bill 195.
In April 2008, Marois proposed a major rewrite of Bill 101, the Charter of the French Language, in light of concerns of a purported decline of French language in the province—particularly in the Montreal region. Her proposals included more French courses in elementary and secondary schools, a requirement for new arrivals to learn French and for the extension of French language requirements to be applied to small businesses as well as for more power for the Office québécois de la langue française.
In June 2013, Marois announced her support of the Quebec Soccer Federation's ban on turbans. This ban has led to the Quebec Soccer Federation being suspended by the Canadian Soccer Federation, which resulted in Marois suggesting that the CSF has no authority over provincial organizations. Marois's stance has received significant criticism for its use of identity politics.
Marois involved herself in international affairs in her first months of office. In mid-October 2012, she participated at the Francophonie Summit in Kinshasa, but declined to meet with host, Democratic Republic of the Congo's President Joseph Kabila, who was reelected in a contested general election in 2011. Marois also expressed her concerns with the withdrawal of Canadian aid agencies and funding of Africa among other places, consistent with her party agenda to increase Quebec's participation in international aid and maintain a "pacifist army" in an independent Quebec.
In December, she visited New York City and a month later attended the World Economic Forum in Davos to meet investors and political leaders, including African Union president Thomas Boni Yayi, Mexico's Finance Secretary Luis Videgaray Caso, European commissioner Michel Barnier, French Economy Minister Pierre Moscovici and the Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hannelore Kraft.
She is married to Claude Blanchet, former head of the Fonds de solidarité FTQ and Quebec's Société générale de financement, and is the mother of four children: Catherine (born June 1979), Félix (born April 1981), François-Christophe (born October 1983) and Jean-Sébastien (born July 1985).
- Five PQs and three Liberals were elected as MNAs in 1981.
- PQ pollster Michel Lepage polled party faithful in June 1985. Pierre Marc Johnson finished first with 67%, Bernard Landry ran a distant second at 14% and Marois ended up third with only 4.2% of support, notes Godin (2005, p. 494).
- The PQ lost 100,000 members from 1981 to 1987, according to Duchesne (2004, p. 79).
- The previous limit of $1,000 was adopted under the previous Liberal government, and is much less than the $3,000 limit established in the original legislation passed by the Lévesque government in the 1970s
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- Duchesne 2004, p. 84.
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- Media related to Pauline Marois at Wikimedia Commons
|Minister of Finance (Quebec)
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François Gendron (interim)
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