Penza

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Penza (English)
Пенза (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Penza from Ferris wheel.JPG
Penza as seen from the highest point of the city
Map of Russia - Penza Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Penza Oblast in Russia
Penza is located in Penza Oblast
Penza
Penza
Location of Penza in Penza Oblast
Coordinates: 53°12′N 45°01′E / 53.200°N 45.017°E / 53.200; 45.017Coordinates: 53°12′N 45°01′E / 53.200°N 45.017°E / 53.200; 45.017
Coat of Arms of Penza (Penza oblast) (2001).png
Flag of Penza.png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of October 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Penza Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Administrative center of Penza Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Penza[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2011)
Urban okrug Penza Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Penza Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Roman Chernov[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 517,311 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 34th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded 1663[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[5] 440000
Dialing code(s) +7 8412[citation needed]
Official website
Penza on WikiCommons
Confluence of the Penza River in Sura River

Penza (Russian: Пенза; IPA: [ˈpʲenzə]) is a city and the administrative center of Penza Oblast, Russia, located on the Sura River, 625 kilometers (388 mi) southeast of Moscow. Population: 517,311 (2010 Census);[3] 518,025 (2002 Census);[6] 542,612 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city,[8] and to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, and remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center. Until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. Then in May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsar's orders to direct the construction of a fortress city,[citation needed] as part of a wider fortress building program to protect Russia from attacks by Crimean Tatars. The initial construction consisted of a wooden Kremlin, a village, and quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, and merchants.

In 1774, the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebellious Cossacks. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13,000 people.

In 1918, Vladimir Lenin sent a telegram to communists in the Penza area, complaining about the "insurrection of five kulak districts". He urged the public hanging of 100 "landlords, richmen, bloodsuckers", grain seizure, and hostage taking. This telegram has been used in several historical works on the period and on Lenin.[9][10][11][12][13] During the Russian Civil War, the Czechoslovak Legions launched an anti-Bolshevik uprising in Penza.

During the Soviet period, the city developed as a regional industrial center. The Ural mainframe was made here between 1959 and 1964.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Penza Oblast Administration building

Penza is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Penza—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Penza is incorporated as Penza Urban Okrug.[2]

Transportation[edit]

Penza is a major railway junction and lies on the M5 highway linking Moscow and Chelyabinsk. Penza Airport serves domestic flights. Local public transport includes buses, trolleybuses and marshrutkas (routed taxis).

Education and culture[edit]

Currently, the city of Penza is seen as a regional center for higher education. It has six universities (the Penza State University, the Pedagogic University, the Academy of Agriculture, the Technology Institute, the University of Architecture and Construction, and the Artillery and Engineering Institute), 13 colleges and 77 public schools. Besides this, Penza is home to three theatres, four museums, and three art galleries including The Museum of One Painting named after G. V. Myasnikov.

Facilities of higher education include:

  • Penza State University
  • Penza State Pedagogical University (unified with Penza State University in 2012)
  • Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Penza Artillery Engineering Institute
  • Penza State Technological Academy
  • Penza State Agricultural Academy
  • Penza branch of the Moscow's Institute of Economics, Management and Law
  • Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship

Climate[edit]

Penza has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with long, cold winters and warm summers. A heat wave in the months of June, July, and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms often by 15 °C (27 °F) in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40 °C (104 °F) and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20 °C (36 °F) lower.[14][15]

