Rasm

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For the measure of airline performance by the same name, see RASM.

Rasm (Arabic: رَسْم‎) means drawing, outline, or pattern in Arabic. When speaking of the Quran, it stands for the basic text made of the 18 letters without diacritics/i'jam.

The rasm is the oldest part of the Arabic script; it has eighteen elements:

The eighteen letters of the rasm and their values
rasm ا ٮ ح د ر س ص ط ع ڡ ٯ ڪ ل م ں ه و ى
IPA values ʔ, aː b, t, θ ħ, x, d͡ʒ d, ð r, z s, ʃ sˤ, dˤ tˤ, ðˤ ʕ, ɣ f q k l m n h, t w, uː j, iː, aː
The fifteen initial letters of the rasm and their values
rasm ا ٮـ حـ د ر سـ صـ طـ عـ ٯـ ڪـ لـ مـ هـ و
IPA values ʔ, aː b, t, θ, n, j, iː ħ, x, d͡ʒ d, ð r, z s, ʃ sˤ, dˤ tˤ, ðˤ ʕ, ɣ f, q k l m h w, uː
The fifteen medial letters of the rasm and their values
rasm ـا ـٮـ ـحـ ـد ـر ـسـ ـصـ ـطـ ـعـ ـڡـ ـڪـ ـلـ ـمـ ـهـ ـو
IPA values ʔ, aː b, t, θ, n, j, iː ħ, x, d͡ʒ d, ð r, z s, ʃ sˤ, dˤ tˤ, ðˤ ʕ, ɣ f, q k l m h w, uː
The eighteen final-connected letters of the rasm and their values
rasm ـا ـٮ ـح ـد ـر ـس ـص ـط ـع ـڡ ـٯ ـڪ ـل ـم ـں ـه ـو ـى
IPA values ʔ, aː b, t, θ, ħ, x, d͡ʒ d, ð r, z s, ʃ sˤ, dˤ tˤ, ðˤ ʕ, ɣ f q k l m n h, t w, uː j, iː, aː

Note that there is no hamza in rasm writing, including hamza-on-the-line (i.e., hamza between letters).

Compare the beginning of the Qurʾān with all diacritics and with the rasm only.

The first sentence only appears as it should if one of the fonts Scheherazade or Lateef was installed. The last two sentences appear with them and can also appear properly if DejaVu Sans was installed.

بِسْمِ ٱللّٰ‍هِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

ٮسم‌الله‌الرحمں‌الرحٮم

or with spaces:

ٮسم‌‌ ا لله‌ ا لر حمں‌ ا لر حىم

(note that spaces do not occur only between words)

Historical example[edit]

Sura 7 (Ala'araf), verses 86 & 87, of the Samarkand Qur'an, written in unadorned rasm.

The Kufic Samarkand Qur'an that was from 1869 to 1917 in St. Petersburg shows almost only the rasm.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]