Peter Brown (historian)
Peter Robert Lamont Brown (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University. His principal contributions to the discipline have been in the field of Late Antiquity. His work has concerned, in particular, the religious culture of the later Roman Empire and early medieval Europe, and the relation between religion and society.
Peter Brown was born in Dublin, Ireland, to a Scots-Irish Protestant family. He was educated at Aravon School, the oldest preparatory school in Ireland and one of its most distinguished, and then from 1948 at Shrewsbury School in Shropshire, one of the great "public" schools in England. When asked to comment on his intellectual formation, Brown has indicated that he completed his public schooling a year early, returning to Ireland (as he had done for school holidays) for the year 1952-53 - and that it was in Dublin that he read Mikhail Rostovtzeff's The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (1926), which he borrowed from the lending library of the Royal Dublin Society at Ballsbridge. From 1953 to 1956, he read Modern History at New College, Oxford. There, his potential was recognized by the award of the Harmsworth Senior Scholarship at Merton College, Oxford, and a seven-year Prize Fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford.
Following his graduation Brown began, but did not complete, a doctoral thesis under the external supervision of Arnaldo Momigliano (at that time Professor of Ancient History at University College London). All Souls College subsequently elected him a Research Fellow in 1963 and a Senior Research Fellow in 1970. The Modern History Faculty of the University of Oxford appointed him a Special Lecturer in 1966 and a Reader (ad hominem) in 1973. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1971. Brown left Oxford to become Professor of Modern History and Head of the Department of History at Royal Holloway College in the University of London (1975–78). He subsequently left Britain to become Professor of Classics and History in the University of California at Berkeley (1978–86) and then Philip and Beulah Rollins Professor of History at Princeton University (1986–2011). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1979 and a Resident Member of the American Philosophical Society in 1995.
Following his earlier books, he has received some prestigious and substantial research grants, including the MacArthur Fellowship in 1982 and the Distinguished Achievement Award for scholars in the humanities from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation in 2001.
Brown has delivered several named lecture series. These include the Carl Newell Jackson Lectures at Harvard University (1976); the Haskell Lectures at the University of Chicago (1978); the ACLS Lectures in the History of Religion (1981-2); the Curti Lectures in the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1988); the Tanner Lectures at Cambridge and Yale (1993 and 1996 respectively); the Menahem Stern Lectures in Jerusalem (2000); and the James W. Richard Lectures at the University of Virginia (2012).
He has also delivered a multitude of named single lectures, among them the Stenton Lecture at Reading University (1976); the Raleigh Lecture in History in the British Academy (1992); the Sigmund H Danziger Jr Memorial Lecture at the University of Chicago (1997); a Presidential Lecture at Stanford University (2002); the Charles Homer Haskins Lecture ("A Life of Learning") for the American Council of Learned Societies (2003); the Ronald Syme Lecture at Oxford University (2006); and the Fr. Alexander Schmemann Lecture at St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, NY (2013).
For several decades, Brown has been General Editor of the book series 'The Transformation of the Classical Heritage', published by the University of California Press. The first volume in the series was published in 1981, the full published list to date now exceeding fifty titles.
Brown, who has a knowledge of at least 26 languages, has been instrumental in bringing coherence to the study of late antiquity as a field. Within this broad field, he has also been central in the study of Augustine, monasticism (both the eremetical "holy man" and coenobitic alternatives), the cult of the saints and the practice of sexual renunciation. More recently, he has made fundamental contributions to the study of power relations in late Roman society and to the study of financial giving. He has produced a steady stream of articles (several being classics in the field) since 1961, and a steady series of influential books since 1967.
Brown established himself in 1967 (at 32) with his acclaimed biography of Augustine of Hippo. He published a new edition in 2000, with two new epilogues, one focusing on new evidence and the other on new interpretations.
In his book The World of Late Antiquity (1971), he put forward a new interpretation of the period between the third and eighth centuries AD. The traditional interpretation of this period was centred around the idea of decadence from a 'golden age', classical civilisation, after the famous work of Edward Gibbon The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1779). On the contrary, Brown proposed to look at this period in positive terms, arguing that Late Antiquity was a period of immense cultural innovation.
Brown was influenced in his early works by the French Annales School, and specifically the figure of Fernand Braudel. Following this school, Brown analysed culture and religion as social phenomena and as part of a wider context of historical change and transformation. The Annales influence in Brown's work can also be seen in his reliance on anthropology and sociology as interpretative tools for historical analysis. Specifically, Brown received the influence of contemporary Anglo-American anthropology.
His research has been devoted chiefly to religious transformation in the late Roman world. His most celebrated early contribution on this subject concerned the figure of the 'holy man'. According to Brown, the charismatic, Christian ascetics (holy men) were particularly prominent in the late Roman empire and the early Byzantine world as mediators between local communities and the divine. This relationship expressed the importance of patronage in the Roman social system, which was taken over by the Christian ascetics. But more importantly, Brown argues, the rise of the holy man was the result of a deeper religious change that affected not only Christianity but also other religions of the late antique period – namely the needs for a more personal access to the divine.