Climate data for Penza (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
8.5
(47.3)
17.3
(63.1)
31.1
(88)
35.6
(96.1)
37.7
(99.9)
39.3
(102.7)
40.4
(104.7)
33.6
(92.5)
25.6
(78.1)
16.1
(61)
11.0
(51.8)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−5.1
(22.8)
1.0
(33.8)
12.4
(54.3)
20.8
(69.4)
24.8
(76.6)
26.6
(79.9)
24.7
(76.5)
18.2
(64.8)
9.9
(49.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
10.3
(50.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.7
(16.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
6.8
(44.2)
14.3
(57.7)
18.5
(65.3)
20.4
(68.7)
18.3
(64.9)
12.5
(54.5)
5.6
(42.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
−7.4
(18.7)
5.5
(41.9)
Average low °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−12.5
(9.5)
−7.2
(19)
1.9
(35.4)
8.1
(46.6)
12.7
(54.9)
14.7
(58.5)
12.8
(55)
7.7
(45.9)
2.2
(36)
−4.6
(23.7)
−10.3
(13.5)
1.1
(34)
Record low °C (°F) −39.9
(−39.8)
−40.0
(−40)
−31.1
(−24)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.1
(30)
4.7
(40.5)
0.0
(32)
−6.4
(20.5)
−17.2
(1)
−31.1
(−24)
−40.5
(−40.9)
−40.5
(−40.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
31
(1.22)
35
(1.38)
33
(1.3)
42
(1.65)
65
(2.56)
59
(2.32)
51
(2.01)
52
(2.05)
47
(1.85)
48
(1.89)
41
(1.61)
542
(21.34)
 % humidity 84 82 79 68 61 67 69 70 73 79 86 85 75.3
Source: Погода и Климат

Sports[edit]

Penza first hosted the Russian Sidecarcross Grand Prix in 2009, and did so again in 2010, on August 15.[16]

The city football team FC Zenit Penza was established in 1918 but now plays in the Russian Amateur League. Penza has also a professional rugby union club, Imperia-Dynamo Penza, from Russia's Professional Rugby League.

Honors[edit]

A minor planet, 3189 Penza, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh in 1978, is named after the city.[17]

Notable people[edit]

Natives of Penza include Vsevolod Meyerhold, Alexsandr Medvedkin, Andreï Makine, Nikolai Ishutin, Aristarkh Lentulov, Ivan Mozzhukhin, and Lavrenty Zagoskin. The poet Mikhail Lermontov grew up near Penza in the manor of Tarkhany, which belonged to his grandmother. Other notable people include former Soviet national team hockey players Aleksandr Golikov, Vladimir Golikov, Yuri Moiseev, Vasily Pervukhin, Sergei Yashin, Aleksandr Kozhevnikov, and Sergei Svetlov, who were born here. Former Russian rhythmic gymnasts, Olympic champion, world champion and European champion Natalia Lavrova of the National Team was born and lived in Penza, she died with her sister in a car accident at the Penza Oblast in April 2010. Sergey Andronov, a hockey player in the St. Louis Blues organization, is a native.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Penza is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #774-ZPO
  2. ^ a b c Law #690-ZPO
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Большая Советская Энциклопедия. Гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров, 3-е изд. Т. 19. Отоми — Пластырь. 1975. 648 стр., илл.; 29 л. илл. и карт. "Город основан в 1663 году как крепость на юго-восточной окраине Русское царство."
  9. ^ "Hanging order". Loc.gov. 2010-07-22. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  10. ^ "Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1971, Moscow, Volume 36, page 489. "Telegram to Yevgenia Bosch"". Marxists.org. 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  11. ^ "An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenin's Secret Files"
  12. ^ Telegram to the Penza Gubernia Executive Committee of the Soviets in J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy's, p.77, Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State: A Brief History with Documents (2007). Bedford/St Martin's: Boston and New York: p.77
  13. ^ Translation of 'hanging order' by Robert Service, p. 365, Lenin a Biography (2000). London: Macmillan
  14. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  15. ^ "Погода и Климат - Климатический монитор: погода в Пензе". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  16. ^ FIM Sidecarcross World Championship – 2010 Calendar FIM website, accessed: October 30, 2009
  17. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – p.264. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  18. ^ "Official site of Penza". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  19. ^ Penza City (Russia, sister city of Lanzhou Municipality)[dead link]
  20. ^ "Ramat Gan sister cities". Ramat-gan.info. 2007-07-19. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №774-ЗПО от 9 марта 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2484-ЗПО от 28 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 15 Закона Пензенской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №6, стр. 49, 18 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #774-ZPO of March 9, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2484-ZPO of November 28, 2013 On Amending Article 15 of the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №690-ЗПО от 2 ноября 2004 г. «О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2288-ЗПО от 5 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Пензенской области "О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №17 (без приложения), 16 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #690-ZPO of November 2, 2004 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2288-ZPO of October 5, 2012 On Amending the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast". Effective as of after 10 days from the official publication.).

External links[edit]