Richard N. Gardner
|Richard N. Gardner|
|Ambassador Gardner is seated next to President Clinton in this July 8, 1997 photo from Madrid.|
|United States Ambassador to Italy|
March 21, 1977 – February 27, 1981
|Preceded by||John A. Volpe|
|Succeeded by||Maxwell M. Rabb|
|United States Ambassador to Spain|
September 16, 1993 – July 12, 1997
|Preceded by||Richard Goodwin Capen, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Edward L. Romero|
|Born||Richard Newton Gardner
July 9, 1927
|Spouse(s)||Danielle L. Gardner|
|Occupation||professor and diplomat|
Richard Newton Gardner (born July 9, 1927 in New York) served as the United States Ambassador to Spain and the United States Ambassador to Italy. He is currently a professor emeritus of law at Columbia Law School.
Gardner attended Harvard, where he received an A.B. in economics in 1948. He attended Yale Law School, where he was the Note Editor for the Yale Law Journal. After graduating from Yale in 1951, Gardner was a Rhodes Scholar, and received his Doctorate in economics from Oxford University in 1954.
Gardner practiced law for three years in New York after finishing his doctorate at Oxford. He joined the Columbia faculty in 1957; he taught at Columbia until his retirement in 2012. Gardner was appointed by President Kennedy as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs in 1961, a position he held until 1965, when he was appointed by President Johnson as a senior adviser to the United States Ambassador to the United Nations. After a year with the U.N., he served as a member of the President's Commission on International Trade and Investment Policy from 1970 to 1971. He served in various advisory positions in the U.N..
In 1977, he was appointed by President Carter as U.S. Ambassador to Italy, a position he held until 1981. President Clinton appointed Gardner as U.S. Ambassador to Spain, from 1993 to 1997. In 2000, he was a U.S. Public Delegate to the 55th U.N. General Assembly. He was a member of the Trilateral Commission from 1974 to 2005.
Gardner was married to Danielle L. Gardner, born Danielle Almeida Luzzatto (Genoa, 1934 - New York, 14 January 2008), from 1956 until her death, and had two children: Nina Gardner Olivieri, lawyer and consultant currently living in Rome, and Anthony Laurence Gardner, lawyer and former member of the staff of the National Security Council, currently working with Palamon Capital in London.
The late Mrs. Gardner spent her early years in Venice, where her family had lived since the 16th century, and emigrated to the US with her parents in 1939 to escape anti-semitic persecution in Fascist Italy. She graduated from Sidwell Friends School and Bryn Mawr College, was a journalist for an Italian television network and wrote a column for the Italian weekly magazine "Chi".
While living in Washington D.C. in the 1960s, the Gardners were next-door neighbors and close friends to future US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and her then-husband, journalist Joseph Medill Patterson Albright.
"If instant world government, Charter review, and a greatly strengthened International Court do not provide the answers, what hope for progress is there? ... The hope for the foreseeable future lies, not in building up a few ambitious central institutions of universal membership and general jurisdiction as was envisaged at the end of the last war [WW II], but rather in the much more decentralized, disorderly and pragmatic process of inventing or adapting institutions of limited jurisdiction and selected membership to deal with specific problems on a case-by-case basis ... "In short, the "house of world order" will have to be built from the bottom up rather than from the top down. It will look like a great "booming, buzzing confusion," to use William James' famous description of reality, but an end run around national sovereignty, eroding it piece by piece, will accomplish much more than the old-fashioned frontal assault. Of course, for political as well as administrative reasons, some of these specialized arrangements should be brought into an appropriate relationship with the central institutions of the U.N. system, but the main thing is that the essential functions be performed." Richard N. Gardner "The Hard Road to World Order" Foreign Affairs 1974