His views slightly shifted in the eighties. In articles and new editions Brown said that his earlier work, which had deconstructed many of the religious aspects of his field of study, needed to be reassessed. His later work shows a deeper appreciation for the specifically Christian layers of his subjects of study.
His current research focuses on wealth and poverty in late antiquity, especially in Christian writers.
Brown has received some twenty honorary degrees from institutions in eight countries on three continents. From outside the USA, he has received honorary doctorates from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland (1974), Trinity College Dublin (1990), the University of Pisa (2001), Cambridge (2004), the Central European University in Budapest (2005), Oxford (2006), King's College London (2008), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2010), the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki (2010), and the University of St Andrews (2014). His US honorary doctorates include the University of Chicago (1978), Wesleyan University (1993), Tulane (1994), Columbia University (2001), Harvard University (2002), Southern Methodist University (2004), Yale University (2006), Notre Dame University (2008), Amherst College (2009), and St Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, NY (2013).
He is an Honorary Fellow of Royal Holloway College in the University of London (1997), and of New College at Oxford University (1998). He is also Honorary President (2012) of the Centro Internacional de Estudios sobre la Antigüedad Tardía 'Teodosio el Grande', in the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, at Segovia, having addressed the Centro's first international colloquium in 2009.
Brown has received several major prizes. He is a winner of the Heineken Prize for History from the Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (1994), the Ausonius Prize for Ancient History from the University of Trier (1999) and the Premio Anaxilao from the Municipality of Reggio di Calabria (1999). In 2008 he was the co-winner, with Indian historian Romila Thapar, of the Kluge Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Study of Humanity, from the US Library of Congress. In 2011, Brown was awarded the prestigious International Balzan Prize for the Humanities, for his works on Graeco-Roman antiquity.
He is a Foreign Member of the Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (1991), a Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Letters in Barcelona (1997), an Honorary Fellow of the Italian Association for the Study of Sanctity, Cults and Hagiography, and an Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy (2010).
He is a Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters in France (1996).
Brown has also won several distinguished book prizes. Augustine of Hippo: A Biography (1967) won the Arts Council of Great Britain Prize. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (1988) won the Vursell Award of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and the Ralph Waldo Emerson Award of Phi Beta Kappa. Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550AD (2012) won the Jacques Barzun Prize in Cultural History from the American Philosophical Society, and the Philip Schaff Prize from the American Society of Church History. It also secured the R.R. Hawkins Award (the top prize) at the American publishing industry's annual PROSE Awards.
- Faculty Page at Princeton University. See also American Philosophical Society at http://www.amphilsoc.org/memhist/search?creator=Peter+Brown&title=&subject=4.+Humanities&subdiv=404&mem=Resident&year=1995&year-max=1995&dead=Alive&keyword=&smode=advanced
- P. Brown, 'SO Debate: The World of Late Antiquity Revisited', Symbolae Osloenses 72 (1997), 5-8.
- See Who's Who, "Brown, Peter Robert Lamont".
- See Who's Who, "Brown, Peter Robert Lamont".
- MacArthur Foundation at http://www.macfound.org/fellows/116/; Mellon Foundation at http://www.mellon.org/news_publications/announcements-1/distinguished-achievement-award-recipients-named/?searchterm=
- "A Life of Learning",Charles Homer Haskins Lecture 2003
- See American Philosophical Society at http://www.amphilsoc.org/memhist/search?creator=Peter+Brown&title=&subject=4.+Humanities&subdiv=404&mem=Resident&year=1995&year-max=1995&dead=Alive&keyword=&smode=advanced
- See the collection of articles (including one by Brown himself) in Symbolae Osloenses 72 (1997).
- For example, Peter Brown, Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World (Cambridge, 1995), chapter 3, involves a reappraisal of the role of the holy man on substantially different lines from those proposed in Brown, "The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity", Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971).
- Royal Holloway: https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/alumni/ouralumni/honorarygraduatesandfellows.aspx; New College: http://www.new.ox.ac.uk/emeritus-honorary-and-wykeham-fellows
- .Announcement of Kluge Prize at Princeton University Website; News from the Library of Congress
Selected bibliography of works by Brown
- Augustine of Hippo: A Biography (1967/2000) – ISBN 0-520-22757-3 -- new edition, with new epilogue, ISBN 978-0-520-22757-6
- "The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity", The Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971): 80–101.
- The World of Late Antiquity: AD 150–750 (1971/1989) – ISBN 0-393-95803-5
- The Making of Late Antiquity (1978) – ISBN 0-674-54321-1
- The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (1981) – ISBN 0-226-07622-9
- Society & the Holy in Late Antiquity (1982) – ISBN 978-0-520-06800-1
- "Late Antiquity" ( 1987) in Paul Veyne, ed. A History of Private Life: 1. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium.
- The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (1988) – ISBN 0-231-06101-3
- Power and Persuasion: Towards a Christian Empire (1992)
- Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman world (1995) – ISBN 0-521-49904-6; "Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World", The Tanner Lectures On Human Values, November 1993
- The Rise of Western Christendom (1996/2003) – ISBN 0-631-22138-7
- Chapters 21 & 22 in The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIII, The Late Empire, A.D. 337–425 (1998) – ISBN 0-521-30200-5
- Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (2002)
- Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD (2012) – ISBN 0-691-15290-X